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The Dynamic Environment of International Trade Chapter 2, Chapter 10 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "The Dynamic Environment of International Trade Chapter 2, Chapter 10 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Dynamic Environment of International Trade Chapter 2, Chapter 10 McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Chapter Learning Objectives 1. The basis for the reestablishment of world trade following World War II 2. The importance of balance-of-payment figures to a countrys economy 3. The effects of protectionism on world trade 4. The seven types of trade barriers

3 Chapter Learning Objectives 5. The importance of GATT and the World Trade Organization 6. Introduction to EU 7. The emergence of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group

4 The International Marketing Environment 7 3. ECONOMY Environmental uncontrollables country market A Environmental uncontrollables country market B Environmental uncontrollables country market C 1. Competition 2. Technology PriceProduct Promotion Place or Distribution 6. Geography and Infrastructure Foreign Environment (Uncontrollables) 7. Structure of Distribution 3. Economy 5. Political- Legal Domestic environment (Uncontrollables) (Controllables) 2.Technology 4. Culture 5. Political- Legal 4. Culture Target Market

5 U.S. Multinational in Europe s Fifteen years from now the worlds third greatest industrial power, just after the United States and Russia, may not be Europe, but American industry in Europe. J.S. Servan Schreiber: Le Defi American, 1967 What Happened? How about now? Asia? Or China? Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright©2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserve. 2-3

6 Introduction Proliferation of trade and emergence of the global economy Intensification of global competition More emerging markets Developments in technology allow communications with global consumers and movement of goods

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8 World Trade and U.S. Multinationals 1.Rapid growth of underdeveloped countries and new global marketing opportunities 2.Rising living standards have created marketing opportunities for U.S. firms 3.Resistance over domination of U.S. multinationals 4.Expropriation and domestication of U.S. investments in Latin America 5.In the Europe, U.S. multinationals were controlled tightly by protectionism laws

9 World Trade and U.S. Multinationals 1.Resurgence of competition from all over the world challenged the supremacy of American industry 2.Newly industrialized countries (NICs) such as Brazil, Mexico, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong experienced rapid industrialization 3.Economic power evenly distributed with growth of MNCs from other countries (see Exhibit 2-2) 4. Establishment of the WTO 5. Integration of European Union countries 6. Creation of NAFTA, AFTA, and APEC

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11 21st Century: The First Decade and Beyond With exception of China, slower economic growth in U.S. and other countries is currently evident. Faster growth rates expected in developing countries such as Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, and Russia. More trade expected in emerging markets, regional trade areas, and the established markets in Europe, Japan, and U.S. Companies need to be more efficient, improve productivity, expand global reach, and respond quickly. Greater growth in international sales expected by smaller firms.

12 Balance of Payments 1.When countries trade there are financial transactions among businesses or consumers of different nations 2.Money constantly flows into and out of a country 3.The system of accounts that records a nations international financial transactions is called its balance of payments (BP) 4.It records all financial transactions between a countrys firms, and residents, and the rest of the world usually over a year 5.The BP is maintained on a double-entry bookkeeping system

13 Balance of Payments The BP is the difference between receipts and payments merchandise export sales. money spent by foreign tourists. transportation. payments of dividends and interest from FDI abroad. new foreign investments in the U.S. BP Receipts costs of goods imported. spending by U.S. tourists overseas. new overseas investments. cost of foreign military and economic aid. BP Payments

14 Balance of Payments The BP includes three accounts: (1) current accounta record of all merchandise exports, imports, and services plus unilateral transfers of funds; (2) the capital accounta record of direct investment, portfolio investment, and short-term capital movements to and from countries; (3) the official reserves accounta record of exports and imports of gold, increases or decreases in foreign exchange, and increases or decreases in liabilities to foreign central banks;

15 Balance of Payments and Exchange Rate 1.If a countrys expenditures consistently exceed its income, its standard of living falls 2.Its exchange rate vis-à-vis foreign monies declines 3.When foreign currencies can be traded for more dollars, U.S. products are less expensive for foreign customers and exports increase 4.Simultaneously foreign products are more expensive for U.S. buyers and the demand for imported goods is reduced

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17 Protectionism: Logic and Illogic Countries use protectionist measures to shield a countrys markets from intrusion by foreign competition and imports. Arguments for Protectionism include: 1.maintain employment and reduce unemployment. 2.increase of business size, and 3.retaliation and bargaining. 4.protection of the home market. 5.need to keep money at home. 6.encouragement of capital accumulation. 7.maintenance of the standard of living and real wages. 8.conservation of natural resources. 9.protection of an infant industry 10.industrialization of a low-wage nation 11.national defense Arguments for Protectionism include: 1.maintain employment and reduce unemployment. 2.increase of business size, and 3.retaliation and bargaining. 4.protection of the home market. 5.need to keep money at home. 6.encouragement of capital accumulation. 7.maintenance of the standard of living and real wages. 8.conservation of natural resources. 9.protection of an infant industry 10.industrialization of a low-wage nation 11.national defense

