3George Washington’s presidency In 1789 the Constitution had been passed.11 states sent electors to choose the first president.Formed an Electoral College – each state legislature had chosen electors to represent popular vote in their states.Congress declared that Washington was unanimous.John Adams became Vice President.
4Electoral CollegeThis is the institution that officially elects the President and Vice President of the United States every four years. The President and Vice President are not elected directly by the voters. Instead, they are elected by "electors" who are chosen by popular vote on a state-by-state basis. Electors are apportioned to each state and the District of Columbia. The number of electors in each state is equal to the number of members of Congress to which the state is entitledTotal Electoral Votes: 538Majority Needed to Elect: 270The allocations below are based on the 2010 Census. They are effective for the 2012, 2016, and 2020 presidential elections.
6George Washington’s presidency “The first of everything in our situation will serve to establish a precedent.” George WashingtonA precedent is an action or decision that serves as an example for later generations.Established the role the President would play and how he would conduct himself
7Executive BranchWashington nominated department heads, Presidential CabinetThe Constitution does not mention a cabinet, but it does state that the President may require opinions of heads of executive departmentsAlexander Hamilton – Secretary of TreasuryThomas Jefferson – Secretary of StateMet with department heads as a group called cabinet meetings.This defined the authority of the central government
8Judicial Branch Congress passed Federal Judiciary Act of 1789 **This law set up the federal court systemThree levels – district courts – courts of appeal – Supreme CourtJohn Jay – Supreme Court’s first justiceEdmund Randolph – Attorney General
10Northwest ordinance of 1789 Signed by George Washington in 1789Congress would send out a governor and judges to look after the district.When any section reached 5,000 male inhabitants, they were to elect lawmakers of their own.When a territory had enough inhabitants, it could become a new state.Slavery was forbidden in the area.Methods for creating new states in the future were established.
11“Elastic Clause” of the Constitution “The Congress shall have Power ... To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper”Based on this view, when the Constitution grants a power to Congress, it also grants Congress the “necessary and proper” means to carry out that power.
12Arguments over Taxation and the Banking System Protective Tariffs –High tariffs (taxes on imports) protect domestic manufacturers from foreign competition who sell their products at lower prices.Prevented consumers from purchasing the foreign products at lower pricesWere favored by North because their economy was based on manufacturingTariffs caused economic hardships in the South because of the amount of goods that the South purchased from Europe
13Arguments over Taxation and the Banking System Low Tariffs –Allows for greater volume of trade between countries, but often at the expense of the domestic tradersTaxation –High taxes take money away from the consumer so the government can create more programs and infrastructure that benefit the economy and the citizens.Low taxes leave more money for the consumer to spend and stimulate economic growth.Effected southern economy more than North.Most taxation was based on tariffs.
14Arguments over Taxation and the Banking System Industries began to start and expand – the need for capital (in the form of loans) increased and the banking industry became very important.Important to the farmers – borrowed money from banks, using future crop as collateralJefferson argued that a National Bank was not in the ConstitutionHamilton argued that having a bank was “necessary and proper” (elastic clause)
15Arguments over Taxation and the Banking System National Bank –Based on a loose interpretation of the elastic clause of the Constitution the bank was “necessary and proper” to carry out the government’s duties.
16First Bank of the United States Chartered for a 20 year period.Hamilton believed that a central bank was necessary to stabilize and improve the nation’s credit.He believed it would improve handling of the financial businesses.All under the newly formed Constitution
18The french revolutionThe French overthrew their monarchy and created a republican government.A few months after the French Revolution started, France and Great Britain went to war.**George Washington declared neutrality.He believed the United States must remain a third party in order to survive.Napoleon Bonaparte
19Whiskey Rebellion Congress passed a tax on American-made whiskey. Farmers who produced small amounts of whiskey argued that they could not pay the tax.Farmers in western Pennsylvania staged a rebellion against the tax and the grain it was made from.The taxes were decreasing the profits on the grain they produced.George Washington sent out federal troops to put down the uprising, but the rebels fled.It ended without a battle.
20Whiskey RebellionGeorge Washington reviews the troops near Fort Cumberland.
21Washington’s Farewell Address Urged the nation to be neutral and steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world.Recognized the dangers of political parties and warned that attacks by political parties could weaken the nation.His advice guides U.S. foreign policy even today. (U.S. remained neutral through 19th century)His Presidency-He was president for two termsHe established the role the President would play and how he would conduct himself.
22Political Parties This happened during Washington’s presidency. There was a disagreement over the role and strength of the national government.Federalist PartyIn favor of a strong central governmentLoose interpretation of the ConstitutionCreate a National BankPromote ManufacturingSupported by Northern merchants and manufacturersLed by John Adams and Alexander Hamilton
23Political Parties Democratic-Republican Party In favor of limiting the federal government powerStrict interpretation of the ConstitutionPromoted agricultureNo National BankSupported by farmers and workersExpansion of states’ rightsLed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
25XYZ Affair The British and French were at war. The French were seizing American ships to prevent Americans from trading with the British.John Adams wants to improve relations with France.He sent U.S. diplomats to Paris, but they learned that the French foreign minister would not meet with them.X, Y, and Z referred to the French agents that met in secret with them and assured the American negotiators that they could meet with the French minister.
