Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17 the Progressives Respond"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 17 the Progressives Respond Who were the progressives and how did they address the problems they saw?
2 PROGRESSIVESProgressives were reformers committed to improving conditions in American lifeJane Addams-social worker and founder of the Hull House, Chicago’s 1st settlement house.Addams goal was to clean up the streets.
3 Origins of Progressivism Industrialization, Urbanization, and Immigration contributed to great changes in America create both opportunities and problems.The Progressives wanted to…Promote Social WelfareProtect the EnvironmentMake Government more Efficient and Democratic
4 Origins of Progressivism Progressive Activists- people who took political action to achieve reformsRoots of ProgressivismPopulism- rural movement to improve conditions of famersSocial Gospel- religious movement believing society must take responsibility for the less fortunateProgressivism- improve conditions of industrial workersProgressives vs social DarwinismProgressives opposed Darwin's theory of Natural selection. They felt domination of rich andpowerful was a distortion of democracy.
5 Progressives Fight for Social Reforms Progressives wanted to….Improve Living Conditions in CitiesProgressives fought for court yards and garbage collection. Central Park was built because of progressives.Keep Children in School and out of Factories1890-4%of teenagers went to schoolNational Child Labor Committee-Florence Kelly 1904, convinced 39 states by 1904 to prohibit child labor% of teenagers were attending schoolSeparate court system for JuvenilesImprove Conditions in the WorkplaceWorkers Compensation Laws- receive pay when injuredHours were limited for women but not men due to child bearing
6 Progressives Push for Political Reforms Fighting for Honest Effective Local GovernmentPeople had to buy their jobs (teachers had to pay $120 of the first $141 they earned in Philadelphia)Toledo, Ohio Mayor Samuel Jones-reformed the police department, set a minimum wage, and improved city servicesCleveland, Ohio Mayor Tom Johnson reduced streetcar fares, set up public baths, and increased the number of parks and playgroundsSoon cities were set up based on skills and experience rather than party loyalty
7 Progressives Push for Political Reforms Reforming State GovernmentGoal- return the power to the peopleSECERT BALLOT- citizens voted in a private boothDirect Primary- elections held rather than party leaders picking candidatesRecall- process which voters can remove an elected official before his or her term expires through a petitionInitiative- citizens can propose and pass a law without the state legislatureReferendum- a law passed by state legislature then placed on the ballot for approval or rejection by the voters.Electing like-minded officials
8 Progressives Confront Social Inequality Women Fight for the Right to Vote“social housekeepers”- if women can clean up their homes then they can clean up societyAfter the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire a politician answered the question, why women factory workers had no fire protection, by stating “that’s easy, they ain’t got no votes!”Women had been fighting for the right to vote since 1848 at the Seneca Falls ConventionNational American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)- led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton to organize the suffrage movement at state and national levels1876 Wyoming granted women the right to vote followed by many other Western states. By states granted women the right to vote. Many southern states denied women.1916 Jeanette Rankin was elected to the House of Representatives in Montana, 4 years before women received the right to vote at the National Level.
9 Progressives Confront Social Inequality African Americans Struggle for EqualityAfrican Americans faced a tougher battle than women…4/5 of African Americans lived in the South and were disenfranchised due to literacy tests, poll taxes, and the grandfather clause denying them the right to voteBooker T Washington- founded Tuskegee Institute- vocational college for African Americans in AlabamaW.E.B. Du Bois- founded National Association for the Advancement of Colored People- fought the battle of racism and segregation through the courts focusing on outlawing Lynching.Between African Americans were lynched. It was not outlawed until the 1950’s.
10 Chapter 18: Progressives on the National Stage How well did Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson promote progressive goals in National Policies?
