1. Sectionalism 2. internal improvements: 3. American System: 4. : Disarmament: 5. demilitarize: 6. court-martial: : loyalty to a region, above loyalty to the nation as a whole federal projects such as canals and roads to develop the nations transportation system policies by Henry Clay to stimulate the growth of industry to help America become self-sufficient Removal of weapons To remove armed forces from an area Trial held in a military court
What sections were in conflict? Why? New England knows what the country needs. No, the West does! Youre both wrong. The South is right. North vs. South vs. West – differences in economy led to differences in politics
5. 4 issues that created sectional conflict in this time period: 6. Southerners stressed the importance of _________________. Sectional Conflict slavery tariffs national bank would cost govt money lead to more taxes higher tariffs internal improvements States rights We have more power than you do!
7. Describe John C. Calhoun – 8. Calhoun emerged as one of the chief supporters of ________________________, the idea that states have ________________________. Calhoun became an opponent of ____________because they raised the price of manufactured goods. He also argued that tariffs protected inefficient manufacturers. States rights More power tariffs planter from SC; War Hawk; nationalist at first, but changed to sectionalist; originally thought American Plan would help the South, later changed his mind due to tariff South Carolina TARIFF
11. Describe Henry Clay – 12. Henry Clay became known as the national leader who tried to resolve through. Kentucky War Hawk; Speaker of the House of Representatives in 1811; represented the interests of the West (western states); helped negotiate the Treaty of Ghent Sectional disputes compromise Kentucky
Free statesSlave states 13. Why did the state of Missouri cause great controversy? whether or not to let it enter the Union as a slave state; would upset the balance of power in Congress (the Senate) where there were an equal number of slave and free states.
14. The _________________ _____ of 1820 (also called the Compromise of 1820 ) provided for the admission of ____________ as a ___________ state and _____________ (separating from Massachusetts) as a _____________ state. The agreement banned slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of the ________________ parallel. Missouri Compromise Missouri slave Maine free 36°30 North Free Slave
Whose idea was the American system? (and prevent another situation like that leading to War of 1812). Henry Clay – to develop US industry A self-sufficient nation is a strong nation.
I and the other Southerners dont like this at all. Southerners who opposed the tariff – English merchants paid them for their cotton in manufactured goods which would be taxed by a tariff Jefferson and other Southerners thought it would favor wealthy New England merchants Some thought the cost of internal improvements would lead to an increase in the tariff
16. Explain the debate involved in McCulloch v. Maryland and the final decision in the case. Why was the decision significant? The state of Maryland was trying to tax the Baltimore branch of the Second Bank of the U.S. (a federal bank). Maryland lost – couldnt tax it. The Supreme Court said the federal government got their authority from the people, not from the states, so a state cant control (or tax) a federal institution.
17. Why was the courts decision in Gibbons v. Ogden significant? This ruling strengthened the national government –said a state could not interfere with Congresss power over interstate trade
18. How did the Rush-Bagot Treaty and the Convention of 1818 settle problems with Great Britain? Rush-Bagot Treaty: set limits on US and British ships on Great Lakes started disarmament along US-Canadian border Convention of 1818: set US-Canadian border in the Louisiana Territory at the 49 th North parallel demilitarized the border
Andrew Jackson was a US Army officer in the South. Seminole warriors living in Florida were crossing the Spanish-US border into Georgia and attacking American settlements. Then they fled back across the border where US Army couldnt follow them. Jackson was finally told to follow the Seminole next time they attacked, but to break off the pursuit if they took refuge at a Spanish fort.
Jackson followed the Seminole into Florida after the next raid. The Seminole took refuge at the fortified city of St. Augustine. Jackson sent a message to his commanders telling them he was attacking the city unless they notified him and told him to stop. Jackson not only attacked the city, he also claimed Florida for the U.S.
An international conflict erupted between the US and Spain. Many people wanted Jackson court-martialed. Monroes Secretary of State John Quincy Adams (son of John Adams) defended Jackson, saying that Spain had properly policed its territory and stopped the Seminole, no US military action would have been needed. The US then negotiated the Adams-Oñís Treaty, purchasing east and west Florida from Spain. Spain, you know its really all your fault.
terms: Spain gave East Florida to the U.S. Spain gave up all claims to West Florida – U.S. got it. U.S. gave up claims to Spanish Texas (some had said it was part of Louisiana Purchase) U.S. gave up $5 million in claims against Spain due to property damage caused by Seminole and loss of runaway slaves Set the border between U.S. and New Spain along Louisiana Purchase; gave the U.S. a claim to the Pacific Northwest
20. How did James Monroe change the nations foreign policy? Spain wanted European help to regain many of the colonies it lost to revolutions in South and Central America (Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia and others). Pres. Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine, which declared that the U.S. would not allow new European colonies in North or South America. Europe, KEEP OUT of the Americas!
20. How did James Monroe change the nations foreign policy? The U.S. could not enforce the Monroe Doctrine at that time, but the British helped enforce it. They were trading with new countries and did not want that trade hurt. Monroe Doctrine is still an important part of U.S. foreign policy today. Europe, KEEP OUT of the Americas!