Presentation on theme: "Economic Issues that Contributed to the Tensions between North and South."— Presentation transcript:
Economic Issues that Contributed to the Tensions between North and South
Economic Growth of America 1820-1850 – United States transforms from rural to increasingly urban Demographics – Population: 1815 – 8.4 million 1860 – 31.5 million – Gross National Product doubled every 15 years – Canals – 1825 - Erie Canal Made NYC a major economic hub Sparked canal building throughout US. – Railroads: 1815 – 23 miles, in 1860 – 30,626 miles NY to Philly – 1800 – 2 days, 1860 – less than a day NY to Chicago – 1800 – 6 weeks, 1860 – 2 days – Banks – finance business ventures 1815 – 208 state banks 1860 – 1,500 state banks
Growth of the North: Industry Post Revolution Factories in every state in the Northeast – Produced: textiles, firearms, machinery, railroad cars, etc – Poor working and living conditions Influx of immigrants head North By 1860, America was the third largest industrial power in the world.
Industry in the South North had 5x the number of factories Industry in the South – Upper South - ¾ of Souths manufacturing capability and nearly all heavy industry – Most of Souths heavy industry in St. Louis, Louisville, and Baltimore
Slavery Demographics in South In 1860, Population of the South – 9 million 4 million were slaves Only around 384,000 Southerners owned slaves About 10,000 big planters in the south – 7,000 had between 50-100 slaves – 3,000 of these had over 100 slaves – 14 had about 1,000 slaves
American Economic Decisions that Divided North and South Land Policy Chartering a National Bank Introduction of Protective Tariffs A National System of roads and canals
Distribution of Land Homestead Act of 1860 Northerners favored Southerners opposed – Spread free soil sentiment – Cheap land would discourage large operations (plantations) Westerners – Wanted expansion – Rejected slavery…not on moral grounds but because of racist attitudes
Banks after 1834 No National Bank – Andrew Jackson State chartered banks - small – Northeast lobbied for the creation of banks regulated by the federal government – Southerners disagreed National Bank Bill of 1860 was shot down by Southern opposition
Reality About National Bank There was a regional aspect to support for, or opposition to a National Bank Southerners fears – Implied powers of fed govt & slavery More a market economy/ non-market economy division – Big planters liked the national bank – Little guys did not (Panic of 1819)
Tariffs What are tariffs? Why would America implement tariffs? What problems are associated with tariffs? Why does the US want to implement tariffs after the War of 1812?
Tariffs and Sectionalism Northern view of tariffs – Protect industry Southern view of tariffs – Hurts southern exports – Raises cost of imported goods
Nullification Crisis Between 1816-1832 – Tariff rates will rise Tariff of 1832 – Congress placed tariff on woolens and iron. South Carolina: Issued Ordinance of Nullification – Rejected tariff – Refused to recognize it – Organized a militia – Threatened to secede Jackson didnt like this
Compromise with a Mailed Fist Tariff of 1833 (Henry Clay designed) – Tariff reduction bill Force Bill – Assemble the troops South Carolina quickly complied
Transportation People opposed federal funding of improvements if it didnt help their state – 1850s railroad from NO to Calif was defeated Southerners wanted a Southern terminal, northerners wanted a northern one (NO v. St Louis, v. Chicago) Southerners feared the hastening of creation of free states Feared implicit power of federally-funded rail
States Rights The North was changing rapidly with the growth of industry, while the south remained the same – As a result, new legislation was generally initiated by northern politicians trying to adjust to a changing economy Southerners argued that tariffs & banks were unconstitutional extensions of national power over the states. This is one of the reasons the South called for stronger states rights and weaker federal powers.
Putting Economics in Perspective Economic issues such as the tariff, internal improvements, banking as the heart of the issue of the cause of the Civil War went out of favor decades ago