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Civil War: Causes STATES’ RIGHTS

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1 1861-1865 Civil War: Causes STATES’ RIGHTS
The 10th Amendment to the United States Constitution states that all powers not given to the Congress by the Constitution (Article 1, Section 8) are reserved to the states, Because the power to decide issues regarding slavery is not given to the Congress in the Constitution, the southern states felt that it was within their power to determine the issue. ©2012, TESCCC

2 Civil War: Causes The Union
NORTHERN STATES agreed with the Federal Government and wanted to abolish slavery. Their economy was based on industry and did not rely on slavery. Very few families owned slaves. The Northern States formed the Union. Northern States Northern States The Union ©2012, TESCCC

3 Civil War: Causes The Confederacy
SOUTHERN STATES did not agree with the Federal Government. They believed in STATES’ RIGHTS (states having the power to govern themselves). Their economy was based on agriculture (farming and raising livestock) and relied heavily on slavery. Many plantation owners used slaves to work in their homes and fields. The Confederacy ©2012, TESCCC

4 Civil War: Causes TARIFFS
The South was producing cotton and selling it to the North as well as to England. Northern manufacturers were producing cloth they wanted to sell in the South. However they charged more than England did for those manufactured goods. The North wanted a protective tariff placed on imported goods thus raising England’s prices on goods. ©2012, TESCCC

5 Civil War: Causes TARIFFS (continued)
Southerners and Northerners both would have to pay more for manufactured goods imported from overseas, which would help sales of products made in the U.S. The South protested that the government did not have the right to do this. However, the Constitution gives the Congress the power to pass import taxes (export taxes are forbidden), so this was not really a states’ rights issue. ©2012, TESCCC

6 Political Impact on Texas
PRESIDENT ABRAHAM LINCOLN, Throughout the Civil War, developed several plans during to bring the nation back together and to give the enslaved African Americans their freedom. The Executive Order known as the EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION, which freed slaves in the slave-holding Southern states, went into effect January 21, 1863. Image from: ©2012, TESCCC

7 Civil War: Political Impact
SOUTHERN STATES, including TX, SECEDED (pulled out of) the U. S. in 1861. The Southern states formed the CONFEDERACY (states have more power than the Fedederal Gov’t.) ©2012, TESCCC

8 Civil War: Political Impact
REASONS FOR JOINING CONFEDERACY SECTIONALISM - TX supported its "sister slave-holding States.” Most Texans were originally from the South and had connections to friends and families there. These Texans believed in slavery although most did not own slaves. Economically, politically and socially Texans were connected to the South by PEGS.

9 Civil War: Political Impact
MORE REASONS The Federal gov’t. had not been helping Texas prevent Indian attacks, slave-stealing raids, and outlaws in TX. ©2012, TESCCC

10 Civil War: Political Impact
GOVERNOR Texas GOVERNOR, SAM HOUSTON, did not agree with secession from the union and resigned after Texans voted overwhelmingly to secede in February of (booted out) Image from: ©2012, TESCCC

11 Civil War: Political Impact
OTHER POLITICAL IMPACTS Texans fought in many battles in the Civil War on the Confederate and Union side CONSCRIPTION ACT (had to join the Confederate army) - Over 60,000, Texans joined the Confederacy This caused the Great Hanging - Those that opposed the Confederate side tried to flee Texas to join the Union side in the North. They were caught by the Confederates and hung for treason Many former slaves and Texas immigrants (Germans) were able to fight for the Union.

