Presentation on theme: "Progressive Movement Responses to the Challenges brought about by Industrialization and Urbanization."— Presentation transcript:
1Progressive MovementResponses to the Challenges brought about by Industrialization and Urbanization
2Questions: What problems did Progressive reformers hope to solve? What role did journalists and other writers play in the Progressive Movement?How did the Progressives work to help the urban poor?How did the Progressive reformers change local and state governments?
3Progressivism: Reform Movement Began during T Roosevelt’s Administration.Ended in 1917 with the US entry into WWI.Spirit of Active Reform dominated national, state, and local politics.Wide range of issuesMiddle class city dwellersFrom the mid west and northeast.
4Pressure for Reforms Social Darwinism Laissez Faire Economics Why? Negative effects of industrialization.Social DarwinismLaissez Faire EconomicsLack of competition: high pricesAbuse of nation’s resources.Poor working conditionsPoor living conditionsLarge gap between rich and poor.Rise of unions
5Pressure for Reforms continued Immigration kept wages low/rise of nativismMixed Response of GovernmentUnresponsive to the impact of industrialization and urbanization.Courts did not support fair business practicescorruption
11Reforms demanded by rising middle class Increased power and influence of middle class.Educated classProgressives supported use of government power to bring about reform.Technology and science could improve the basic institutions of America: family, education, business and gov’tStrengthening capitalism and they were against the rising tide of socialism.By pass the political parties.
12Muckrakers The Muckrakers and reform Brought public attention to reform issues.Journalists, writers, photographers, and artists.Investigated and exposed corruption and injustice.Lincoln Steffens (The Shame of the Cities), Ida Tarbell (History of Standard Oil), Upton Sinclair (The Jungle movie trailer?), Jacob Riis (How the Other Half Lives)
13Specific Areas of Concern Poverty and living conditionsBetter living conditions through building codesSocial GospelSettlement HousesJane Addams Hull HouseHenry Street Settlement: Lillian WaldProvided child care, education, social activities, and employment help.
14Specific Areas of Concern Peace MovementAddams and WaldJeannette Rankin 1st woman elected to congressAddams 1931 Noble Peace Prize
15Specific Areas of Concern Temperance and prohibitionBegan in the 1820s1874 Women’s Christian Temperance Union.th amendment
16Specific Areas of Concern Women’s Movement1848 Seneca Falls NYElizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony were the radicals.Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell were the moderates.1900s Carrie Chapmen Catt changes strategy.19 Amendment 1920
17Specific Areas of Concern Birth ControlMargaret SangerPlanned Parenthood FederationEducation for Women100,000 women in college by the 1900s.Rights for JewsAnti-Defamation League
18Specific Areas of Concern African AmericansLynchingsBooker T Washington: vocational trainingPolicy called accommodationW.E.B. DuBois: more radical than BTWNiagara MovementNAACP: National Association for the Advancement of Colored PeopleMarcus Garvey: separatistIda B. Wells: journalist
19Progressivism and Government 1st concentrated their efforts on local governments.Elect Progressive Mayors but also needed to change the way government ran.Popular in small and medium sized cities.City Commissioner PlanCity manager Plan
20Theodore Roosevelt and the Square Deal Many reforms during his administration.1st of the Progressive Presidents (William Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson).Youngest man to become president1901 William McKinley is assassinatedElected in 1904Used the power of the Presidency to deal with social and economic problems
21Cities respond to Urban Problems Transportation systems, water and sewage, sanitation, other utilities.Modernizing Police and Fire Departments.Constructing new government buildings.Building Libraries and museums
22Reform of State Government Limited the control of state controlled boss politics.Limited powerful business interests.To protect gains at the local level reform was needed at the state and federal levels.Needed to increase citizen participation in government.
23State reforms Secret ballots Initiative Referendum Recall Direct primaryDirect Election of Senators (1913) 17th Amendment.Role of third parties
24State, Social and Environmental Reform Wisconsin ModelRobert M. La FolletteRegulate railroads, lobbying, bankingCivil service reformsReform tax systemWorkmen’s compensationFactory inspectionsTeddy RooseveltNew State Tenement Commission
25Theodore Roosevelt and the Square Deal Youngest President to take office1st of three Progressive presidents( William Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson)Stewardship: leading the nation in the public interest, like a supervisor or manager.Square Deal: many reforms during his administration
26Reforms Consumer Protection Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act (The Jungle)Regulation of BusinessHepburn Act 1906 Regulation of Railroad rates. Strengthened the ICC. Also expanded power to include regulation of pipelines, ferries, bridges and terminals.
