3Cotton Gin Who invented? Why is it significant? Eli Whitney Led to the expansion of slaveryIncreased profit and productivity
4Erie Canal Where is it located? Why is it significant? Runs east to west from Buffalo, NY to New York, NYWhy is it significant?Faster, more efficient form of transportationBenefitted commerce (business)
5Interchangeable Parts Who invented?Why is it significant?Allowed goods to be massed producedMore efficient
6Factory System Required fewer skills of workers Led America to great wealth
7TariffsDefine: a tax on imported goods North— supported high tariffs because it protected their businesses and ensured Americans would purchase their goods. South– opposed high tariffs because it increased the price of manufactured goods from foreign countries.
10Andrew Jackson Before Jackson After Jackson Government had been run for the people by the well educated (rich) leadersDuringRise of the common manGovernment for the people and run BY THE PEOPLE (Democracy)Vetoed the charter of the second National BankRemoved Native Americans to OklahomaNullification CrisisAfter JacksonNational Bank destroyed = money problemsManifest Destiny in full force
11Indian Removal ActGave Andrew Jackson the power to negotiate resettlement treaties with the Native Americans and allowed the states to make laws governing their territory.Jackson thought this act was a fabulous compromise. He believe it would allow the natives to keep their way of life and also allow Americans to get the land they wanted.Forced Cherokees to move into “Indian Territory”– West of the Mississippi RiverLed to the “Trail of Tears”Harsh conditions… dragged out of homes into the cold and rain
12Nullification CrisisUS government imposed a high tariff to protect the Northern industry (nicknamed Tariff of Abomination) that set off a debate in Congress.South Carolina threatened to secede because they were being forced to pay it.John C. Calhoun insisted that if a state felt that a federal law was in direct conflict with the state’s best interest, the state could declare federal laws unconstitutional and nullify it.
13Election of 1828Seeking revenge from the “corrupt bargain” of the Election of 1824, Jackson ran again against John Quincy Adams.Voting rights had been extended to include ALL men. (All white men rather than all white, wealthy men.)Viewed as a more democratic election.
14Spoils System “To the victor belongs the spoils” Made popular by President Andrew JacksonFilled government jobs with political supporters
16Manifest Destiny “Obvious Fate” Idea that America had the GOD GIVEN RIGHT to pursue it’s dreams (more land, more wealth, and more international power)Overall goal was to control territory from coast to coastWe used this belief to justify all the things we had to do in order to achieve those goals (war treaties, land purchases, removal of the Indians, discrimination against the other native inhabitants, boundary disputes, annexation of land, etc.)
17Mexican Cession Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Includes: Signed by President James PolkEnded war with MexicoRecognized Texas as being part of the USIncludes:CaliforniaNevadaUtahArizonaNew MexicoCompleted Manifest Destiny
19Temperance MovementGoal was to change “moderation” of drinking to “total abstinence”Supporters warned people of the dangers of alcohol
20Dorthea Dix What reform did he/she fight for? She worked to help reform the prison system and help those with mental disabilities get fair treatment and careShe helped to create separate facilities for mentally ill patients
21Sojourner Truth What reform did he/she fight for? Equal rights for womenExpressed her concern that the Constitution did not talk about the rights of African AmericansHow is he/she remembered today?African American woman who was born a slaveWrote “Ain’t I a Woman?” to explain how black women and white women were treated differently
22Elizabeth Cady Stanton What reform did he/she fight for?Participating in social movements in support of women’s suffrage, temperance, and abolition
23Horace Mann What reform did he/she fight for? Formation of public schoolsHe thought the government should pay for public school for all children
24Henry David Thoreau What reform did he/she fight for? Part of the Transcendentalism literary movementBelieved in the importance of individualism, he urged people not to obey laws they considered unjustEncouraged civil disobedience(peacefully disobeying a law , instead of using violence)
25Seneca Falls Convention Promoted equal rights for womenOrganized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia MottThey (women) wanted the same rights as men.
26Second Great Awakening A time of renewed religious interestThe idea that people could act to make things betterUrged people to give up their sins and help others
27Free Enterprise Property Is owned by individuals and business Little of no government controlThe desire to make a profit motivates individualsCompetition is encouraged
28ImmigrationCalifornia Gold Rush caused a rush of settlers into CaliforniaMany Chinese found jobs as railroad workersInflux of people created a need for a more effective government
29Mormon MigrationReligious persecution forced Mormons to move many timesBrigham Young and the Mormons found a new home in Utah