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Free Trade – GoodRestriction – Bad Price ($) SdSd F S d+w E f G S d+w+t ab c d e g DdDd h Free Trade: Price = World Price = $8,000 Domestic Production=20;

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Presentation on theme: "Free Trade – GoodRestriction – Bad Price ($) SdSd F S d+w E f G S d+w+t ab c d e g DdDd h Free Trade: Price = World Price = $8,000 Domestic Production=20;"— Presentation transcript:

1 Free Trade – GoodRestriction – Bad Price ($) SdSd F S d+w E f G S d+w+t ab c d e g DdDd h Free Trade: Price = World Price = $8,000 Domestic Production=20; Domestic Consumption=80; Imports=60 Consumer Surplus: a+b+c+d+e+f+g; Producer Surplus = h

2 Free Trade – GoodRestriction – Bad Price ($) SdSd F S d+w E f G S d+w+t ab c d e g DdDd h Tariff: Price = World Price + Tariff = $8,000 + $1,000 = $9,000 Domestic Production=40; Domestic Consumption=60; Imports=20 Reduced Consumer Surplus: a+b+c+d Increased Producer Surplus = a (Redistributive Effect) Increased Tax Revenue = c Deadweight Loss: Inefficient Production = b Deadweight Loss: Reduced Consumption = d

3 Costs of import restrictions Domestic consumers face increased costs Low income consumers are especially hurt by tariffs on low-cost imports Overall net loss for the economy (deadweight loss) Production effect: output that costs more than it has to (b) Consumption effect: surplus lost from reduced consumption (d) Export industries face higher costs for inputs Cost of living increases Other nations may retaliate

4 So why restrict trade? Benefits of free trade in final goods are spread widely Tariffs on intermediate inputs tend to be low so producers who use them dont complain much Costs of free trade are felt rapidly by domestic producers Lobbying by business and labor … those persons who demand cheaper coats would be ashamed of themselves if they could realize that their demands cut the wages of the women who made those coats. Benjamin Harrison, Election Campaign of 1888 Strategic trade policy Reduce demand for foreign stuff lower its price a lot Big gain on what you still buy Ways to restrict trade Tariffs/Non-Tariff Barriers

5 5 Flavors of tariffs Tariff: a tax (duty) on internationally traded products Import tariffs Export tariffs … unconstitutional in US Raise revenue Favor domestic users of exported commodities In primary goods exporting countries, favor urban over rural areas Protective tariff – insulate domestic producers Revenue tariff – raise funds for government Specific tariff – Fixed $/Unit Ad valorem tariff – % of products value Free-on-board (FOB) as it leaves port Levied cost-insurance-freight (CIF) as it arrives in port Compound tariff - Combination of fixed and ad valorem tariffs Levied on finished goods whose imported inputs are subject to tariff Fixed portion offsets tariffs on imports paid by domestic producers % portion protects domestic producers against finished good imports

6 Effective rate of protection For a finished good, the effective rate of tariff protection enjoyed by a domestic producer is the net tariff on the imported product as a fraction of the producers domestic value added. Net tariff = tariff on imported product that competes with his product minus any tariffs he has to pay on imported inputs Effective tariff rate = {Nominal tariff – (Value of Imports/Total Value)x(Tariff on Imports)} (Domestic Value Added)/Total Value The impact of a tariff is often different from its stated amount Tariff Escalation : If domestic value added (domestic content) is low and tariffs on imports are also low Effective tariff >> Nominal tariff.

7 Nominal and Effective Tariff Rates (US and Japan, early 1980s) USJapan Nominal EffectiveNominal Effective Agriculture, fish, forest. 1.8% 1.9% 18.4% 21.4% Food, beverages,tobacco Footwear Furniture Leather products Paper and paper products Textiles Wearing apparel Wood products

8 Avoiding and postponing tariffs Production sharing special treatment for foreign assembly using domestic inputs OAP: Offshore Assembly Provision Maquiladoras Bonded warehouses Assemble imported components and reexport duty free If sell domestically, tariff is levied only on imported value at time good leave the warehouse Foreign trade zones (FTZ) Duties imposed like for bonded warehouse Greater flexibility to process imported components

