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Era of Good Feelings James Monroe. Era of Good Feelings After the War of 1812, Americans had a sense of national pride. Americans felt more loyalty toward.

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Presentation on theme: "Era of Good Feelings James Monroe. Era of Good Feelings After the War of 1812, Americans had a sense of national pride. Americans felt more loyalty toward."— Presentation transcript:

1 Era of Good Feelings James Monroe

2 Era of Good Feelings After the War of 1812, Americans had a sense of national pride. Americans felt more loyalty toward the United States than toward their state or region. (Nationalism)

3 Following the War of 1812, Americans had a sense of national pride Era of Good Feelings James Monroe: 5 th President Political & Economic Nationalism Develops

4 Nationalism: Love for ones country

5 Sectionalism: Love for ones region or section of a country

6 Economic Nationalism American leaders worked to bind the nation together by creating a new national bank, protecting American manufacturers and improving transportation in order to link the country together.(American System) Earlier, revenue tariffs provided income for the federal government. The Tariff of 1816 was a protective tariff that helped American manufacturers by taxing imports to drive up their prices.

7 Economic Nationalism: Goal:To strengthen the American economy How? National Bank Protective Tariffs Improved Transportation Henry Clay: American System

8 National Bank Provide low interest loans to expand business & industry Re-chartered in 1816: By Republicans

9 Tax on imports Allows American businesses to grow Protective Tariff

10 Improved Transportation: Allows people and goods to move throughout the country faster Internal Improvements Bill vetoed by James Madison & James Monroe CanalsRoads

11 Economic Nationalism Why did American leaders want to create the Second Bank of the United States, impose a protective tariff, and improve the nations transportation system? They wanted to unify the nation.

12 American System It helped to spread Nationalism How it worked Goal= eliminate foreign competition How- Wanted the North, West, and South to trade with Plan to protect business by: 1.Reinstating a national bank 2.Protective tariffs- taxes on foreign goods 3.Build roads and canals and improve transportation Developed by Congressman Henry Clay

13 Judicial Nationalism The decision in Martin v. Hunters Lessee helped establish the Supreme Court as the nations court of final appeal. The decision in McCulloch v. Maryland upheld the constitutionality of the Bank of the US; doctrine of implied powers provided Congress more flexibility to enact legislation(necessary and proper clause); states could not tax national institutions. The decision in Gibbons v. Ogden, defined interstate commerce to mean that anything crossing state boundaries came under federal control

14 Marshall Court Decisions McCulloch v. Maryland: Can States tax National Programs? National Bank 1) States cannot tax the national government Reinforced the doctrine of implied powers 2) National Bank was legal National Government over State Governments

15 Gibbons v. Ogden A: National government controls interstate commerce (trade) Q: Who has the power to regulate navigation? NY State gives steamboat ferry monopoly to Ogden

16 Political: Foreign Policy Nationalist Goals: Expand & secure borders Establish presence in world affairs

17 Adams – Onis Treaty Spain agreed to give up Florida to the United States

18 Nationalism Nationalism in the United States influenced the nation to expand its borders and assert itself in world affairs. Spain ceded all of Florida to the US in the Adams-Onis Treaty. The Monroe Doctrine declared that the United States would prevent other countries from interfering in Latin American political affairs.

19 5 th President James Monroe Western Hemisphere was no longer open for colonization European interference in Western hemisphere viewed as a threat to its security The US would not interfere in European wars or colonies The Monroe Doctrine

20 Monroe Doctrine America warns Europe to stay out of the Western Hemisphere

21 The Monroe Doctrine

22 Improved Transportation: Allows people and goods to move throughout the country faster Internal Improvements Bill vetoed by James Madison & James Monroe CanalsRoads

23 Revolution in Transportation In the early 1800s, a transportation revolution, including the construction of the Erie Canal, occurred in the Northern states. This led to great social and economic changes. In 1807 the steamboat called the Clermont, designed by Robert Fulton, traveled upstream on the Hudson River. Steamboats made river travel more reliable and upstream travel possible.

24 Robert Fulton & the Steamboat The Clermont

25 Revolution in Transportation Railroads were built in America in the early 1800s and helped settle the West and expand trade among the nations regions. Why were railroads the most influential method of transportation in America in the 1800s? Trains traveled faster than stagecoaches or wagons and they could go anywhere that track was laid.