12 SIGNIFICANT PEOPLE Leader of Confederate Hood’s Brigade; Fort Hood TX named after him JOHN BELL HOOD Governor of TX in 1861 after Sam Houston resigned FRANCIS LUBBOCK Commander of the 5th Volunteer Calvary Confederate forces in TX THOMAS GREEN


July 1861 – The Union Navy began to block Texas ports; 1863, Confederate troops convert steamboats to gunships and take back the port BATTLE OF GALVESTON BATTLE OF SABINE PASS 2. September Union plans to invade Texas with 5000 troops and attack Houston; Lieutenant Richard Dowling and his men defended Ft. Griffin for a complete victory



17 ECONOMIC IMPACT NORTHERN BLOCKADES cut off food, supplies, war material to the south Created shortages of… Coffee, Medicine, Clothing, Salt, AND Paper TRADE along the Mexican border continued DEMAND for cotton was down because of the war, but demand for corn and wheat up due to food shortages ©2012, TESCCC

18 Economic Impact Freed SLAVES left for the North and few were left on the farms to work Lower PRODUCTION of agriculture and business due to men being at war ©2012, TESCCC

19 SOCIAL IMPACT With so many Texans fighting in the war, WOMEN AND CHILDREN had to be responsible for the businesses, farms, and homes. Many SUFFERED the loss of family members. UNION SUPPORTERS were treated with hostility. LIFE was difficult in TX. Image found at: ©2012, TESCCC

20 END OF THE WAR The war ended in April 1865, but because of Texas’s location, the news of the war ending did not reach Texas until June 19, 1865. The last Civil War battle was in Brownsville, Texas at Palmito Ranch The North, or Union forces, had already won the war. Confederate General Robert E. Lee had signed the surrender agreement one month before. ©2012, TESCCC

21 RECONSTRUCTION: A week after the end of the Civil War, President LINCOLN was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth. His successor, President JOHNSON continued on with the process of Reconstruction, or rebuilding the country. Image found at: ©2012, TESCCC

Many Texans were not happy about losing the war because their life had changed drastically There was a shortage of free labor to farm their fields. There was inadequate production in agriculture and business. Transportation was disrupted. ©2012, TESCCC

MARTIAL LAW – The U.S. military police must come to Texas to help keep peace Government removes NATIVE AMERICANS from frontier ©2012, TESCCC

24 Reconstruction: Political Impact
Texas adopted the CONSTITUTION OF 1876 RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS Texas had to adopt in order to be accepted back into the U.S. 13th Amendment - forbids slavery 14th Amendment – citizenship to freed slaves, equal rights, regardless of race 15th Amendment – gave black men right to vote ©2012, TESCCC

25 Reconstruction: ECONOMIC IMPACT
There was a great increase in… TENANT FARMING – people live on and farm land owned by a landlord increased SHARECROPPING – people farming another man’s land for a share of the profit increased Image from: ©2012, TESCCC

26 Reconstruction: Economic Impact
Expanded the RAILROAD CATTLE INDUSTRY boomed This led to an increase in PEOPLE moving to TX ©2012, TESCCC

27 Reconstruction: SOCIAL IMPACT
FREEDMEN’S BUREAU was established in 1865 by the Federal Government to provide the following for freed slaves: Food, Shelter, and Medicine Opened the 1st schools for African Americans in TX, which were in operation for whites for over 100 years ©2012, TESCCC

28 Reconstruction: Social Impact
On June 19, 1865, General Gordon Granger arrived in Texas in Galveston Bay with 2,000 federal troops announcing and enforcing the EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION. June 19th became known as JUNETEENTH, which became a celebration of slaves being set free. Juneteenth celebration Austin, Texas 1900 Image taken from: ©2012, TESCCC

29 Reconstruction: Social Impact
BLACK CODES Because some did not agree with the new laws of the U.S., some states passed JIM CROW LAWS to enforce segregation (separating races). It became illegal for Black Texans and sometimes Hispanic Texans to … eat in the same restaurants stay in the same hotel attend the same schools be treated in the same hospital as the Anglo Texans ©2012, TESCCC

30 Reconstruction: Social Impact
The KU KLUX KLAN was a group that was formed to force segregation and to keep African Americans from taking part in politics. This was a time of great conflict, as Texans made their way through a new era. ©2012, TESCCC

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