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First Part WTO Pre to Current History Dr. Badri Pokhrel Joint Secretary Ministry of Commerce and Supplies.

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Presentation on theme: "First Part WTO Pre to Current History Dr. Badri Pokhrel Joint Secretary Ministry of Commerce and Supplies."— Presentation transcript:

1 First Part WTO Pre to Current History Dr. Badri Pokhrel Joint Secretary Ministry of Commerce and Supplies

2 Outlines Glimpse of World economy Glimpse of World economy History History Great Depression of 1930s Great Depression of 1930s World War 1 st and 2 nd World War 1 st and 2 nd Marshall Plan Marshall Plan Bretton Woods Conference Bretton Woods Conference ITO GATT ITO GATT WTO, Its objectives WTO, Its objectives Scope Scope

3 World Economy Capitalistic domination Capitalistic domination Multi-National companies are more powerful rather than individual countries Multi-National companies are more powerful rather than individual countries Globalization Globalization Inter dependency Inter dependency New growing economy New growing economy However, some pre-dominant factors/Products However, some pre-dominant factors/Products

4 Eco-Political great events Glimpse of World economy Glimpse of World economy (Laissez faire to State Controlled ) Advent of Keynes Advent of Keynes (Classical/Neoclassical to Modern) (Classical/Neoclassical to Modern) Fall of Soviet Union Fall of Soviet Union (End of Cold War) (End of Cold War)

5 Search of Safety rooms LDC,s LDC,s Military Alliences-NATO, SEATO,(Western block) and Warsaw Pact (Soviet-block) Military Alliences-NATO, SEATO,(Western block) and Warsaw Pact (Soviet-block) Panchasheel/NAM Panchasheel/NAM Concept of Self Sustain Concept of Self Sustain Bilateral Strengthen Bilateral Strengthen Protection of regional umbrella Protection of regional umbrella(ADB,SAARC,BIMSTEC)

6 Important events/Eve of WTO 1944-Bretton Woods Conference for WB, IMF and ITO 1944-Bretton Woods Conference for WB, IMF and ITO Countries contracting parties signed in Hawana on GATT Countries contracting parties signed in Hawana on GATT (Allternative to ITO) Passed Through various rounds of negotiation: annecy (France), Torquay (UK), Tokyo (Japan), Punta del Este (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada), Brussels (Belgium) and Marrakesh (Morocco)

7 Eve to WTO The GATT Trade Rounds The GATT Trade Rounds 1947 Geneva:Tariffs 1947 Geneva:Tariffs 1949 Annecy:Tariffs 1949 Annecy:Tariffs 1951 Torquay:Tariffs 1951 Torquay:Tariffs 1956 Geneva :Tariffs 1956 Geneva :Tariffs 1960/61 Geneva(Dillion Round):Tariffs 1960/61 Geneva(Dillion Round):Tariffs

8 Contd. 1964/67 Geneva (Kennedy Round) :Tariffs and Anti-dumping measures 1964/67 Geneva (Kennedy Round) :Tariffs and Anti-dumping measures Geneva (Tokyo) Round :Tariffs, non Tariff measures, Framework agreements Geneva (Tokyo) Round :Tariffs, non Tariff measures, Framework agreements Geneva (Uruguay Round) :Tariffs non Tariff measures, Rules, Services, IPR, Dispute Settlement, Textile, Agricultural, Creation of WTO etc Geneva (Uruguay Round) :Tariffs non Tariff measures, Rules, Services, IPR, Dispute Settlement, Textile, Agricultural, Creation of WTO etc Establishment of WTO (1995 Jan 1) 1995 Establishment of WTO (1995 Jan 1)

9 Objectives of WTO Raising Standard of Living Raising Standard of Living Ensuring Full employment Ensuring Full employment Expanding the production of goods and Services Expanding the production of goods and Services Promoting Sustainable development Promoting Sustainable development Through expanding the production of Trade in goods and services while allowing for the optimal use of the worlds resources Through expanding the production of Trade in goods and services while allowing for the optimal use of the worlds resources Protecting and preserving the environment. Protecting and preserving the environment.

10 Principles of WTO Rule based trade Rule based trade Trade Without discrimination Trade Without discrimination MFN MFN National Treatment Freer Trade, gradually through negotiation Freer Trade, gradually through negotiation Predictability, Through Binding and Transparency Predictability, Through Binding and Transparency Promoting fair competition Promoting fair competition Encouraging development and economic reform Encouraging development and economic reform Reciprocity Reciprocity

11 Key Functions of WTO Administer and Implement Trade Agreements Administer and Implement Trade Agreements Provide forum for Trade negotiation Provide forum for Trade negotiation Handle Trade disputes independently Handle Trade disputes independently Monitor Trade Policies of the member countries Monitor Trade Policies of the member countries Coordinate for TA and Cooperation with other agencies Coordinate for TA and Cooperation with other agencies

12 Scope of WTO Trade in goods Trade in goods Trade in Service Trade in Service Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights. Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights.

13 General Council Committees on a.Trade & - environment - BOP - Budget, Finance & Administration b. Working Parties on accession c. Working groups Council for Trade in goods Committees on -Market access Agriculture SPS TBT ROO Anti-dumping TRI Safeguards Council for Trade related IPR Council for Trade in Services Committees on Finance Service -Domestic Rules - GATT Rules WTO Organization Ministerial Conference

14 Membership System Signatory Countries untill Uruguay round Signatory Countries untill Uruguay round Agreed countries from accession committee Agreed countries from accession committee Total member -153 LDCs -32 out of 49 First from accession –Nepal Up to Uruguay Round -123

15 How to Define WTO It is neither a bird, nor a plane and nor a superman- But –it is- It is neither a bird, nor a plane and nor a superman- But –it is- An organization for liberalizing Trade An organization for liberalizing Trade a Forum for government to negotiation a Forum for government to negotiation trade agreement trade agreement a place for settle trade disputes a place for settle trade disputes a system of trade rules a system of trade rules

16 Nepal and WTO /A wish of Benefit Access in global market Access in global market MFN MFN National Treatment National Treatment Competition exercise Competition exercise Availability of International forum Availability of International forum LDCs facilities LDCs facilities

17 Thank You


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