Presentation on theme: "Politics during the Age of Jackson:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Politics during the Age of Jackson: 1824-1840 Chapter 11
2 From Era of Good Feelings to Jackson “Corrupt Bargain” of 18244-way race for President, all RepublicansResults:1-Jackson – most popular votes and electoral votes2-John Quincy Adams (Sec. of State)3-William Crawford4-Henry Clay (Former War Hawk, Speaker of the House)No majority in the electoral vote—top 3 candidates went to the House of RepresentativesClay supported Adams, Adams won, Jackson lostAdams made Clay his Secretary of State—bad feelings among Jackson supportersAdams Presidency—nationalist couldn’t get much done
3 Election of 1828Republicans split into two rival factions (re-emergence of the two party system)National Republicans—Adams and ClayRepublican party of the Era of Good Feelings and Madison and Monroe after the War of 1812Democratic Republicans—JacksonRepublican party of Jefferson and Madison before the War of 1812First election with widespread appeal to popular vote, electoral votes in many states tied to popular vote for the first timeJackson won the South and the West, Adams won New England and part of the NortheastJackson won 178 to 83
5 “Jacksonian Democracy” Around the time and during the time of Jackson’s presidency the role of the common people in government increasedElectoral vote tied to popular vote—not state legislaturesUniversal white male suffrage—all adult white males could vote regardless of incomeCandidates chosen by political convention not by party leadersEnd of established religions in New EnglandEffects of this increase in democracy?
11 Anti-Jackson Newspaper Article ca.1828 General Jackson’s mother was a Common Prostitute, brought to this country by the British soldiers! She afterwards married a MULATTO man with whom she had several children, of which GENERAL JACKSON is one.
12 Major Issues of Jackson’s Presidency Spoils SystemTariffs and nullificationBankIndian RemovalUnlike previous administrations Jackson fired government workers appointed/hired by his predecessors—”To the victor (of the election) go the spoils (the government jobs).”New appointees loyal to Jackson and his partyHow could this also be viewed as democratic?Drawbacks of this system?
13 Tariffs and Nullification Protective Tariffs divided the nation—one of the major sources of sectional conflictTariffs protected US industry from foreign competition BUT increased the overall cost of goods in the USTariffs also made it more difficult to export goods (agricultural products) to foreign countriesNorth liked tariffs, South and West disliked them (South especially)1828 an especially high tariff was passed—tariff of abominationsSouth Carolina threatened to nullify the lawRefuse to enforce it (nullify it) inside its bordersWhat else besides tariffs were on their minds in the South?SC threatened to secede (leave the Union) if the federal govt tried to collect the tariff by forceJackson threatened to send soldiers Civil War!!??Compromise tariff of 1833, Henry Clay avoided showdown
14 National Bank2nd Bank of the United States (B.U.S.) chartered in 1816 for 20 years— charter set to expire in 1836Jackson hated banks, hated the National Bank, why?Jeffersonian Republicanism—unconstitutionalUnfairly benefitted the wealthy/east coast elitesPeople had little control over the bank (government only controlled 1/5th of the board of directors)Jackson hated banks in general—involved in some failed bank schemes out westForeigners (mostly British) held a lot of Bank stockPros of the BUSRegulated the money supply—paper money backed up by gold, kept other banks in line by making loans to themLent money to the Federal Govt.Helped stimulate economic activity by making money available to loan, but not too much money which would lead to boom and bust
15 Bank Re-Charter Debate Clay forced a re-charter bill through in 1832, why?Passed both houses of Congress but Jackson vetoed itSignificance: veto=undemocratic element, in the past veto was only used by the President if he thought something was unconstitutional, Jackson just disagreed with the bank, a lot more power for the PresidentBank became the central issue of the 1832 electionClay (National Republican) vs Jackson (Democratis- Republican)—Jackson won in a landslideBank and its director (Nicholas Biddle) began to tighten up credit, caused an economic recession to show people how much they needed the BankJackson decided to withdrawal all US deposits from the Bank immediately (this would effectively kill the Bank)Treasury secretary refused—Jackson fired him replaced him with someone who would remove the deposits (Roger B. Taney)
