2Presidents 1789: George Washington 1792: George Washington 1796: John Adams1800: Thomas Jefferson1804: Thomas Jefferson1808: James Madison1812: James Madison1816: James Monroe1820: James Monroe1824: John Q. Adams
3Desire for a Stronger Central Government Flaws in Articles of ConfederationIn 1787, delegates from 13 states went to Philadelphia to amend Articles of ConfederationFeared too much power in small statsSmaller states favored model provided by Articles (One vote per state)Larger states wanted population to represent representation
4Government Under New Constitution Virginia Plan (Larger States): James Madison proposed a bicameral legislature with number of reps determined by proportional representationMadison also proposed 3 branches of gov’tNew Jersey Plan (Smaller States): favoring a strong central gov’t; unicameral legislature where every state received one voteGreat Compromise: Plan included upper house Senate (2 reps/state) and lower house, House of Reps based on populationElectoral College: chief executive elected by Electoral College; senators elected by state legislatures not by voters.
5Issue of SlaveryDecided that the new national gov’t could not regulate slavery for 20 yrs3/5 Compromise: stated that 3/5 of stat’s pop. Would be counted when determining House of Reps.
6Presidency of George Washington 1st term was uncertainCrucial to establish respect for office of the president of the United StatesBelieved it was his job to administer laws and not to make themCabinet Departments (War: Henry Knox, State: Jefferson, and Treasury: Hamilton)Limited role of VP (head of Senate)Executive privilegePresident is not obliged to share info to publicJudiciary Act of 1789Established federal courts and added 6th member judge
7Washington’s Cabinet Alexander Hamilton: Treasury Secretary “Loose Constructionist”: Constitution has room for interpretationTariffs and Taxes: Wants to repay bond holdersNational DebtAssumption: to assume states’ debts after Revolutionary War; South upset- had the least amount of debtCompromise of 1790: the national capital would be built on the banks of the Potomac River (which would please the South) if the federal government assumed war debts (which would please the North).Established National Bank“Necessary and proper”
8Thomas Jefferson: Secretary of State “Strict Constructionist”: Believed in exact interpretation of the ConstitutionArgued with HamiltonDid not want National Bank for the weathly; plan would only benefit upper classWanted states to hold power
9Emergence of Political Parties Hamiltonians: FederalistsJeffersonian: Democratic RepublicansVs.
10The Bill Of Rights 1791Proposed by James Madison; proposed 12 amendments to the ConstitutionContains the basic protection for Americansi.e. freedom of speech, ensured freedom of worship, right to bear arms, forbid quartering of troops in private homes, warrants before searches, rights in a civil case, “due process of law”, trial by jury
11The French Revolution 1789: French Rev. during Washington’s reign Washington issued Declaration of Neutrality allowing American merchants to prosper by trading with both sidesPennsylvania farmers who supported the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 were inspired by French Rev.Opposed excised tax by HamiltonWashington sent army to stop rebellion
12Foreign Policy and Jay’s Treaty War between France and Britain continuedUS period of “neutrality”Jay’s Treaty: 1794 treaty between US and Britain designed to ease tensions between both nationsBritain agreed to abandon forts occupied in interior of continentDid not agree over rights of American shipsCase of the War of 1812
13Washington’s Farewell Address Did not run for 3rd termSpoke against party politicsWarned that America should not enter into alliances that would cause them to get involved in foreign wars
14Presidency of John Adams 1796-1800) Washington’s VPHad 4 largely unsuccessful years in officeFederalists vs. RepublicansForeign PolicyXYZ AffairFrance was his biggest problemUndeclared war with France (Trying to stay neural; Washington’s farewell address; opted for peace for 2 years.)
15The Alien and Sedition Acts Alien Act: gave the president the right to deport any immigrant who was felt to be “dangerous to the peace and safety of the U.S”Sedition Act: stated that the administration cold prohibit any attacks on the president or Congress that were deemed to be “malicious”
16Elections of 1800Jefferson (Republican candidate) and Burr (VP) each received 73% of electoral votesThrew election to House of Reps, where each state received one voteThomas Jefferson winsAlien and Sedition Acts were not renewedTaxes such as Whiskey tax eliminatedOpposed further expansion of national debtSupported National Bank
17Reform of Courts Marbury v. Madison Judicial Review: Congress passed Judiciary Act creating a large number of federal courts “Midnight appointments”Marbury v. MadisonMarshall increased power of the Supreme Court in this 1803 decisionJudicial Review:Marshall stated that the US Supreme Court ultimately had the power to decide on the constitutionality of any law passed by US Congress or by the legislature of any state
18Westward ExpansionJefferson encouraged westward expansion (Area between Appalachian Mts. And Mississippi River)Over 1 million lived there in 1800Louisiana Purchase Napoleon offered to sell to US for $15 millionDouble the size of the US
19European Wars Sill Over to America Napoleonic wars of European ( ) had a powerful impact on USUS had neutral stance on warEmbargo Act of 1807: American ships could not enter the seas until England and France stopped their harassment of American shipping; unpopular act by JeffersonNon-Intercourse Act : Introduced by Madison in 1808, opened trade with all except England and France
20Madison’s Presidency Henry Clay’s American System Relationships between Britain, France & USChesapeakeNapoleon's WarJay’s TreatyAll leading up to the War of 1812
21War of 1812Reasons for WarUS frustrated by the continued British policies of impressments and seizure of shipsMadison formally asked Congress to declare war in June of 1812Connections with Britain and Native Americans
22The American System Proposed by Henry Clay and other nationalists American System: to make US less economically dependent on Europe by encouraging production of goods in the US that had been previously importedLed to 2nd National Bank; credit readily availableTariff of 1816: raised tariff rates to nearly 22%
23The Growth of the Factory 1820s Economic growth was a key component of Henry Clay ‘s American SystemPutting-out system: merchants would buy raw materials, recruit dozens-hundreds of farm families to do work, and then sell finished productLate 1780s: textile industry started to use power-driven machines and interchangeable partsLowell System: young women brought into workforce
24“Era of Good Feelings” James Monroe (1817-1825) Panic of 1819 high unemployment as well as increased foreclosures and bankruptcies. Some critics derided Monroe for not responding more forcefully to the depressionTallmadge AmendmentQuestion whether Missouri should be free or slave stateMissouri CompromiseHenry Clay and Westward Expansion
25Missouri Compromise 1820By 1819 there were 11 slave and 11 free statesIn 1820, Speaker of the House Henry Clay engineered the Missouri CompromiseMaine entered Union as a free slave, Missouri entered as a slave stateIn the Louisiana Territory, any state north of 36 degrees had to come in as free states
26The Monroe Doctrine 1823Stated that countries in the Western Hemisphere were no off-limits to European controlNoncolonization: not to interfere wih affairsNonintervention: not to colonize Latin American countriesUS cannot support not strong enough army/navy but had Britain’s great navy, but will not abide by document
27Election of 1824 William Crawford Henry Clay John Q. Adams (wins) Andrew Jackson: Won most of popular votes; only 38% of electoral votesElection turned towards House of Reps.Speaker of the House Clay threw support to AdamsAdams appointed Clay as Secretary of StateJackson tried to corrupt Adams’ presidency“corrupt bargain” between Adams and Clay
28Significance of JQA’s presidency supported internal improvements including the extension of the Cumberland RoadIn 1828, the so-called "tariff of abominations" was passedIts goal was to protect domestic manufacturingstrongly opposed in the Southled Vice President John C. Calhoun to argue again for the right of nullification - to have South Carolina nullify it by ruling it unconstitutional.