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PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated,

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Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated,"— Presentation transcript:

1 PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

2 Learning Objectives 1.Describe the nature of international business, including its meaning, recent trends, management of globalization, and competition in a global market. 2.Discuss the structure of the global economy and describe the GATT and the WTO. 3.Identify and discuss the environmental challenges inherent in international management. 4.Describe the basic issues involved in competing in a global economy, including organization size and the management challenges in a global economy. 5–2 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

3 The Nature of International Business Globalization means:Globalization means: Everyone is part of the global village. Everyone is part of the global village. All organizations are affected by competition in the global economy. All organizations are affected by competition in the global economy. Firms are reshaping themselves for international competition and discovering new ways to exploit markets. Firms are reshaping themselves for international competition and discovering new ways to exploit markets. Failure to take a global perspective is one of the biggest mistakes managers can make. Failure to take a global perspective is one of the biggest mistakes managers can make. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–3

4 5–4 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5.1 Levels of International Business Activity Global Business Multinational Business International Business Domestic Business Level of International Activity LowestHighest

5 The Meaning of International Business Domestic BusinessDomestic Business acquires all of its resources and sells all of its products or services within a single country. acquires all of its resources and sells all of its products or services within a single country. International BusinessInternational Business is based in a single country yet acquires a meaningful share of its resources and/or revenues from other countries. is based in a single country yet acquires a meaningful share of its resources and/or revenues from other countries. Multinational BusinessMultinational Business transcends national boundaries and buys raw materials, borrows money, and manufactures and sells its products in a world-wide marketplace. transcends national boundaries and buys raw materials, borrows money, and manufactures and sells its products in a world-wide marketplace. Global BusinessGlobal Business transcends national boundaries and is not committed to a single home country. transcends national boundaries and is not committed to a single home country. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–5

6 Trends in International Business Decreasing Isolation from Competition Increasing Globalization of Markets Economic Recovery and Development Trends in International Business © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–6

7 Managing the Process of Globalization Exporting and Importing Licensing Strategic Alliance and Joint Venture Direct Investment © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–7

8 Approach to InternationalizationAdvantagesDisadvantages Importing or Exporting Small cash outlay Little risk No adaptation necessary Tariffs and taxes High transportation costs Government restrictions Licensing Increased profitability Extended profitability Inflexibility Competition Strategic Alliances and Joint Ventures Quick market entry Access to materials and technology Shared ownership (limits control and profits) Direct Investment Enhanced control Existing infrastructure Complexity Greater economic and political risk Greater uncertainty © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–8 5.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Approaches to Internationalization

9 The Structure of the Global Economy Mature Market Economies and SystemsMature Market Economies and Systems Employ market factors in allocating resources. Employ market factors in allocating resources. Are based on the private ownership of business Are based on the private ownership of business Well-developed infrastructures and individual wealth. Well-developed infrastructures and individual wealth. Trade AgreementsTrade Agreements North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) covering the United States, Mexico, and Canada. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) covering the United States, Mexico, and Canada. European Union (EU) of western European countries. European Union (EU) of western European countries. Pacific Asia countries in Southeast Asia. Pacific Asia countries in Southeast Asia. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–9

10 The global economy is dominated by three relatively mature market systems © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5– The Global Economy

11 Market Economies and Systems High Potential or High Growth EconomiesHigh Potential or High Growth Economies Underdeveloped and immature markets with a weak industrial base, weak currency, and poor consumers Underdeveloped and immature markets with a weak industrial base, weak currency, and poor consumers Peoples Republic of China, India, Vietnam, Brazil, Russia Peoples Republic of China, India, Vietnam, Brazil, Russia Challenges to market development: Challenges to market development: Lack of consumers with personal wealth Lack of consumers with personal wealth Underdeveloped infrastructure for support operations Underdeveloped infrastructure for support operations Unfamiliarity with market economy mechanisms Unfamiliarity with market economy mechanisms The need for large investments in distribution systems The need for large investments in distribution systems Unfavorable policy changes distorting value of investments Unfavorable policy changes distorting value of investments © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–11

