Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 3 SOCIAL STUDIES 11 INTO THE GREAT DEPRESSION INTO THE GREAT DEPRESSION."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 3 SOCIAL STUDIES 11 INTO THE GREAT DEPRESSION INTO THE GREAT DEPRESSION
GROWTH AND DISCONTENT - With the war over, 250,000 Canadians hunt for jobs. - Unions had grown during the war but times were now tough. - One Big Union was promised by labour leaders (a Canadian Russian Revolution) - General Strike in Winnipeg spreads to Vancouver
UNREST - June 21, 1919, Bloody Sunday in Winnipeg. - Labour union membership began to drop. - Wheat prices fell from $3.15 to $1.11 per bushel (Morton, 1988, p.70) - Interest rates were raised to stop inflation. - C.N.R. freight rates raised. Maritimes hammered.
HALIBUT TREATY - 1923 - First treaty Canada signs on her own. - With the U.S.A. - Shows independence
THE KING BYNG CONFRONTATION - Lord Byng, Governor-General of Canada, refused to dissolve parliament after Kings ministers were implicated in an alcohol smuggling scandal. - King attempted to avoid the responsibility of a corrupt government. - Meighen takes office
The Wall Street Crash - Stock Prices rose - Investment trusts compounded the inflation of the stocks.
PRIME MINISTER BENNETT - King, Not a five cent piece to provinces led by Conservatives. Unemployment is a provincial problem. - 1930 King out. Bennett in - Bennett brings in the highest tariffs since 1879 (Morton, 1988, p.81) - Bennett created the Bank of Canada.
President Herbert Hoover - the government knew that the market was about to crash. Even a newly published weekly called NEWSWEEK predicted a stock market crash.
- The government did not get involved because it was not its job (Capitalist Gov. = hands off business.) and anything the government said could cause the crash
Oct. 24, 1929 (Black Thursday) - Stock prices crash. - J.P. Morgan and others try to instill confidence in the market by buying millions of dollars worth of stocks. The market settles.
Oct. 29, 1929 (Black Tuesday) - Market collapses. The "Great Crash" has occurred. - 40 billion dollars disappeared from the economy. Any company investing in stocks lost that money. (banks, factories, individuals, and companies who had their money in bank that had been investing in marginal stocks)
Herbert Hoover - Capitalist - 1930 Hawley-Smoot Tariff Bill Largest example of U.S. Protectionist. - large tariffs on imports to save U.S. Jobs. - World trade slows. Massive unemployment. - Hoover brings in Reconstruction Finance Corporation. $2 Billion given to industry to create jobs. (Hoover will not give direct aid to unemployed - not capitalist). RFC a failure.
Hoovervilles spring up. - shanty towns. - Hooverblankets newspapers used as blankets.
1931 Hoover announced a moratorium - Moratorium on international government debts because both Austria and Germany were close to financial collapse. - This sent other nations depending on these payments into chaos.
1932 Worst year of Depression - 25% unemployment
Bonus March(1932) - veterans of WW1 protest to receive benefits early. - Douglas MacArthur sent to put it down. Doug gets overly enthusiastic. Uses tanks and cavalry. - Hoover can't admit he lost control of MacArthur. Takes blame.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt - socialist. - 1932 wins election promising the American people a "New Deal". - Uses line from H.D. Thoreau and states: "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself."
Roosevelt has a special session of Congress called "The Hundred Days". - deals with the "Three R's" - Recovery, Relief, Reform. - several Federal Agencies created.
Called "Bank Holiday" - only solvent banks reopen. - Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Created (FDIC). Bank deposits (up to $1500) insured to instill confidence in banks.
Agricultural Adjustment Act: - output restricted/force prices up - production quotas - 1935 unconstitutional.
National Industrial Recovery Act: - same as AAA only industrial - restricted output - 1935 unconstitutional.
Wagner Act 1933 - trade unions protected. - National Labour Relations Act (striking legal [2nd ND] 1935)
Tennessee Valley Authority - 1st time gov. Went into direct competition with the private sector. - hydro-electric dams in 7 states. - supply cheap power to spur economic development.
Civilian Conservation Corps - young men given jobs in "make- work projects" - direct involvement/handouts!
Works Progress Administration. - "Make work" - included the arts. - La Guardia airport created. - Orson Wells "Black MacBeth" funded. - More handouts. -1935 2nd ND
Social Security Act 1935 - old age pension/unemployment insurance/welfare. - 1937 considered unconstitutional - Roosevelt threatens to increase Supreme Court from 9 to 15, thereby bypassing the "9 Old Men" (creating a democratic dicatorship because anything Roosevelt wanted to do would be constitutional) - SSA stays / Supreme Court remains at 9
BENNETTS PLAN - The New Deal - Make work projects - Bennettburghs - Bennett Buggy
MAJOR-GENERAL A.G.L. McNAUGHTON - 1932 McNaughton was put in charge of the RELIEF CAMPS - A man could be fed, housed and clothed for one dollar a day including 20 cents a day pay.
BIBLE BILL ABERHART - Led the Social Credit Party - The difference between what a man made and what he needed to live should be made up by the government. - The difference was called the Social Credit.
J.S. WOODSWORTH - Founder of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation 1932 - 1933 Regina Manifesto
REGINA MANIFESTO - planned economy - control banks - ownership of essential services - labour code - publicly organised medical services
1937 Business Wants Roosevelt and his socialist ways out of the economy. - economy appears strong - economy wants Roosevelt to close down his programs. He does. - Economy collapses.
1939 Threat of WW2 bringing the U.S.A. Out of the Great Depression.
MAURICE DUPLESSIS - 1936 became Premier of Quebec - Instituted PADLOCK LAW. lock any building used for communistic purposes - Used it to attack opponents.
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