9 Arguments for trade restrictions Job protection … but losses elsewhere Protect against cheap foreign labor … but is foreign labor cheap? Worker productivity Fairness in trade – level playing field

10 Principles of Fair Trade … Trade Not Aid Democratic organization Producer cooperatives Recognize unions No child labor Decent working conditions Environmental sustainability Prices that cover production costs Price guarantees irrespective of world prices Social premiums Pay premiums to organizations public goods Long-term relationships Reduce uncertainties

11 Arguments for trade restrictions Job protection … but losses elsewhere Protect against cheap foreign labor … but is foreign labor cheap? Worker productivity Fairness in trade – level playing field … but sacrifice gains from trade Equalization of production costs … but whose costs? [Their low cost producer = Our high cost?] Infant-industry protection Achieve efficient scale … but protect senile industries too? Political and social reasons Protect against cultural imperialism National defense/Self–sufficiency…reduce dependence... but could build strategic reserves instead

12 Import quotas Quota: how much can be imported in a year Global quotas Selective quotas Government loses tariff revenue Quota is insensitive to demand shifts Tariff-rate quota: a two-tiered tariff More can be imported if demand increases … but only at a higher tariff rate Non – Tariff Barriers (NTBs)

13 Voluntary export restraints (VERs) Impose export quota … or else! Japanese auto exports unintended consequences Domestic content requirements Subsidies Domestic subsidy … e.g. R & D Green jobs Export subsidy Government procurement policies Social regulations (health, environmental and safety rules) Hormones in beef / genetically engineered produce Sea transport and freight restrictions Other NTBs

14 Costs of import restrictions redux Domestic consumers face increased costs Overall net loss for the economy (deadweight loss) Production effect: output that cost more than it has to (b) Consumption effect: surplus lost from reduced consumption (d) Export industries face higher costs for inputs Cost of living increases Retaliation

15 Problem 4.15 Australian market for TVs In autarky Market clearing price Quantity supplied and bought Consumer surplus Producer surplus Price Quantity Demanded Quantity Supplied Export (Import) $ (10) (30) (50)

16 Australian market for TVs World price = $100 Quantity bought Quantity supplied by Australian producers Consumer surplus Producer surplus Problem 4.15 Price Quantity Demanded Quantity Supplied Export (Import) $ (10) (30) (50)

17 Australian market for TVs World price = $100 / Tariff = $100 Quantity bought Quantity supplied by Australian producers Consumer surplus Producer surplus Revenue Redistributive effect Protective effect / Consumption effect / Deadweight loss Problem 4.15 Price Quantity Demanded Quantity Supplied Export (Import) $ (10) (30) (50)

18 Problem 5.16 Venezuelan market for TVs World price = $150 / Free trade Quantity bought Quantity supplied by Venezuelan producers Consumer surplus Producer surplus Price Quantity Demanded Quantity Supplied Export (Import) $ (900) (700) (500) (100)

19 Problem 5.16 Venezuelan market for TVs World price = $150 / Import quota = 300 TVs Price in Venezuela … Quantity bought Quantity supplied by Venezuelan producers Reduced consumer surplus Increased producer surplus Earnings of Venezuelan importers who buy at world price Net loss to Venezuelans Price Quantity Demanded Quantity Supplied Export (Import) $ (900) (500) (100)

20 Problem 5.16 Venezuelan market for TVs World price = $150 / Import quota = 300 TVs Price in Venezuela … Quantity bought Quantity supplied by Venezuelan producers Reduced consumer surplus Increased producer surplus Earnings of foreign monopolists who sell at Venezn price Net loss to Venezuelans Price Quantity Demanded Quantity Supplied Export (Import) $ (900) (500) (100)

21 Problem 5.16 Venezuelan market for TVs World price = $150 / Subsidy to producers = $100/TV Price in Venezuela … Quantity bought Quantity supplied by Venezuelan producers Increased producer surplus Increased production cost Cost of subsidy to Venezuelan taxpayers Net loss to Venezuelans Price to Consumers Quantity Demanded Quantity Supplied Export (Import) $ (700) (300)


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