27Reforms Trust-busting Good and bad trusts. Northern Securities Case: Pacific Northwest Railroads. DissolvedBeef Trust: Swift and Company v. the United States.Labor Reforms:The Anthracite Coal Strike: United Mine Workers.Employers’ Liability Act of 1906: provided accident insurance for interstate railroad workers. And in Washington D.C.Working Hours: Lockner v. New York ( no limiting working hours)Muller v Oregon ( women working) 10 hour work day
28Conservation Roosevelt was a naturalist Influenced by Gifford Pinchot and John Muir.Forest Reserve Act of 1891/US Forest Service /150 Million Acres.National Reclamation Act of 1902
29Progressivism Under Taft 1909 William Howard Taft is elected President.Twice as many lawsuitsStandard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States.Rule of reason to the Sherman Antitrust ActMann Elkins act of 1910/ICC/ control telephone and telegraph.Payne –Aldrich Act of 1909 raise tariffs
30Woodrow Wilson and the New freedom Democrat 1912Competition in the marketplace through enforcement of antitrust laws.Underwood Tariff Act: lowered tariffs/Civil Warth Amendment Graduated Income tax. 6% v 1%Federal Reserve System created.
31Federal Reserve System 12 Districts, each with a Federal reserve Bank.The Federal Government could now:Issue sound currency.Control the amt of money in circulation.Control interest rates.Shift money from one bank to another when needed.
32Negative Aspects of the Progressive Period Rights of African Americans do not improve..Woodrow Wilson enact separate facilities for blacks in Federal Government buildings.Jim Crows are still in existence (Plessy v Ferguson) separate but equal.Women are still treated like second class citizens.Unequal education still exists for all racesChild labor.No minimum wage, no maximum work week,Prohibition….Organized CrimeNo anti-lynching laws
33Business Regulation Federal Trade Commission Act Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914Price fixingBuying stock in competing companies.Addams Act of hour work day for workers on railroads and in interstate commerce.Federal Farm Loan Act 1916Keating – Owen Child Labor Act:Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional. Hammer v Dagenhart19th Amendment 1920 women the right to vote.
34Causes of the Progressive Movement Growth ofindustryGrowth of citiesThe Progressive MovementWork of MuckrakersSocialLaws protectingWorkers.Settlement housesBirth controlChild labor lawsconsumer protection lawsPoliticalDirect election ofSenators.Party primaries.Votes for women.EconomicConservation ofland and water.Regulation of businessLower tariffsIncome taxFederal Reserve
35Progressive Movement Protect Social Promote Moral Create Economic WelfarePure Food and Drug ActMeat Inspection ActConservation projectsSettlement HouseMovementFormation of NAACPMandatory EducationPromote MoralDevelopmentTemperance18th AmendmentSocial Gospel MovementCreate EconomicReformUnderwood tariffFederal Reserve SystemClayton Antitrust ActHepburn Act16th AmendmentFederal Trade CommissionRegulate public utilitiesFoster EfficiencyIn Government17th &18th AmendmentCivil Service reformSecret BallotDirect PrimariesReferendumRecallCity commissionCity manager
36Progressive Pyramid State National16-19AmendmentsPure food and Drug ActMeat Inspection ActUnderwood Tariff, Clayton Antitrust ActFTC, Federal Reserve Bank, Hepburn Act, NAACP, Forest Reserve ActStateSecret Ballot, Initiative, referendum, recall, direct primaries, direct election of senatorsLocalCity Commission, city manager, regulation of public utilities,city beautification, settlement houses
37Muckrakers: uncover corruption History of the Standard Lincoln SteffensThe Shame of the CitiesCorrupt politiciansFrank NorrisThe OctopusCorrupt railroad operators& California Wheat farmersUpton SinclairThe JungleUnhealthy conditions in theMeat packing industryIda TarbelHistory of the StandardOil CompanyJohn D. Rockefeller’s monopoly