26 Demands of the National Economy promotes the Transportation Revolution Roads Canals Trains Steamboats

27 Turnpikes (Toll Roads): - Built by private companies from Cumberland Road: Allowed wagon traffic from the seaboard to the Ohio River Valley

28

29 Example of an Old Road

30 Opened in Linked New York City with New Orleans Clintons Big Ditch Erie Canal

31 Describe the EventIt helped to spread Nationalism A waterway was built that connected the Great Lakes to New York City Connected the west to the east Made trade and travel easier Greatest invention of that time. It allowed Americans to brag Helped increase western settlement

32

33 Erie Canal – 363 Miles long; 4 feet deep Buffalo to New York – 10 Days

34 Steamboats: Faster river travel

35 Trains: Most important change of the Transportation Revolution Fast, Reliable, and cheaper than canals

36 Changes in Transportation It helped to spread Nationalism Helped to connect the east to the west. Helped with westward expansion Led to economic growth Brought the county closer together

37 A New System of Production The Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the 1700s. Industry developed quickly in the United States in the early 1800s. Important factors included free enterprise and the passage of general incorporation laws. The most important reason was private property rights. Industrialization began in the Northeast, where there were swift-flowing streams used to power the factories.

38 Industrialization Northeast Factory System expands: Samuel Slater: Father of the Factory System Machine: Spinning Jenny Factors that lead to industrialization:

39 - Rivers and streams- Capital resources - Large labor supply - Poor agricultural conditions

40 Lowell System Factory Girls New England becomes the center of textile production All in one production facility

41 A New System of Production In 1814 Francis C. Lowell opened several textile mills in northeastern Massachusetts. He started mass production of cotton cloth in the United States. Eli Whitney developed the idea of interchangeable parts in the gun-making industry. Machines were able to produce large amounts of identical pieces that workers assembled into finished good.

42 A New System of Production Samuel F. B. Morse perfected the telegraph in He developed the Morse code for sending messages. Spurred by journalists, more than 50,000 miles of telegraph wire crossed the country by 1860.

43 Samuel F. B. Morse 1840 – Telegraph

44 Economic Nationalism leads to Sectional Specialization The United States was growing: The Louisiana Purchase in 1803 doubled the size of the United States Each section develops own unique economy

45 The Rise of Large Cities Industrialization in the US in the early to mid- 1800s caused many people to move from farms and villages to cities in search of factory jobs and higher wages. Many city populations doubled or tripled. During the early 1800s, agriculture was the countrys leading economic activity. Most people were employed in farming until the late 1800s.

46 Family Farm Farming was more important in the South than in the North because there was little manufacturing there. As the North began to focus on manufacturing, the Souths economy continued to depend on agriculture and slavery. Farming employed more people and produced more wealth than any other kind of work.

47 Diversified Farming West Fertile farmland in Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys - Attracts people from the east and Europe

48 Small farms give way to specialized farms Wheat: - Northern Plains Corn and Livestock: -Ohio River Valley Tobacco: - Kentucky

49 Northeastern Needs: Southern CottonWestern food

50 Southern Needs: Northern Manufactured Goods Western Food

51 Western Needs: Northern Manufactured Goods

52 The Transportation Revolution led to the development of the National Economy North West South

53 Plantation Agriculture South The Cotton Gin Increased – Productivity – # of Plantations – Cash-Crop Economy –King Cotton

54 Inventions Eli Whitney: Cotton Gin : removed seeds from cotton fiber Interchangeable Parts: Provides the mills with large quantities of cotton to turn into cloth Mass production of machine equipment

55 John Deere & the Steel Plow

56 Cyrus McCormick & the Mechanical Reaper

57 Elias Howe & Isaac Singer 1840s Sewing Machine

58 Southern Economy In 1793 Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, which combed the seeds out of cotton bolls. This invention greatly increased the production of cotton in the South and made cotton the major cash crop. At the same time the cotton gin was invented, textile mills in Europe wanted more and more cotton.

59 Southern Economy The cotton gin made southern planters rich, but it created a huge demand for slave labor. Between 1820 and 1860, the number of enslaved people in the South almost tripled. The South did not industrialize as quickly as the North and relied mostly on imported goods.

60 Society in the South A class structure developed in the South with the top class being planters – or plantation owners. This group dominated the political and legal systems. Yeoman Farmers, or ordinary farmers who usually worked the land themselves, made up most of the white population of the South. Near the bottom were the rural poor followed by the African Americans, most of whom were enslaved.