12 Market Economies and Systems (contd) Other EconomiesOther Economies Defy classification due to their possession of critical and valuable resources or other social or political factors which distort their internal economies and markets. Defy classification due to their possession of critical and valuable resources or other social or political factors which distort their internal economies and markets. Challenges of other economies Challenges of other economies Political instability Political instability Cultural differences Cultural differences Ethnic violence Ethnic violence © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–12

13 The Role of the GATT and the WTO General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) Promoted international trade by reducing trade barriers and making it easier for all nations to compete. Promoted international trade by reducing trade barriers and making it easier for all nations to compete. Most Favored Nation (MFN) principle Most Favored Nation (MFN) principle The World Trade Organization (WTO)The World Trade Organization (WTO) Organization (replaced GATT) with the goals of: Organization (replaced GATT) with the goals of: Promoting trade flows by encouraging nations to adopt nondiscriminatory and predictable trade policies Promoting trade flows by encouraging nations to adopt nondiscriminatory and predictable trade policies Reducing trade barriers through multilateral negotiations Reducing trade barriers through multilateral negotiations Establishing impartial procedures for resolving trade disputes among its members Establishing impartial procedures for resolving trade disputes among its members © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–13

14 Political and Legal Environment Government stability Property rights Trade incentives, relations, and controls Cultural Environment Values, symbols, beliefs, language, individual behaviors Economic Environment Economic system Natural resources Infrastructure International Management Functions © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5– Environmental Challenges of International Management

15 Controls on International Trade Tariffs Export restraint agreements Quotas Subsidies and buy national Key Trade Control Concepts © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–15

16 Domestic Controls on International Trade Key ConceptsKey Concepts Tariffs Tariffs Taxes on goods shipped across national boundaries. Taxes on goods shipped across national boundaries. Quotas Quotas Limits on the number or value of goods that can be traded as exports or imports. Limits on the number or value of goods that can be traded as exports or imports. Export Restraint Agreements Export Restraint Agreements Voluntary limits on the volume or value of goods exported to or imported from another country. Voluntary limits on the volume or value of goods exported to or imported from another country. Subsidies and Buy National Laws Subsidies and Buy National Laws Protection for domestic businesses from foreign competition. Protection for domestic businesses from foreign competition. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–16

17 The Cultural Environment Individual differences across cultures:Individual differences across cultures: Social orientation Social orientation A persons beliefs about the relative importance of the individual versus groups to which that person belongs. A persons beliefs about the relative importance of the individual versus groups to which that person belongs. Power orientation Power orientation The beliefs that people in a culture hold about the appropriateness of power and authority differences in hierarchies such as business organizations. The beliefs that people in a culture hold about the appropriateness of power and authority differences in hierarchies such as business organizations. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–17

18 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–18 5.4a Individual Differences Across Cultures

19 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–19 5.4b Individual Differences Across Cultures

20 © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–20 5.4c Individual Differences Across Cultures

21 Competing in a Global Economy Globalization and Organization SizeGlobalization and Organization Size Multinational Corporations (MNCs) Multinational Corporations (MNCs) Adopt a global perspective and compete in the global marketplace. Adopt a global perspective and compete in the global marketplace. Medium-Size Businesses Medium-Size Businesses Remain primarily domestic organizations that may buy and sell abroad through trade specialists and compete with foreign companies in local markets. Remain primarily domestic organizations that may buy and sell abroad through trade specialists and compete with foreign companies in local markets. Small Businesses Small Businesses Participate in global markets when they serve as local suppliers for MNCs. Participate in global markets when they serve as local suppliers for MNCs. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–21

22 Management Challenges in a Global Economy Planning Leading Organizing Understanding of both environmental issues and competitive issues. Addressing issues of creating and managing operations on a world-wide scale. Learning to interact with and motivate persons of different cultural, social, and economics backgrounds. Controlling Integrating operations across time-zones, cultural factors, and varying communication methods. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 5–22


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