Presentation on theme: "First Part WTO Pre to Current History"— Presentation transcript:
1First Part WTO Pre to Current History Dr. Badri PokhrelJoint SecretaryMinistry of Commerce and Supplies
2Outlines Glimpse of World economy History Great Depression of 1930s World War 1st and 2ndMarshall PlanBretton Woods ConferenceITO GATTWTO, Its objectivesScope
3World Economy Capitalistic domination Multi-National companies are more powerful rather than individual countriesGlobalizationInter dependencyNew growing economyHowever, some pre-dominant factors/Products
4Eco-Political great events Glimpse of World economy(Laissez faire to State Controlled)Advent of Keynes(Classical/Neoclassical to Modern)Fall of Soviet Union(End of Cold War)
5Search of Safety rooms LDC,s Military Alliences-NATO, SEATO,(Western block) and Warsaw Pact (Soviet-block)Panchasheel/NAMConcept of Self SustainBilateral StrengthenProtection of regional umbrella(ADB,SAARC,BIMSTEC)
6Important events/Eve of WTO 1944-Bretton Woods Conference for WB, IMF and ITOCountries contracting parties signed in Hawana on GATT(Allternative to ITO)Passed Through various rounds of negotiation: annecy (France), Torquay (UK), Tokyo (Japan), Punta del Este (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada), Brussels (Belgium) and Marrakesh (Morocco)
7Eve to WTO The GATT Trade Rounds 1947 Geneva :Tariffs 1949 Annecy :Tariffs1951 Torquay :Tariffs1956 Geneva :Tariffs1960/61 Geneva(Dillion Round):Tariffs
8Contd.1964/67 Geneva (Kennedy Round) :Tariffs and Anti-dumping measuresGeneva (Tokyo) Round :Tariffs, non Tariff measures, Framework agreements.Geneva (Uruguay Round) :Tariffs non Tariff measures, Rules, Services, IPR, Dispute Settlement, Textile, Agricultural, Creation of WTO etc.1995 Establishment of WTO (1995 Jan 1)
9Objectives of WTO Raising Standard of Living Ensuring Full employment Expanding the production of goods and ServicesPromoting Sustainable developmentThrough expanding the production of Trade in goods and services while allowing for the optimal use of the world’s resourcesProtecting and preserving the environment.
10Principles of WTO Rule based trade Trade Without discrimination MFN National TreatmentFreer Trade, gradually through negotiationPredictability, Through Binding and TransparencyPromoting fair competitionEncouraging development and economic reformReciprocity
11Key Functions of WTO Administer and Implement Trade Agreements Provide forum for Trade negotiationHandle Trade disputes independentlyMonitor Trade Policies of the member countriesCoordinate for TA and Cooperation with other agencies
12Scope of WTO Trade in goods Trade in Service Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights.
14Membership System Signatory Countries untill Uruguay round Agreed countries from accession committeeTotal member -153LDCs -32 out of 49First from accession –NepalUp to Uruguay Round -123
15How to Define WTOIt is neither a bird, nor a plane and nor a superman- But –it is-An organization for liberalizing Tradea Forum for government to negotiationtrade agreementa place for settle trade disputesa system of trade rules
16Nepal and WTO /A wish of Benefit Access in global marketMFNNational TreatmentCompetition exerciseAvailability of International forumLDCs’ facilities