Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

International Trade Negotiations: WTO and FTAs - John Riley, NZ High Commission, London.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "International Trade Negotiations: WTO and FTAs - John Riley, NZ High Commission, London."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 International Trade Negotiations: WTO and FTAs - John Riley, NZ High Commission, London

3 Our panel: Yaryna Ferencevych, US Embassy (State) Matt Molloy, DEFRA, UK Jennie Wilson, US Embassy (FAS) Tiffany McDonald, Aus High Com and John Riley

4 Countries tend to act in their national interest. What is it that drives the decisions of politicians and officials? Things to consider:

5 Trade Policy World Trade Organisation (WTO) Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) Bilateral Trade Access (removing regulatory barriers)

6 WTO Secretariat in Geneva 153 Members Accession process – college fraternity Membership led oganisation

7 WTO (continued…) Decisions made by consensus Surprisingly very effective (dispute settlement) Ministerial meetings roughly biannually

8 2 important WTO principles National Treatment Most Favoured Nation

9 History Began 1947 with the GATT Negotiating Rounds – GATT, Kennedy, Tokyo, Uruguay Started with non-agricultural subsidies then tariffs Technical barriers addressed later

10 How are WTO Rounds Negotiated? By CONSENSUS!

11 Yeah, nah… but there are 153 Members so… Negotiating Groups Modalities Chairs texts Ministerial Meetings The green room

12 How are WTO Rounds negotiated? The majors crunching it Splitting the difference (dont get salami sliced) Hand of God text Lock them in a room!

13 Why would they do a deal? Important factors: Political capital = industry + votes Reason for urgency (TPA)

14 WTO Doha Round Commenced 2001 Called Doha Development Agenda Incomplete

15 Some important Doha dates 2001 mandate July 2004 framework Hong Kong December 2005 Came close to modalities in July 2008

16 The Negotiating Groups Agriculture (subsidies and tariffs) Non-agricultural market access (tariffs and NTBs) Services

17 Other Negotiating Groups Rules (anti-dumping, fish subsidies) TRIPS (intellectual property, GIs) Trade facilitation

18 Special and Differential Treatment Developed countries Developing countries Least developed countries

19 Who are the key players? The G4

20 Do they have offensive interests or defensive interests? If a WTO Member wants to reduce tariffs or subsidies… If a WTO Member wants to maintain tariffs or subsidies… the Member has defensive interests the Member has offensive interests

21 Agriculture: Domestic support (subsidies reductions) Agriculture: Market Access (tariff reductions) Non-agricultural goods: Market Access (tariff reductions) US EU Brazil India Is each Member mainly offensive or defensive? defensiveoffensive offensive (?!) defensiveoffensive defensive offensive defensive Mainly wants to reduce measuresMainly wants to maintain measures

22 Which Members are saying this? We cant offer to reduce non- agricultural tariffs until other countries offer to decrease agricultural subsidies and agricultural tariffs - Brazil and India

23 Which Member is saying this? We cant offer to reduce agricultural subsidies until other countries offer to decrease their tariffs - US

24 Which Member is saying this? We cant offer to reduce agricultural tariffs until other countries offer to reduce agricultural subsidies and non-agricultural tariffs - EU

25 What about China?

26 G20 (developing countries wanting reduced agriculture subsidies by developed countries) Argentina, Bolivia, Plurinational State of, Brazil, Chile, China, Cuba, Ecuador, Egypt, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, South Africa, Tanzania, Thailand, Uruguay, Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of, Zimbabwe

27 G33 (developing countries who are defensive on agriculture tariffs) Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Plurinational State of, Botswana, Côte dIvoire, China, Congo, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Kenya, Korea, Republic of, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Uganda, Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of, Zambia, Zimbabwe

28 G10 (defensive on ag) Chinese Taipei, Iceland, Israel, Japan, Korea, Republic of, Liechtenstein, Mauritius, Norway, Switzerland

29 Cairns group (offensive on ag subsidies and tariffs) Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Plurinational State of, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, Uruguay

30 Cairns group (offensive on ag subsidies and tariffs) Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Plurinational State of, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, Uruguay

31 G100

32 What is the situation with Doha now?

33 FTA Negotiations Substantially all trade Cant deal with subsidies

34 Some common FTA areas Goods (tariffs) Services Investment Government procurement Intellectual property TBT/SPS (Non-tariff barriers) Labour and Environment

35 Bilateral Market Access e.g. Sanitary and Phytosanitary conditions Sometimes justified Sometimes not

36 Thank You!


Download ppt "International Trade Negotiations: WTO and FTAs - John Riley, NZ High Commission, London."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google