61 Slavery There were two basic labor systems for the slaves. The task system was used on farms and small plantations. Workers were given specific jobs to finish every day. Slaves worked until their tasks were done, and then they were allowed to do other things. Some earned money as artisans, or they gardened or hunted for extra food.

62 Slavery Large plantations used the gang system. Slaves were put in work gangs that labored in the fields from sunup to sundown. The director of the work gang was called the driver. Frederick Douglass was a former slave who became a leader of the antislavery movement.

63 Slavery State slave codes forbade enslaved persons from owning property or from leaving their owners land without permission. They could not own firearms or testify in court against a white person. They could not learn to read and write. Free African Americans lived in both the South and the North.

64 Slavery A few were descendants of Africans brought to the US as indentured servants in the 1700s. Some earned their freedom from fighting in the American Revolution. Others were half-white children of slaveholders, who had given them freedom. Others had bought their freedom or been freed by their slaveholders.

65 Coping with Enslavement African Americans developed a culture that provided them with a sense of unity, pride, and support. Songs helped field workers pass the long workday and enjoy their leisure time. Songs were important to African American religion, which was one of the most important parts of African American culture. Many believed in Christianity, which sometimes included some African religious traditions.

66 Coping with Enslavement Many slaves rebelled against their forced lifestyle. They held work slowdowns, broke tools, set fires, or ran away. Some killed their slaveholders. Nat Turner, an enslaved minister who believed that God chose him to free his people, led a group of African Americans in an uprising killing 50 white people before he was hanged.

67 POTENTIAL EXPANSION PROBLEMS SLAVERY

68 The Missouri Compromise Nat Turners Rebellion led to harsher and more repressive slave laws In 1819 Missouri applied for statehood as a slave state. This set off the divisive issue as to whether slavery should expand westward. The Union had 11 free states and 11 slave states. Admitting any new state, either slave or free, would upset the balance of political power in the Senate.

69 Missouri Compromise (1820) Missouri applies for statehood in 1819 Senate: 11 free states & 11 slave states

70 The Missouri Compromise The Missouri Compromise called for admitting Maine as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. An amendment was added to the compromise that prohibited slavery in the Louisiana Purchase territory north of Missouris southern border.

71 The Compromise Missouri enters Union as a slave state Maine enters Union as a free state A line is drawn at 36/30 Above it = Free Below it = Slave Compromise Created by Henry Clay

72

73 The Missouri Compromise Why did many leaders believe that the Missouri Compromise was only a temporary solution? They knew that as soon as other territories applied for admission to the Union, the issue of the balance of political power between the free states and the slave states would reemerge.

74 Henry Clay [KY] John Quincy Adams [MA] William H. Crawford [GA] Andrew Jackson [TN} 1824 Presidential Election

75 The Election of 1824 Four candidates ran for president in Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson represented the West. John Quincy Adams represented the North and William Crawford had support of the South. Adams favored internal improvements but not a tariff and Jackson ran on his heroism at the Battle of New Orleans.

76 Election of 1824 Jackson won the popular vote, but no candidate won a majority in the Electoral College. The election then went to the House of Representatives to select the president from the three candidates with the highest number of electoral votes. Clay was eliminated, so he threw his support to John Quincy Adams.

77 Election of 1824 Adams won the House vote. Jacksons nephew accused Clay of winning votes for Adams in return for the cabinet post of secretary of state. Jacksons supporters accused Adams and Clay of a corrupt bargain. They took the name Democratic-Republicans to point out their differences with Adamss party, the National Republicans.

78 Results of the 1824 Election A Corrupt Bargain?

79 The Election of 1824 The Democratic-Republicans later shortened their name to Democrats. What was the corrupt bargain? Jacksons nephew accused Clay of winning votes for Adams in return for the cabinet post of secretary of state. Jacksons supporters accused Adams and Clay of a corrupt bargain.

80 The Election of 1828 The candidates were John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson. The campaign turned into mudslinging. The candidates criticized each others personalities and morals. Adams claimed Jackson was incompetent. Jackson portrayed himself as the candidate of the common man and said Adams was an out- of-touch aristocrat.

81 The Election of 1828 Jackson won the election of Many voters who supported him were from the West and South, rural and small-town men who thought Jackson would represent their interests.

82 1828 Election Results

83 Voting Requirements in the Early 19c Impact of decreasing property ownership requirements? More common people can vote


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