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THE RISE OF A MASS DEMOCRACY

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1 THE RISE OF A MASS DEMOCRACY
AP U.S. History Chapter 13

2 Transformation of American Politics, 1824-1832
1824 – Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren (Democrats in 1830s) and Henry Clay, JQ Adams (leading Whigs) - all Republicans Why separate?? Industrialization in New England, spread of cotton in South, westward expansion

3 Republicans who feared strong federal government, preference for states rights – Democrats!
Republicans (with many former Federalists) who thought government should encourage economic development - Whigs

4 The "New Democracy" By 1820s – politicians appeal to voters!
Written ballots instead of voting aloud (no intimidation) Focused on increasing the electorate, esp in areas where weak

5 Do have poll taxes instead of property, but…
Universal white manhood suffrage – no property qualifications Between 1812 & 1821, 6 new western states granted universal manhood suffrage Between 1810 & 1821, 4 eastern states significantly reduced voting requirements Result – MOST WHITE MALES COULD VOTE REGARDLESS OF SOCIAL STANDING, POLITICAL OFFICES HELD BY LOWER/MIDDLE CLASS

6 Causes of the New Democracy
Panic of 1819 Workers and farmers blamed banks Answer - get more politically involved The Missouri Compromise Northern opposition to Missouri’s admission as a slave state made southerners fearful that the federal gov’t would violate states' rights. Goal of white southerners: Control federal gov't to protect South Two-party system reemerged by 1832: Democrats vs. National Republicans/Whigs Third parties too! Anti-Masonic and Workingmen’s parties Voter turnout rose dramatically: 25% in 1824; 78% in 1840

7 New style of campaigning developed (Banners, parades, barbecues)
Negative campaigning too Voting reform first nominating convention held (PEOPLE participate) Electoral College changed too – Electors chosen by PEOPLE, not state legislatures

8 THE “CORRUPT BARGAIN” OF 1824
Sectional tensions brought Era of Good Feelings to an end with ‘24 election… Candidates: Clay rep the West, Crawford from GA and John C. Calhoun from SC rep the South, and John Q. Adams rep New England. Then here comes Andrew Jackson, also from the West!         -- All "Republicans” Jackson wins more popular and electoral votes, BUT NOT MAJORITY!!!

9 House of Reps must choose among first 3 finishers (Jackson, Adams, and Crawford)
Clay finished 4th but was Speaker of the House and in charge of election. Henry Clay hated Jackson. Also wanted to link West and Northeast. So….

10 Clay - Secretary of State
House elected Adams president. Clay's influence Jackson lost despite having largest % of popular vote. Clay - Secretary of State Jackson's supporters - the "corrupt bargain"

11 JQA as President Full of controversy
Federal aid for internal improvements – Jeffersonians and Martin Van Buren (NY Governor) – NOOOOO!!! Send American delegates to Latin American conference – southerners – NOOOOO!!! Appointed opponents to high positions

12 GOING “WHOLE HOG” FOR JACKSON IN 1828
As Adams’s popularity declined, Jackson rose. Martin Van Buren – two party competition Election of 1828 National Republicans - J.Q. Adams Democratic Republicans – Jackson Ugly campaign! Jackson defeated Adams 178 electoral votes to 83

13 First President from the West; seen as a great common man
Jackson’s support: West, South, and laborers on the east coast— “common man” Adams won New England and wealthy voters in the Northeast.

14 "The Revolution of 1828" No sitting president had been removed since John Adams in 1800 Increased voter turnout was decisive Balance of power - East to expanding West.

15 “OLD HICKORY” AS PRESIDENT
Like Jefferson - reduce role of federal gov’t in favor of states’ rights Hated Clay’s "American System" Congress should not favor one section/interest – should focus on what benefits ALL Americans Maysville Road veto – No federal money for intrastate improvements (roads & canals). Vetoed bill for improving the Maysville Road in Kentucky (Who’s state???) At times defied will of Congress and the Supreme Court veto 12 times "King Andrew I"

16 THE SPOILS SYSTEM "rotation in office"
Rewarding political supporters with public office "rotation in office" Removed many officeholders of rival party (corrupt) Goal: Let as many citizens as possible hold office for at least a short time (one term). Consequences A national political machine was built around Jackson Political corruption resulted

17 "Kitchen Cabinet" Unofficial group of about 13 temporary advisors
Not answerable to Congress - seen as a threat Influence greatly over-exaggerated

18 Peggy Eaton Affair Peggy Eaton - wife of Sec. of War Eaton
Snubbed by wives of Jackson's cabinet members, especially Mrs. Calhoun Jackson defended Mrs. Eaton Jackson began purging Calhoun’s allies in the cabinet Jackson turned increasingly against Calhoun

19 Jackson and the South… Veto of Maysville Road bill and Indian Removal Act made Jackson popular in south. Tariff issue would test loyalty…

20 THE TRICKY “TARIFF OF ABOMINATIONS”
Northern bankers, merchants, and manufacturers favored high tariffs to protect American goods from foreign competition. Southern planters feared that high tax rates would increase the cost of nearly everything they bought. Also diminishes exports of cotton and other staples. Congress increased the tariff in 1824 from 23% on dutiable goods to 37% 1828 Bill (under Adams by some Jackson supporters!) – Tariff of 1828 – 45%

21 Jackson vs. Calhoun Calhoun – State’s Rights! SC – economic decline as cotton spread West. High tariffs hurt, were sectional legislation.

22 Calhoun’s argument – only tariffs that raised money for a COMMON purpose were constitutional. Tariff of 1828 too high to raise revenue, doesn’t benefit everyone EQUALLY. Anonymously wrote South Carolina Exposition and Protest – tariff is unconstitutional, states have right to nullify within their borders (similar to Jefferson’s and Madison’s Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of 1798)

23 Southerners worried about something other than tariff
Southerners worried about something other than tariff. If federal government can pass a tariff law that benefits one section of the country, can they pass laws that interfere with SLAVERY??? Denmark Vesey (1822 Nat Turner (1831) William Lloyd Garrison’s The Liberator (1832)

24 “NULLIES” IN SOUTH CAROLINA
Tariff of Jackson attempted lowering tariff 35% from about 45. Lowered rate on many items but still affirmed the principle of protectionism. Personal issues between Jackson and Calhoun made matters worse – Eaton affair and rumor that Calhoun wanted Jackson punished back in 1818 for invading FL

25 Jefferson Day Dinner (1830) - Jackson proposed a toast, fixed his eyes on Calhoun and stated: "Our Union: It must be preserved! Calhoun replied: "The Union, next to our liberty the most dear! May we always remember that it can only be preserved by distributing equally the benefits and burdens of the Union."

26 November 1832 – S.C. state convention
nullified Tariffs of 1828 and 1832, forbade collection of customs duties within the state Also make necessary military preparations Threatened to secede from the Union if Jackson attempted collection by force.

27 Jackson's reaction HATED NULLIFICATION – “abominable doctrine”
Threatened to personally lead a federal army into SC "hang" nullifiers, including Calhoun Standoff threatened a possible civil war No federal troops marched

28 The Olive Branch and the Sword
Compromise Tariff of 1833 Tariff reduced by 10% over eight years. Henry Clay Force Bill – authorizing the President to use arms to collect customs duties in SC S.C. – didn’t abandon nullification (nullified Force Bill!), but did end nullification of tariffs

29 Aftermath Stepping stone to Civil War Calhoun resigned in 1832
SC gradually abandoned nullification in favor of secession by 1860 Calhoun resigned in 1832 Became leader in the Senate & champion of states’ rights in SC Rigorously protected slavery and states rights’


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