16 Aftermath of the Bank Debate State banks and shady private banks “Wildcat Banks” were flooded by money that used to be in the National BankNo more National Bank to keep smaller banks in lineResult: smaller banks loaned out lots of money, issued lots of paper currency, economy expanded too quickly, paper money lost its valueFinancial Panic and Crash—wave of bank failures 1837
17 Indian RemovalDue to patterns of white settlement about 125,000 Indians were trapped east of the Mississippi mostly in the South East5 “Civilized” TribesCreeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Seminoles, CherokeesHad largely embraced European culture in an attempt to retain control of their landEuropean clothing, housing, farming, slave-owning, alphabet, law codes, constitutionLate 1820’s southeastern states began to intrude on Indian lands, Cherokees sued in court, case went to the Supreme Court Worcester v. Georgia 1834 court found for the CherokeesJackson’s response: “John Marshall has made his decision now let him enforce it”Indian Removal Act of 1830—provided land and money to relocate Indians some 100,000 relocated including 17,000 Cherokees4,000 Cherokees died on the journey west—Trail of Tears
18 Opposition to Jackson: Beginning of the Whigs Mid-1830s political landscape still very unsettled—no one really knew what was going onDemocratic Republicans—JacksonNational Republicans—Clay, Webster, CalhounAnti-Masonic Party—popular in New York/New EnglandResented the Masons (Jackson)Lower/middle class—holier than thou attitude wanted to use the government to solve social problems (including the Masons)New Parties mid-1830s: The 2nd Two Party SystemDemocratic Republicans=DemocratsNational Republicans + Anti-Masons + Democrats who hate Jackson = Whig party 1834 or so
19 The 2nd Two Party System: The Whigs What’s in a name?Opposed JacksonGenerally upper class, but extended across all social classes and all sections of the country (mostly New England and the South)Tended to be native born, British descended, Protestant, AmericansFavored a broader interpretation of the ConstitutionA 3rd National BankInternal ImprovementsHigh tariffs (American System)Use the government to solve social problemsDrinking, (slavery), public education, mental asylums etcDidn’t want to focus on westward expansion, wanted to focus on improving and settling the land the US already had
20 The 2nd Two Party System: The Democrats What’s in a name?Party of the peopleAppealed to the poor and the middle classAlso immigrants, CatholicsPopular in the South, but also out West, and to the poor in big eastern citiesFavored a more limited role for the Federal governmentJust wanted the government to leave them aloneGovernment involvement cost moneyDidn’t want the government dictating moralityIn favor of expanding west, more land for the poor
21 Election of 1836: Democrats vs. Whigs Democrat=Martin Van BurenJackson’s VPLittle Magician, Old Kinderhook, O.K.Whigs—couldn’t get organized enough to nominate one candidate, plan was to divide the electoral vote and win in the House of Rep.Webster—New EnglandWhite—SouthHarrison—WestVan Buren won easilyEconomic Depression (caused by Jackson’s banking errors) lasted throughout Van Buren’s administrationIndependent Treasury—government stopped putting money in state banks, held on to its own money
23 Election of 1840 Van Buren hurt by the economy Whigs nominate William Henry HarrisonHarrison=the Whig version of Jackson, a war hero, Indian fighter, frontiersman, born in a log cabinLog Cabin and Hard Cider campaignShort on issues, long on slogans and hooplaTippecanoe, , , , , , , and Tyler tooHarrison elected in 1840Sworn in—March of 1841, got sickDied—April 1841John Tyler (Tyler too!) became President
25 Looking Back: Effects of the Jacksonian Era on Politics 2 new political parties: Democrats and Whigs—two party system would last until present dayPolitical party conventions for nominating candidatesIncrease in democracy and the role of the common manUniversal white male suffrage, electoral vote tied to popular voteIdea that democracy was not a bad thing, being a man of the people no longer a negative, parties had to appeal to the masses (for better or worse)More power for the office of PresidentTariff controversyBank debateIndian removal