Presentation on theme: "THE RISE OF A MASS DEMOCRACY"— Presentation transcript:
1THE RISE OF A MASS DEMOCRACY AP U.S. HistoryChapter 13
2Transformation of American Politics, 1824-1832 1824 – Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren (Democrats in 1830s) and Henry Clay, JQ Adams (leading Whigs) - all RepublicansWhy separate?? Industrialization in New England, spread of cotton in South, westward expansion
3Republicans who feared strong federal government, preference for states rights – Democrats! Republicans (with many former Federalists) who thought government should encourage economic development - Whigs
4The "New Democracy" By 1820s – politicians appeal to voters! Written ballots instead of voting aloud (no intimidation)Focused on increasing the electorate, esp in areas where weak
5Do have poll taxes instead of property, but… Universal white manhood suffrage – no property qualificationsBetween 1812 & 1821, 6 new western states granted universal manhood suffrageBetween 1810 & 1821, 4 eastern states significantly reduced voting requirementsResult – MOST WHITE MALES COULD VOTE REGARDLESS OF SOCIAL STANDING, POLITICAL OFFICES HELD BY LOWER/MIDDLE CLASS
6Causes of the New Democracy Panic of 1819Workers and farmers blamed banksAnswer - get more politically involvedThe Missouri CompromiseNorthern opposition to Missouri’s admission as a slave state made southerners fearful that the federal gov’t would violate states' rights.Goal of white southerners: Control federal gov't to protect SouthTwo-party system reemerged by 1832: Democrats vs. National Republicans/WhigsThird parties too! Anti-Masonic and Workingmen’s partiesVoter turnout rose dramatically: 25% in 1824; 78% in 1840
7New style of campaigning developed (Banners, parades, barbecues) Negative campaigning tooVoting reformfirst nominating convention held (PEOPLE participate)Electoral College changed too – Electors chosen by PEOPLE, not state legislatures
8THE “CORRUPT BARGAIN” OF 1824 Sectional tensions brought Era of Good Feelings to an end with ‘24 election…Candidates: Clay rep the West, Crawford from GA and John C. Calhoun from SC rep the South, and John Q. Adams rep New England. Then here comes Andrew Jackson, also from the West! -- All "Republicans”Jackson wins more popular and electoral votes, BUT NOT MAJORITY!!!
9House of Reps must choose among first 3 finishers (Jackson, Adams, and Crawford) Clay finished 4th but was Speakerof the House and in charge of election.Henry Clay hated Jackson. Also wanted to link West and Northeast.So….
10Clay - Secretary of State House elected Adams president.Clay's influenceJackson lost despite having largest % of popular vote.Clay - Secretary of StateJackson's supporters - the "corrupt bargain"
11JQA as President Full of controversy Federal aid for internal improvements – Jeffersonians and Martin Van Buren (NY Governor) – NOOOOO!!!Send American delegates to Latin American conference – southerners – NOOOOO!!!Appointed opponents to high positions
12GOING “WHOLE HOG” FOR JACKSON IN 1828 As Adams’s popularity declined, Jackson rose.Martin Van Buren – two party competitionElection of 1828National Republicans - J.Q. AdamsDemocratic Republicans – JacksonUgly campaign!Jackson defeated Adams 178 electoral votes to 83
13First President from the West; seen as a great common man Jackson’s support: West, South, and laborers on the east coast— “common man”Adams won New England and wealthy voters in the Northeast.
14"The Revolution of 1828"No sitting president had been removed since John Adams in 1800Increased voter turnout was decisiveBalance of power - East to expanding West.
15“OLD HICKORY” AS PRESIDENT Like Jefferson - reduce role of federal gov’t in favor of states’ rightsHated Clay’s "American System"Congress should not favor one section/interest – should focus on what benefits ALL AmericansMaysville Road veto – No federal money for intrastate improvements (roads & canals). Vetoed bill for improving the Maysville Road in Kentucky (Who’s state???)At times defied will of Congress and the Supreme Courtveto 12 times"King Andrew I"
16THE SPOILS SYSTEM "rotation in office" Rewarding political supporters with public office"rotation in office"Removed many officeholders of rival party (corrupt)Goal: Let as many citizens as possible hold office for at least a short time (one term).ConsequencesA national political machine was built around JacksonPolitical corruption resulted
17"Kitchen Cabinet" Unofficial group of about 13 temporary advisors Not answerable to Congress - seen as a threatInfluence greatly over-exaggerated
18Peggy Eaton Affair Peggy Eaton - wife of Sec. of War Eaton Snubbed by wives of Jackson's cabinet members, especially Mrs. CalhounJackson defended Mrs. EatonJackson began purging Calhoun’s allies in the cabinetJackson turned increasingly against Calhoun
19Jackson and the South…Veto of Maysville Road bill and Indian Removal Act made Jackson popular in south.Tariff issue would test loyalty…
20THE TRICKY “TARIFF OF ABOMINATIONS” Northern bankers, merchants, and manufacturers favored high tariffs to protect American goods from foreign competition. Southern planters feared that high tax rates would increase the cost of nearly everything they bought. Also diminishes exports of cotton and other staples.Congress increased the tariff in 1824 from 23% on dutiable goods to 37%1828 Bill (under Adams by some Jackson supporters!) – Tariff of 1828 – 45%
21Jackson vs. CalhounCalhoun – State’s Rights! SC – economic decline as cotton spread West. High tariffs hurt, were sectional legislation.
22Calhoun’s argument – only tariffs that raised money for a COMMON purpose were constitutional. Tariff of 1828 too high to raise revenue, doesn’t benefit everyone EQUALLY.Anonymously wrote South Carolina Exposition and Protest – tariff is unconstitutional, states have right to nullify within their borders (similar to Jefferson’s and Madison’s Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of 1798)
23Southerners worried about something other than tariff Southerners worried about something other than tariff. If federal government can pass a tariff law that benefits one section of the country, can they pass laws that interfere with SLAVERY???Denmark Vesey (1822Nat Turner (1831)William Lloyd Garrison’s The Liberator (1832)
24“NULLIES” IN SOUTH CAROLINA Tariff of Jackson attempted lowering tariff35% from about 45. Lowered rate on many items but still affirmed the principle of protectionism.Personal issues between Jackson and Calhoun made matters worse – Eaton affair and rumor that Calhoun wanted Jackson punished back in 1818 for invading FL
25Jefferson Day Dinner (1830) - Jackson proposed a toast, fixed his eyes on Calhoun and stated: "Our Union: It must be preserved! Calhoun replied: "The Union, next to our liberty the most dear! May we always remember that it can only be preserved by distributing equally the benefits and burdens of the Union."
26November 1832 – S.C. state convention nullified Tariffs of 1828 and 1832, forbade collection of customs duties within the stateAlso make necessary military preparationsThreatened to secede from the Union if Jackson attempted collection by force.
27Jackson's reaction HATED NULLIFICATION – “abominable doctrine” Threatened to personally lead a federal army into SC"hang" nullifiers, including CalhounStandoff threatened a possible civil warNo federal troops marched
28The Olive Branch and the Sword Compromise Tariff of 1833Tariff reduced by 10% over eight years.Henry ClayForce Bill – authorizing the President to use arms to collect customs duties in SCS.C. – didn’t abandon nullification (nullified Force Bill!), but did end nullification of tariffs
29Aftermath Stepping stone to Civil War Calhoun resigned in 1832 SC gradually abandoned nullification in favor of secession by 1860Calhoun resigned in 1832Became leader in the Senate & champion of states’ rights in SCRigorously protected slavery and states rights’