3Section 1The Gilded Age- A thin layer of prosperity covered the poverty and corruption in society.Modern Industrialists had immense wealth but that hid the fact that many suffered during this time period such as farmers, immigrants and laborers.
4The Business of Politics Laissez-Faire PoliciesLaissez-Faire Hands off approach to economic matters by the governmentMany Americans believed this in theory, but most wanted government involvement, especially when it benefited themEXAMPLESTariffs to raise prices on importsSubsidies and land grants by the government
5The Business of Politics Bribes and ScandalsCentral Pacific RailroadBudgeted $500,000/year in bribesCredit Mobilier ScandalUnion Pacific Railroad Company hired an outside company to build the transcontinental railroadHow the scandal worksCredit Mobilier overcharges Union Pacific to build the railroadCredit Mobilier then gives shares of stock to representatives of congress to ensure more fundingCongress continues funding 3 years after the railroad is completedIncluded in the scandal; The future president, the VP, and 30 other public officials
6The Business of Politics The Spoils SystemSimilar to nepotismElected officials appoint friends and supporters to government jobs, regardless of qualificationsInitially the spoils system rewards loyalty, but eventually corruption becomes so widespread that the system will collapse
7The Business of Politics The split of the political partiesDemocrats and RepublicansRepublican platformFavored the industrialists, bankers and eastern farmersFavored a tight money supply backed by the gold standardHigh tariffsPensions for union soldiersGovernment aid to the railroadsStrict limits on immigrationEnforcement of blue laws which were regulations that prohibited certain activities that were considered immoral
8The Business of Politics The split of the political partiesDemocrats and RepublicansDemocratic PlatformAttracted those in society who were less privilegedUrban Immigrants, laborers southern planters, and western farmersIncreased money supply backed by silverLower tariffsHigher farm pricesLess aid to big business
9Reforms of the spoils system Rutherford B. HayesAbandoned the patronage system and only appointed qualified people to cabinet posts and fired those who were not neededThis did not sit well with people in power and Hayes was defeated in 1880 by James GarfieldGarfield's narrow victory was cut short when he was assassinated by an mentally unstable lawyer who expected a job from him under the spoils systemPublic outrage of this murder effectively killed the spoils system
10Civil Service Reform Chester A. Arthur reforms the spoils system Pendleton Civil Service ActClassified government jobs and qualifications needed for themFederal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign fundsCould not be fired due to political reasons.
11Reforming the Railroads Investigations on railroads charging more for short hauls than long hauls over the same tracksRebates to favored customersCharging different rates to different people2 supreme court cases which helped keep railroads unregulatedMunn v. Illinois Only federal government could regulate interstate commerceCongress finally creates the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
12Depression sets inDepression A long period of declining economic growth.In 1893, an economic depression sets in due to a drained treasury, when millions of people lost their jobs or had their wages slashed.No government help increased the people’s anger towards the government
14Rapid Growth of citiesExpanding Cities such as New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, St. Louis, New OrleansMovement from the rural areas to the cities along with immigration brought explosive growth to these cities.
15Rapid Growth of cities Changes in City life (Transportation) Subways, Skyscrapers, and the start of suburbsTransportation helped create urban sprawlL-Trains (1868, NYC), Cable Cars (1873, San Francisco), Subways (Boston, 1897) and finally the automobile (1910) contributed to mass transit and city expansionSpecialized areas developed with the growth of citiesBanks, financial institutions, law firms and government offices in one areaRetail stores and shopping districtsIndustrial, wholesale and warehouse districts formed another ring around the center of the city.
16Rapid Growth of cities Changes in City life (Living Conditions Apartments and TenementsTenements Low cost apartment buildings designed to house many families as possibleDumbbell Tenements housing to conform to new lawsSlums Run down tenements caused by poverty, overcrowding and neglect
17Rapid Growth of cities Major dangers Fires Major dangers Diseases Great Chicago Fire of 1871When it was finally extinguished; 18,000 buildings were destroyed, 250 dead and over 100,000 homeless.Similar fires in Boston as wellMajor dangers DiseasesCholera, malaria, tuberculosis (TB), Diphtheria and Typhoid.Epidemics
18Rapid Growth of cities Political Divisions With the rise of many people in the cities gave way to an increase in revenueWith more power at stake, groups competed for the most coveted spots in local governmentsGraft- Use of one’s job to gain profitPolitical Machine- Unofficial city organization designed to keep a particular party or group in power, usually headed by a single leader or “Boss”
20Helping the Needy (Organizations) The Charity Organization MovementKeep detailed records on who they helpedForced ideas of child-raising, cooking and cleaning on the poor and immigrants (Assimilation)Social Gospel MovementApply the teachings of Jesus directly to society as a whole.Focused on justice and charity, along with equalityThe Settlement MovementJane Addams & Ellen Fates StarrThe Hull House in ChicagoCentered on Community Activism and neighborhoods
21The Science of Sociology The Settlement MovementJane Addams & Ellen Fates StarrThe Hull House in ChicagoCentered on Community Activism and neighborhoodsBegan the use of neighborhood centered learning and care, such as child-care centers, playgrounds, clubs, summer camps. Much like a YMCASociology- The science of describing how people interact with one another in a society.
22Controlling Immigration & Behavior Nativism- favoring native born Americans rather than immigrants.Called for teaching only English language and culture in schools.Tighter rules on citizenshipTargeted both western and eastern immigrantsProhibitionTemperance Movement- 3 groups to eliminate the consumption of alcoholProhibition Party (1869), The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (1874), The Anti-Saloon League (1893).
23Controlling Immigration & Behavior Prohibition- Why was alcohol considered to be a major problem?Connection of alcohol, saloons, immigrants and political bossesThe corruption of public moralsMorals-A person's standards of behavior or beliefs concerning what is and is not acceptable for them to doPurity Crusaders-Major problems in urban centers
24Controlling Immigration & Behavior Purity Crusaders-Major problems in urban centers such as alcohol, drugs, gambling, crime, and prostitutionVICE- immoral or corrupt behaviorExamples of legislationComstock Law- material deemed obscene was illegal, such as descriptions of preventing unwanted pregnancy