Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 8 The Gilded Age. 1870-1900 Section 1 The Gilded Age- A thin layer of prosperity covered the poverty and corruption in society. Modern Industrialists."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 8 The Gilded Age
Section 1 The Gilded Age- A thin layer of prosperity covered the poverty and corruption in society. Modern Industrialists had immense wealth but that hid the fact that many suffered during this time period such as farmers, immigrants and laborers.
The Business of Politics Laissez-Faire Policies Laissez-Faire Hands off approach to economic matters by the government Many Americans believed this in theory, but most wanted government involvement, especially when it benefited them EXAMPLES Tariffs to raise prices on imports Subsidies and land grants by the government
The Business of Politics Bribes and Scandals Central Pacific Railroad Budgeted $500,000/year in bribes Credit Mobilier Scandal Union Pacific Railroad Company hired an outside company to build the transcontinental railroad How the scandal works Credit Mobilier overcharges Union Pacific to build the railroad Credit Mobilier then gives shares of stock to representatives of congress to ensure more funding Congress continues funding 3 years after the railroad is completed Included in the scandal; The future president, the VP, and 30 other public officials
The Business of Politics The Spoils System Similar to nepotismnepotism Elected officials appoint friends and supporters to government jobs, regardless of qualifications Initially the spoils system rewards loyalty, but eventually corruption becomes so widespread that the system will collapse
The Business of Politics The split of the political parties Democrats and Republicans Republican platform Favored the industrialists, bankers and eastern farmers Favored a tight money supply backed by the gold standard High tariffs Pensions for union soldiers Government aid to the railroads Strict limits on immigration Enforcement of blue laws which were regulations that prohibited certain activities that were considered immoralblue laws
The Business of Politics The split of the political parties Democrats and Republicans Democratic Platform Attracted those in society who were less privileged Urban Immigrants, laborers southern planters, and western farmers Increased money supply backed by silver Lower tariffs Higher farm prices Less aid to big business
Reforms of the spoils system Rutherford B. Hayes Abandoned the patronage system and only appointed qualified people to cabinet posts and fired those who were not needed This did not sit well with people in power and Hayes was defeated in 1880 by James Garfield Garfield's narrow victory was cut short when he was assassinated by an mentally unstable lawyer who expected a job from him under the spoils system Public outrage of this murder effectively killed the spoils system
Civil Service Reform Chester A. Arthur reforms the spoils system Pendleton Civil Service Act Classified government jobs and qualifications needed for them Federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds Could not be fired due to political reasons.
Reforming the Railroads Investigations on railroads charging more for short hauls than long hauls over the same tracks Rebates to favored customers Charging different rates to different people 2 supreme court cases which helped keep railroads unregulated Munn v. Illinois Only federal government could regulate interstate commerce Congress finally creates the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
Depression sets in Depression A long period of declining economic growth. In 1893, an economic depression sets in due to a drained treasury, when millions of people lost their jobs or had their wages slashed. No government help increased the peoples anger towards the government
Chapter 8 Section 3
Rapid Growth of cities Expanding Cities such as New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, St. Louis, New Orleans Movement from the rural areas to the cities along with immigration brought explosive growth to these cities.
Rapid Growth of cities Changes in City life (Transportation) Subways, Skyscrapers, and the start of suburbs Transportation helped create urban sprawlurban sprawl L-Trains (1868, NYC), Cable Cars (1873, San Francisco), Subways (Boston, 1897) and finally the automobile (1910) contributed to mass transit and city expansion Specialized areas developed with the growth of cities Banks, financial institutions, law firms and government offices in one area Retail stores and shopping districts Industrial, wholesale and warehouse districts formed another ring around the center of the city.
Rapid Growth of cities Changes in City life (Living Conditions Apartments and Tenements Tenements Low cost apartment buildings designed to house many families as possible Dumbbell Tenements housing to conform to new laws Slums Run down tenements caused by poverty, overcrowding and neglect
Rapid Growth of cities Major dangers Fires Great Chicago Fire of 1871 When it was finally extinguished; 18,000 buildings were destroyed, 250 dead and over 100,000 homeless. Similar fires in Boston as well Major dangers Diseases Cholera, malaria, tuberculosis (TB), Diphtheria and Typhoid. Epidemics
Rapid Growth of cities Political Divisions With the rise of many people in the cities gave way to an increase in revenue With more power at stake, groups competed for the most coveted spots in local governments Graft- Use of ones job to gain profit Political Machine- Unofficial city organization designed to keep a particular party or group in power, usually headed by a single leader or Boss
Helping the Needy (Organizations) The Charity Organization Movement Keep detailed records on who they helped Forced ideas of child-raising, cooking and cleaning on the poor and immigrants (Assimilation) Social Gospel Movement Apply the teachings of Jesus directly to society as a whole. Focused on justice and charity, along with equality The Settlement Movement Jane Addams & Ellen Fates Starr The Hull House in Chicago Centered on Community Activism and neighborhoods
The Science of Sociology The Settlement Movement Jane Addams & Ellen Fates Starr The Hull House in Chicago Centered on Community Activism and neighborhoods Began the use of neighborhood centered learning and care, such as child-care centers, playgrounds, clubs, summer camps. Much like a YMCA Sociology- The science of describing how people interact with one another in a society.
Controlling Immigration & Behavior Nativism- favoring native born Americans rather than immigrants. Called for teaching only English language and culture in schools. Tighter rules on citizenship Targeted both western and eastern immigrants Prohibition Temperance Movement- 3 groups to eliminate the consumption of alcohol Prohibition Party (1869), The Womans Christian Temperance Union (1874), The Anti-Saloon League (1893).
Controlling Immigration & Behavior Prohibition- Why was alcohol considered to be a major problem? Connection of alcohol, saloons, immigrants and political bosses The corruption of public morals Morals-A person's standards of behavior or beliefs concerning what is and is not acceptable for them to do Purity Crusaders- Major problems in urban centers
Controlling Immigration & Behavior Purity Crusaders- Major problems in urban centers such as alcohol, drugs, gambling, crime, and prostitution VICE- immoral or corrupt behavior Examples of legislation Comstock Law- material deemed obscene was illegal, such as descriptions of preventing unwanted pregnancy