Presentation on theme: "Advanced U.S. History Review for Exam 2. Who were the four presidential candidates during the so-called corrupt bargain? John Quincy Adams Henry Clay."— Presentation transcript:
Who were the four presidential candidates during the so-called corrupt bargain? John Quincy Adams Henry Clay William H. Crawford Andrew Jackson
Explain the 12 th amendment. If a single presidential candidate does not win a majority the decisive vote is given to the House of Representatives. They choose the top 3 candidates with the highest percentage of votes and choose one of those 3 candidates as President.
Explain the corrupt bargain. Henry Clay was supposedly given an incentive (position as Secretary of State last 3 out of 4 had become President) from Adams to help sway the votes in the House towards Adams.
Who was John Quincy Adams? From Massachusetts; son of John Adams. He was ranked as one of the most successful secretaries, but one of the least successful presidents. He was ranked as one of the most successful secretaries, but one of the least successful presidents. He was a minority president. He would not create vacancies for his party supporters.
What did it mean to be a minority president for Adams? Fewer than 1/3 of the voters voted for Adams. Regardless, Adams would have had a hard time winning popular support because he did not possess many of the usual traits of a politician.
Describe Adams views and why many of them were controversial. Adams was a nationalist. He wanted to construct roads and canals. Proposed a national university. Wanted an astronomical observatory. Wanted to work with the Cherokee Indians in Georgia. They were controversial because in order to afford these types of advances he would have to enforce higher tariff duties. Also, the issue of slavery would be brought up again.
Who was considered the leader of the National Republicans? John Quincy Adams
Who was considered the leader of the Democratic Republicans? Andrew Jackson
Why did Jackson win the Election of 1828 over Adams? Jackson was presented as a frontiersman and an unfaltering champion for the common man while Adams was presented as a corrupt aristocrat.
What are bare-knuckle politics? Negative campaigning
Describe Jacksonian Democracy. Belief in the common man Belief in common sense of common man (Jackson) Expanded suffrage Expansion of White male suffrage; nominating conventions Patronage Spoils system Opposition to privileged elites Duty to promote and protect the common man
Describe Jacksons background. What made him different from past presidents? He was a striking figure, yet very irritable and emaciated. He was known as Mischievous Andy. He was considered to be the first president from the West. He was the 2 nd president without a college education. He was considered the peoples president.
Why was Jackson called mischievous Andy? Showed an interest in brawling and cockfighting as opposed to his educational career.
Why was Jackson known as the Peoples Champion? Rose from the masses. He addressed the issues affecting the majority of individuals instead of the wealthier class of individuals.
What was the Inaugural Brawl? Jackson threw open the doors to the White House to he common people. Fights broke out and Jackson left with cracked ribs. China was broken and furniture was ruined in the White House. Also spiked punch was placed on the lawns.
Explain the idea of the spoils system. Rewarding political supporters with public office positions.
Who was Samuel Swartwout? An untrustworthy but loyal supporter of Jackson. His loyalty was rewarded with the position of collector of the customs of the port of New York. He was the first person to steal $1 million from the government.
What were the Tariff of Abominations? Tariffs protected American industry against competition Also drove up prices for all Americans (and exported goods) Tariffs passed between 1816 and 1828 protection tariffs
Why was the south angry about the Tariffs of Abominations? Claimed tariff discriminated against south Old South sold cotton in a world market unprotected by tariffs, but forced to buy goods in American market heavily protected by tariffs Protection to north but not south
What was the Nullification Act? South Carolina wants to nullify tariffs Congress threatens to use Force Bill to enforce tariffs South Carolina threatens to secede form the Union Congress compromised and reduced tariff of 1832 South Carolina suspends nullification of tariffs and nullified Force Bill
What was the Indian Removal Act? US wanted to continue their westward expansion. Jackson considered Native Americans to be in the way of that expansion. Jackson forced voluntary emigration.
What was the Trail of Tears? The trail the Native Americans took in order to get to Oklahoma in which more than 100,000 Indians were forced to walk. Many of these lives were lost on the trail.
What were the 5 civilized tribes? Cherokee, Choctaw, Seminoles, Creek, and Chickasaw
What was the Bureau of Indian Affairs? an agency of the federal government of the United States that was for Native Americans protection in the United States
Explain the Bank War. Jackson distrusted monopolistic banks and excessively large businesses. He favored the masses, the common people. He did not want the wealthy individuals to make decisions for the less educated individuals. He killed the bank by slowly taking all of the government money out of that bank.
Who was Nicholas Biddle? President of the Bank of the United States
Explain the concept of favorite sons? The Whig party generated the concept of nominating multiple candidates, not to necessarily win the vote, but to simply take votes away from the opponents. If enough votes were taken away from the opponents none of the candidates would win a majority. If none of the candidates won a majority the 12 th amendment would come into effect. The final vote would go to the house of Representatives.