Presentation on theme: "Who were the progressives and how did they address the problems they saw?"— Presentation transcript:
Who were the progressives and how did they address the problems they saw?
Progressives were reformers committed to improving conditions in American life Jane Addams-social worker and founder of the Hull House, Chicagos 1 st settlement house. Addams goal was to clean up the streets.
Industrialization, Urbanization, and Immigration contributed to great changes in America create both opportunities and problems. The Progressives wanted to… Promote Social Welfare Protect the Environment Make Government more Efficient and Democratic
Progressive Activists- people who took political action to achieve reforms Roots of Progressivism Populism- rural movement to improve conditions of famers Social Gospel- religious movement believing society must take responsibility for the less fortunate Progressivism- improve conditions of industrial workers Progressives vs social Darwinism Progressives opposed Darwin's theory of Natural selection. They felt domination of rich and powerful was a distortion of democracy.
Progressives wanted to…. Improve Living Conditions in Cities Progressives fought for court yards and garbage collection. Central Park was built because of progressives. Keep Children in School and out of Factories %of teenagers went to school National Child Labor Committee-Florence Kelly 1904, convinced 39 states by 1904 to prohibit child labor % of teenagers were attending school Separate court system for Juveniles Improve Conditions in the Workplace Workers Compensation Laws- receive pay when injured Hours were limited for women but not men due to child bearing
Fighting for Honest Effective Local Government People had to buy their jobs (teachers had to pay $120 of the first $141 they earned in Philadelphia) Toledo, Ohio Mayor Samuel Jones-reformed the police department, set a minimum wage, and improved city services Cleveland, Ohio Mayor Tom Johnson reduced streetcar fares, set up public baths, and increased the number of parks and playgrounds Soon cities were set up based on skills and experience rather than party loyalty
Reforming State Government Goal- return the power to the people SECERT BALLOT- citizens voted in a private booth Direct Primary- elections held rather than party leaders picking candidates Recall- process which voters can remove an elected official before his or her term expires through a petition Initiative- citizens can propose and pass a law without the state legislature Referendum- a law passed by state legislature then placed on the ballot for approval or rejection by the voters. Electing like-minded officials
Women Fight for the Right to Vote social housekeepers- if women can clean up their homes then they can clean up society After the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire a politician answered the question, why women factory workers had no fire protection, by stating thats easy, they aint got no votes! Women had been fighting for the right to vote since 1848 at the Seneca Falls Convention National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)- led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton to organize the suffrage movement at state and national levels 1876 Wyoming granted women the right to vote followed by many other Western states. By states granted women the right to vote. Many southern states denied women Jeanette Rankin was elected to the House of Representatives in Montana, 4 years before women received the right to vote at the National Level.
African Americans Struggle for Equality African Americans faced a tougher battle than women… 4/5 of African Americans lived in the South and were disenfranchised due to literacy tests, poll taxes, and the grandfather clause denying them the right to vote Booker T Washington- founded Tuskegee Institute- vocational college for African Americans in Alabama W.E.B. Du Bois- founded National Association for the Advancement of Colored People- fought the battle of racism and segregation through the courts focusing on outlawing Lynching. Between African Americans were lynched. It was not outlawed until the 1950s.
How well did Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson promote progressive goals in National Policies?
Theodore Roosevelt Teddy became president in 1901 after the assassination of McKinley Youngest president at age 42, he was short and stout, impulsive, but knew how to get things done SQUARE DEAL- Roosevelts program of reform focusing on regulating big business and protecting workers and consumers
William Howard Taft Succeeded Roosevelt in 1908 with his support Taft was quite, reserved, and cautious- the exact opposite of Roosevelt Taft supported low tariffs in his party platform but in 1909 after taking office he signed the Payne-Aldrich Bill, which raised tariffs and tarnished his record as a progressive
Woodrow Wilson Election of 1912-Roosevelt decided to run again because Taft betrayed the progressive ideals, but when the Republicans chose Taft to represent them Roosevelt formed a third political party, Progressive Party aka Bull Moose Party Woodrow Wilson was running for the Democrats and Eugene V. Debs as a Socialists. Wilson received 42% of the votes, Debs 7% and the Republican party split Taft-23% and Roosevelt 27.5%, giving Wilson the presidency. Wilson promotes NEW FREEDOM- a reform program set in place to eliminate trusts and reduce corruption in the federal government HE was most noted for is laws on banking, tariff reform and the creation of the Federal Trade Commission.
BUSTING TRUSTS Roosevelt passed the Sherman Anti-Trust Act- could not merge and form a trust or monopoly and became known as a trustbuster by breaking up J.P. Morgans Northern Securities Company and limiting the power of the Railroads Taft brought 90 lawsuits against trusts during his presidency being very harsh Wilson strengthened the Sherman Anti- Trust Act by passing the Clayton Anti- Trust Act in outlawed underselling and protected labor unions Many conservatives thought the government should not have interfered at all with business
Protecting Consumers and Workers Roosevelt passed the Meat Inspections Act which required the department of Agriculture to thoroughly inspect mean and The Pure Food and Drug Act established the FDA (food and drug administration) to test and approve drugs before they went to the market Roosevelt helped coal miners when he pressured the miners and owners to submit to arbitration- a legal process in which neutral outside party helps resolve a dispute. This process decided that miners should have higher wages and shorter hours but also declared that the owners did not have to recognize the union or higher union workers.
Protecting Consumers and Workers Taft and Wilson expanded worker protections by establishing the Childrens Bureau to investigate child labor. Wilson passed the Keating Owen Child Labor Act in 1916 which prohibited companies from hiring children under the age of 14. Taft and Wilson also supported an 8 hour work day, under Taft the 8 hour day became the rule for government employees.
Protecting the Environment Preservation- the protecting of wilderness lands from all forms of development Conservation- the limited use of resources Roosevelt backed the creation of the U.S. Forest Service- which protected forest and other natural areas from excessive development. Roosevelt set aside 150 million acres of national forest Taft added 2.7 million acres to the National Wildlife Refuge System Wilson supported the creation of the National Park Service to manage national parks (Yellowstone) for preservation and public use.
Reforming the Banking System Taft urged Congress to reform the banking system but no one could agree on the proper solution Wilson passed the Federal Reserve Act in this divided the country into 12 regions and create the Federal Reserve System- a central bank of the United States. The Fed would offer a safety net to private banks buy lending them money and would set the monetary policy to regulate the amount of money in circulation by interest rates.
Reforming Taxes and Tariffs Big businesss favored high tariffs-taxes on imported goods, but progressives felt this was unfair to consumers Taft passed the 16 th Amendment- Income tax amendment, a graduated income tax which placed a higher burden on those who had more money. Wilson signed the Underwood Tariff Act in 1913 which reduced tariffs and created the graduated income tax
AMENDMENTS 17 th Amendment- direct election of senators, gave the people more power 18 th Amendment- prohibition of the manufacture, sale or transportation of intoxicating liquors Womens Temperance Christian Movement-argued drinking of alcohol made men unable to support their wives and children. The Saloon Must Go 19 th Amendment- the right of citizens of the United states to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United states or by any state on account of SEX! WOMEN CAN VOTE