2How did the Framers resolve the conflict between the Northern and Southern states?
3How did the Framers resolve the conflict between the Northern and Southern states? OverviewStudents learn about the conflict between the Northern and Southern states over the issues of tariffs and slavery.Description of the economies in the Northern and Southern states.Why differences between them led to conflicting points of view about the need for tariffs and the issue of slavery.
4ObjectivesAt the conclusion of this lesson, students should be able to:Explain the differences between the economies of the North and SouthExplain the conflicts about tariffs and slavery and how they were resolved
5How did the Framers resolve the conflict between the Northern and Southern states? The states of the North and South had different economies and different economic interests. The differences let to another conflict at the Philadelphia Convention. The sources of this disagreement were protective tariffs and slavery.When you finish the lesson, you should be able to explain the conflicts about protective tariffs and slavery and how they were resolved.
6How were the economies of the North and South different? Almost completely agriculturalGrew products such as cotton, tobacco, and indigoLarge FarmsDepended on Slave LaborSlaves treated like propertyCould be bought and soldNot citizensNo RightsShipped most good to Great BritainBought manufactured goods from Great Britain
7How were the economies of the North and South different? More diverse than Southern economiesFarmers, fishers, merchants, and bankersOthers manufactured goodsWorked as laborersDid not depend on slave laborCenter for shipbuilding and trade with other nationsCompeted for business with Great Britain’s shipping and manufacturing
8How were the economies of the North and South different? Northern EconomySouthern EconomyDiverse EconomyFarmersFishersMerchantsBankersManufacturingNo Slave LaborTradeShip BuildingTrade CenterCompeted with Great BritainAgriculturalCottonTobaccoIndigoSlave LaborPropertyNot CitizensNo RightsTradeShipped Products to Great BritainBought goods from Great Britain
9Why did the states disagree about the need for tariffs? Different economic needs caused conflict between the North and the SouthTariffsA tax on goods and products imported from other nationsProtective TariffPurpose is to raise the cost of the imports to protect local farmers and businesses against outside competitionDelegates held different opinions of tariffs
10Why did the states disagree about the need for tariffs? Northern PositionNecessary for Business to prosperNeeded tariffs so people would by their products rather than the same product from Great BritainWanted power to Control TradePower to pass tariffsSouthern PositionIncreased the cost of manufactured goods from foreign nationsTariffs unfairly favored the NorthBelieved Great Britain would begin putting tariffs on products grown in the southMake it harder to sell goods in EuropeOpposed giving power to national government to regulate trade
11Why was there a conflict about slavery? More complicated than the issue of tariffsNorthern states had put an end to slaveryMost framers from the North were opposed to slavery, as were some from the SouthSouthern farmers were financially dependent on slaveryBelieved each state should decided for itselfGeorgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina refused to be part of the Union if they were denied the right to import slavesFaced DilemmaWanted all states to be one country but did not want to allow slavery to continue
12How would you resolved the issues of tariffs and slavery? Work with your group. Divide the group into two committees each. Each committee should have half the students represent the Northern States and half represent the Southern States. The task of each committee is as follows.Develop a plan for dealing with the issues of tariffs and slavery. Your plan should be agreeable to the representatives of all the statesSelect a spokesperson to present your committee’s plan to the entire class. All members of the committee may help to clarify and defend the plan.Each committee may then revise its plan, if it wishes. Display the major issues on the board.The entire class should then compare the plans made by the committees and try to reach an agreement on one plan. After you have completed this exercise, compare the plan you have developed with the plan arrived at by the Framers.
14How did the Framers resolve the conflicts about tariffs and slavery? After long and bitter debate, the Framers reached a compromise over the issues of tariffs and slaveryTheir compromise is seen in Article I, Sections 8 and 9 of the Constitution
15Section 8 The Congress shall have the power: To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts, and ExcisesTo regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian TribesThe Constitution gave Congress the power to place tariffs on imports.Congress also was given the power to control interstate and foreign tradeTo get this agreement form the Southern states, the North agreed to the Southern demands on slavery, listed in Section 9
16Section 9The Migration or Importation of such Person as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hindered and eight. (1808)
17How did the Framers resolve the conflicts about tariffs and slavery? The Framers reached the following agreements about slavery:The national government would not end the slave trade before 1808The included the three-fifths clause in Article I, Section 2, Clause 3 (eliminated later by the 14th Amendment)Provided the each slave should be counted as 3/5’s of a person in determining the number of representatives a state might send to the House of Representatives. It also determined the amount of direct taxes Congress may levy on a state
18Fugitive Slave Clause Article IV, Section 2 Stated that slaves who escaped must be returned to their owners. (Later abolished by the 13th Amendment)The Compromise on slavery was designed to satisfy the demands of some of the Southern states. It was accepted by a majority of the Framers to get the support of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia
19ConclusionAlthough the delegates agreed to the compromise, many people in both the North and the South were strongly opposed to slavery. For example, one Framer, Gouverneur Morris, denounced slavery as “the curse of Heaven on the States” where it existed.It is also interesting to note that nowhere in the Constitution did the writers use the words slave or slavery. Some people say that this is because the Framers were ashamed of slavery.
20SourcesQuigley, Charles N., and Ken Rodriguez. We the People: the Citizen & the Constitution. 2007th ed. Vol. 2. Calabasas, CA: Center for Civic Education,