11 Three Progressive President's Theodore RooseveltTeddy became president in 1901 after the assassination of McKinleyYoungest president at age 42, he was short and stout, impulsive, but knew how to get things doneSQUARE DEAL- Roosevelt’s program of reform focusing on regulating big business and protecting workers and consumers
12 Three Progressive President's William Howard TaftSucceeded Roosevelt in 1908 with his supportTaft was quite, reserved, and cautious- the exact opposite of RooseveltTaft supported low tariffs in his party platform but in after taking office he signed the Payne-Aldrich Bill, which raised tariffs and tarnished his record as a progressive
13 Three Progressive President's Woodrow WilsonElection of 1912-Roosevelt decided to run again because Taft betrayed the progressive ideals, but when the Republicans chose Taft to represent them Roosevelt formed a third political party, Progressive Party aka “Bull Moose Party”Woodrow Wilson was running for the Democrats and Eugene V. Debs as a Socialists.Wilson received 42% of the votes, Debs 7% and the Republican party split Taft-23% and Roosevelt 27.5%, giving Wilson the presidency.Wilson promotes NEW FREEDOM- a reform program set in place to eliminate trusts and reduce corruption in the federal governmentHE was most noted for is laws on banking, tariff reform and the creation of the Federal Trade Commission.
15 Addressing Effects of INdustrialization BUSTING TRUSTSRoosevelt passed the Sherman Anti-Trust Act- could not merge and form a trust or monopoly and became known as a “trustbuster” by breaking up J.P. Morgan’s Northern Securities Company and limiting the power of the RailroadsTaft brought 90 lawsuits against trusts during his presidency being very harshWilson strengthened the Sherman Anti- Trust Act by passing the Clayton Anti- Trust Act in outlawed underselling and protected labor unionsMany conservatives thought the government should not have interfered at all with business
16 Addressing the Effects of Industrialization Protecting Consumers and WorkersRoosevelt passed the Meat Inspections Act which required the department of Agriculture to thoroughly inspect mean and The Pure Food and Drug Act established the FDA (food and drug administration) to test and approve drugs before they went to the marketRoosevelt helped coal miners when he pressured the miners and owners to submit to arbitration- a legal process in which neutral outside party helps resolve a dispute. This process decided that miners should have higher wages and shorter hours but also declared that the owners did not have to recognize the union or higher union workers.
17 Addressing the Effects of Industrialization Protecting Consumers and WorkersTaft and Wilson expanded worker protections by establishing the Children’s Bureau to investigate child labor. Wilson passed the Keating Owen Child Labor Act in 1916 which prohibited companies from hiring children under the age of 14.Taft and Wilson also supported an 8 hour work day, under Taft the 8 hour day became the rule for government employees.Addressing the Effects of Industrialization
18 Addressing the Effects of Industrialization Protecting the EnvironmentPreservation- the protecting of wilderness lands from all forms of developmentConservation- the limited use of resourcesRoosevelt backed the creation of the U.S. Forest Service- which protected forest and other natural areas from excessive development. Roosevelt set aside 150 million acres of national forestTaft added 2.7 million acres to the National Wildlife Refuge SystemWilson supported the creation of the National Park Service to manage national parks (Yellowstone) for preservation and public use.
19 Reforming the National Government Reforming the Banking SystemTaft urged Congress to reform the banking system but no one could agree on the proper solutionWilson passed the Federal Reserve Act in this divided the country into 12 regions and create the Federal Reserve System- a central bank of the United States. “The Fed” would offer a safety net to private banks buy lending them money and would set the monetary policy to regulate the amount of money in circulation by interest rates.
20 Reforming the National Government Reforming Taxes and TariffsBig business’s favored high tariffs-taxes on imported goods, but progressives felt this was unfair to consumersTaft passed the 16th Amendment- Income tax amendment, a graduated income tax which placed a higher burden on those who had more money.Wilson signed the Underwood Tariff Act in which reduced tariffs and created the graduated income tax
21 Reforming the National Government AMENDMENTS17th Amendment- direct election of senators, gave the people more power18th Amendment- prohibition of “the manufacture, sale or transportation of intoxicating liquors”Women’s Temperance Christian Movement-argued drinking of alcohol made men unable to support their wives and children. “The Saloon Must Go”19th Amendment- “the right of citizens of the United states to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United states or by any state on account of SEX! WOMEN CAN VOTE