26XYZ AffairThe French agreed to stop if the Americans agreed to give France a loan of $10 million and bribe the minister with $250,000America refused and Congress canceled their treaties with France and set aside money to increase the U.S. militaryUpon hearing this, the Federalists called for war with France.John Adams avoided war with France – some people opposed this decision
27Alien and Sedition Acts Laws that targeted immigrants (aliens)Immigrants had to wait to become citizensThey could be removed from the country or jailed if they were disloyal or if they said or wrote anything false or harmful about the government (sedition)This act basically restricted citizens from criticizing the government.
28Alien and Sedition Acts States’ Rights – A theory that stated that states had rights that the federal government could not violate (Kentucky/Virginia)States could nullify federal lawsUsed to fight the Alien and Sedition Acts
29John MarshallJohn Adams appoints John Marshall as chief Justice of the Supreme CourtThis is considered one of his most significant actions while in office.Served from
30Thomas jefferson 3rd president 1801-1809 democratic-republican
31Marbury v. MadisonRight before Jefferson took office John Adams appointed a lot of Federalists for various positions.Jefferson was not going to fill the positions. He was a Democratic-Republican.William Marbury, a man appointed by John Adams, wanted his commission/appointment.Jefferson ordered Madison not to deliver Adams’ last-minute judicial appointments.Issue – Does the Supreme Court have the authority to review acts of Congress and determine those acts unconstitutional? (can they make Madison give Marbury his appointment???)
32Marbury v. Madison John Marshal He thought that the courts could not force the commissionDecision – Law that allowed Marbury to sue Madison for delivery of his appointment was unconstitutionalSignificance – Establishes judicial review and expands the scope of Supreme Court’s jurisdiction
33Origin of judicial review It originated from the ruling on Marbury vs. Madison.John Marshall declared that the Supreme Court’s duty is to interpret the law (according to the U.S. ConstitutionIf the Supreme Court decides a law violates the Constitution it cannot go into effect, or if it is in effect, it is no longer legalThis allowed a balance between the three branches of governmentAllows Supreme Court to determine the Constitutionality of laws made by Congress.
35The Louisiana Purchase – In 1803 Jefferson paid France $15 million for the purchase of the Louisiana Territory.There is no clause in the Constitution granting the President the power to purchase land.With the purchase the size of America almost doubled.Jefferson sent out an expedition to explore the new land. Lewis and Clark used rivers to go to the Pacific Ocean and back. They took notes along the way.
3912th amendment Proposed in 1803, passed in 1804 Cleared up the issue involving Vice Presidential and Presidential offices.The Vice President shall run with the President, instead of the second place Presidential candidate getting the position of Vice President
401807 Embargo Act Law banned trade with foreign countries Act intended to prevent American entrance into the war by keeping the ships in the harborsIt failed and hurt the American economyA political cartoonshowing merchantsdodging the "Ograbme",which is 'Embargo’spelled backwards.
41Slavery The United States banned the importation of slaves in 1808. It was still legal to own slaves, but slaves could not be imported from Africa.This led to domestic slave trade.
42James madison 4th president 1809-1817 federalist
43War of 1812 Causes Impressments of U.S. Soldiers Shipping interference British supported American Indian resistance against AmericansWar Hawks – persuaded Congress to support a declaration of war against Britain
44War of 1812 Events Attack on Washington D.C. Dolley Madison, First Lady,saved a portrait ofGeorge Washington.
45War of 1812Fort McHenry –Francis Scott Key wrote poem “Defence of Fort McHenry” which became “Star Spangled Banner”
46Battle of New Orleans-Treaty of Ghent was “in process” when the battle beganGeneral Andrew Jackson defeated the BritishThe victory made Jackson a national hero
47Treaty of Ghent-Peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 and restored relations between U.S. and Britain to pre-war statusRestored land that each country had taken in the war
51War of 1812SignificanceEstablished the U.S. as a country with an identity as an independent and powerful nation.Improved the professionalism of the U.S. Army.There was no clear winner.
52War of EconomicsThe British had blockaded American ships during the war.This made a shortage of the items usually purchased from Britain – mainly clothAmerica had to figure out how to make the cloth itself – factories built mainly in the North – Americans bought American goodsIn the end the war made America economically independent from other nations as well.
54“era of good feelings” 1817-1825 Reflected a sense of national purpose and a desire for unity among AmericansThe U.S. settled into a period of rule by one political party. The War of saw the death of the Federalist party.The bitter disputes between the Federalist and the Democratic- Republicans ended.
55After the war After the War of 1812 America enjoyed a time of peace James Monroe is president, and won re- election in 1820Florida – another dispute involved the U.S. border and Spanish FloridaAdams-Onis Treaty of 1819 – Spain gave east Florida to U.S. and gave up its claims to west FloridaIn return, U.S. gave up claims to TexasU.S. agreed to take responsibility for debt to Spain
57Second Bank of the United States Chartered for another 20 year period.Served during the “Era of good Feelings”Ended in 1836 during the Jackson administration.
58Monroe Doctrine James Monroe In his State of the Union address he declared that the American continents were forever free and independent from European PowersMonroe DoctrineThe U.S. saw itself as a world power and a protector of Latin AmericaPrevented other nations from colonizing in the Americas, even today
59John Quincy AdamsSecretary of StateAuthored the Monroe Doctrine
60What’s going on in Mexico? Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821American colonist began settling in Texas