How did the Framers resolve the conflict between the Northern and Southern states?
Overview –Students learn about the conflict between the Northern and Southern states over the issues of tariffs and slavery. –Description of the economies in the Northern and Southern states. –Why differences between them led to conflicting points of view about the need for tariffs and the issue of slavery.
Objectives At the conclusion of this lesson, students should be able to: –Explain the differences between the economies of the North and South –Explain the conflicts about tariffs and slavery and how they were resolved
How did the Framers resolve the conflict between the Northern and Southern states? The states of the North and South had different economies and different economic interests. The differences let to another conflict at the Philadelphia Convention. The sources of this disagreement were protective tariffs and slavery. When you finish the lesson, you should be able to explain the conflicts about protective tariffs and slavery and how they were resolved.
How were the economies of the North and South different? South – –Almost completely agricultural Grew products such as cotton, tobacco, and indigo –Large Farms Depended on Slave Labor –Slaves treated like property –Could be bought and sold –Not citizens –No Rights –Shipped most good to Great Britain Bought manufactured goods from Great Britain
How were the economies of the North and South different? North – –More diverse than Southern economies Farmers, fishers, merchants, and bankers Others manufactured goods Worked as laborers –Did not depend on slave labor –Center for shipbuilding and trade with other nations –Competed for business with Great Britains shipping and manufacturing
How were the economies of the North and South different? Northern EconomySouthern Economy Agricultural Cotton Tobacco Indigo Slave Labor Property Not Citizens No Rights Trade Shipped Products to Great Britain Bought goods from Great Britain Diverse Economy Farmers Fishers Merchants Bankers Manufacturing No Slave Labor Trade Ship Building Trade Center Competed with Great Britain
Why did the states disagree about the need for tariffs? Different economic needs caused conflict between the North and the South –Tariffs A tax on goods and products imported from other nations –Protective Tariff Purpose is to raise the cost of the imports to protect local farmers and businesses against outside competition Delegates held different opinions of tariffs
Why did the states disagree about the need for tariffs? Northern Position –Necessary for Business to prosper Needed tariffs so people would by their products rather than the same product from Great Britain –Wanted power to Control Trade Power to pass tariffs Southern Position –Increased the cost of manufactured goods from foreign nations Tariffs unfairly favored the North –Believed Great Britain would begin putting tariffs on products grown in the south Make it harder to sell goods in Europe –Opposed giving power to national government to regulate trade
Why was there a conflict about slavery? More complicated than the issue of tariffs –Northern states had put an end to slavery –Most framers from the North were opposed to slavery, as were some from the South Southern farmers were financially dependent on slavery –Believed each state should decided for itself –Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina refused to be part of the Union if they were denied the right to import slaves Faced Dilemma –Wanted all states to be one country but did not want to allow slavery to continue
How would you resolved the issues of tariffs and slavery? Work with your group. Divide the group into two committees each. Each committee should have half the students represent the Northern States and half represent the Southern States. The task of each committee is as follows. 1.Develop a plan for dealing with the issues of tariffs and slavery. Your plan should be agreeable to the representatives of all the states 2.Select a spokesperson to present your committees plan to the entire class. All members of the committee may help to clarify and defend the plan. 3.Each committee may then revise its plan, if it wishes. Display the major issues on the board. 4.The entire class should then compare the plans made by the committees and try to reach an agreement on one plan. After you have completed this exercise, compare the plan you have developed with the plan arrived at by the Framers.
How did the Framers resolve the conflicts about tariffs and slavery? After long and bitter debate, the Framers reached a compromise over the issues of tariffs and slavery Their compromise is seen in Article I, Sections 8 and 9 of the Constitution
Section 8 The Congress shall have the power: –To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts, and Excises –To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes The Constitution gave Congress the power to place tariffs on imports. Congress also was given the power to control interstate and foreign trade To get this agreement form the Southern states, the North agreed to the Southern demands on slavery, listed in Section 9
Section 9 The Migration or Importation of such Person as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hindered and eight. (1808)
How did the Framers resolve the conflicts about tariffs and slavery? The Framers reached the following agreements about slavery: –The national government would not end the slave trade before 1808 –The included the three-fifths clause in Article I, Section 2, Clause 3 (eliminated later by the 14 th Amendment) Provided the each slave should be counted as 3/5s of a person in determining the number of representatives a state might send to the House of Representatives. It also determined the amount of direct taxes Congress may levy on a state
Fugitive Slave Clause Article IV, Section 2 –Stated that slaves who escaped must be returned to their owners. (Later abolished by the 13 th Amendment) The Compromise on slavery was designed to satisfy the demands of some of the Southern states. It was accepted by a majority of the Framers to get the support of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia
Conclusion Although the delegates agreed to the compromise, many people in both the North and the South were strongly opposed to slavery. For example, one Framer, Gouverneur Morris, denounced slavery as the curse of Heaven on the States where it existed. It is also interesting to note that nowhere in the Constitution did the writers use the words slave or slavery. Some people say that this is because the Framers were ashamed of slavery.
Sources Quigley, Charles N., and Ken Rodriguez. We the People: the Citizen & the Constitution. 2007th ed. Vol. 2. Calabasas, CA: Center for Civic Education, 2007. 1- 329.