18 Protectionism: Logic and Illogic In general, protectionism contributes to industrial inefficiency and makes a nation uncompetitive Arguments 9-11 above are considered valid for protectionism Protectionism is implemented through the imposition of trade barriers, which include tariff barriers and non-tariff barriers

19 Six Types of Non-Tariff Barriers (2) Customs and Administrative Entry Procedures: 1.Valuation systems 2.Antidumping practices 3.Tariff classifications 4.Documentation requirements 5.Fees (2) Customs and Administrative Entry Procedures: 1.Valuation systems 2.Antidumping practices 3.Tariff classifications 4.Documentation requirements 5.Fees (1) Specific Limitations on Trade: 1.Quotas 2.Import Licensing requirements 3.Proportion restrictions of foreign to domestic goods (local content requirements) 4.Minimum import price limits 5.Embargoes (1) Specific Limitations on Trade: 1.Quotas 2.Import Licensing requirements 3.Proportion restrictions of foreign to domestic goods (local content requirements) 4.Minimum import price limits 5.Embargoes

20 Six Types of Non-Tariff Barriers (3) Standards: 1.Standard disparities 2.Intergovernmental acceptances of testing methods and standards 3.Packaging, labeling, and marking (3) Standards: 1.Standard disparities 2.Intergovernmental acceptances of testing methods and standards 3.Packaging, labeling, and marking (4) Government Participation in Trade: 1.Government procurement policies 2.Export subsidies 3.Countervailing duties 4.Domestic assistance programs (4) Government Participation in Trade: 1.Government procurement policies 2.Export subsidies 3.Countervailing duties 4.Domestic assistance programs

21 Six Types of Non-Tariff Barriers (5) Charges on imports: 1.Prior import deposit subsidies 2.Administrative fees 3.Special supplementary duties 4.Import credit discriminations 5.Variable levies 6.Border taxes (5) Charges on imports: 1.Prior import deposit subsidies 2.Administrative fees 3.Special supplementary duties 4.Import credit discriminations 5.Variable levies 6.Border taxes (6) Others: 1.Voluntary export restraints 2.Orderly marketing agreements (6) Others: 1.Voluntary export restraints 2.Orderly marketing agreements

22 Monetary Barriers In addition to the Six Types of Non-Tariff Barriers, monetary barriers are also used by countries Three types of monetary barriers include: 1.Blocked currency: Blockage is accomplished by refusing to allow importers to exchange its national currency for the sellers currency. 2.Differential exchange rates: It encourages the importation of goods the government deems desirable and discourages importation of goods the government does not want by adjusting the exchange rate. The exchange rate for importation of a desirable product is favorable and vice- versa 3.Government approval: In countries where there is a severe shortage of foreign exchange, an exchange permit to import foreign goods is required from the government Three types of monetary barriers include: 1.Blocked currency: Blockage is accomplished by refusing to allow importers to exchange its national currency for the sellers currency. 2.Differential exchange rates: It encourages the importation of goods the government deems desirable and discourages importation of goods the government does not want by adjusting the exchange rate. The exchange rate for importation of a desirable product is favorable and vice- versa 3.Government approval: In countries where there is a severe shortage of foreign exchange, an exchange permit to import foreign goods is required from the government

23 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 1.GATT created as an agency to serve as watchdog over world trade and provide a process to reduce tariffs 2.GATT also provided a mechanism to resolve trade disputes bilaterally GATT covers three basic areas: 1.trade shall be conducted on a nondiscriminatory basis; 2.protection shall be afforded domestic industries through customs tariffs, not through such commercial measures as import quotas; and 3.consultation shall be the primary method used to solve global trade problems. GATT covers three basic areas: 1.trade shall be conducted on a nondiscriminatory basis; 2.protection shall be afforded domestic industries through customs tariffs, not through such commercial measures as import quotas; and 3.consultation shall be the primary method used to solve global trade problems. 3. GATT now replaced by the World Trade Organization

24 World Trade Organization (WTO) 1.It sets many rules governing trade between its 132 members 2.WTO provides a panel of experts to hear and rule on trade disputes between members, and, unlike GATT, issues binding decisions Unlike GATT, is an institution, not an agreement

25 European Union (EU) – Economic & Political Integration expansion – deepening and broadening integration –European Coal and Steel Community, 1951 six countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands) –European Economic Community (EEC), 1957 negative integration – absence of restrictions on movement of workers, goods, services Denmark, Ireland and UK admitted, 1972 –European Union, 1993 positive integration – actively fostering integration –Maastricht Treaty, 1992 –Amsterdam Treaty, members currently –Greece (1986), Spain (1986), Portugal (1986), Austria (1995), Finland (1995), Sweden (1995) –10 candidate countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Turkey)

26 European Union (EU) – Institutions legislative – shared legislative powers Council of the European Union –ministers and heads of state of member countries European Parliament –direct election executive – European Commission –President and commissioners appointed by member states –confirmed by European Parliament judiciary – Court of Justice

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29 European Union (EU) – Economic Integration single market –free movement of people, capital (investment), goods and services monetary union the Euro –comes into existence January, 1999 –banknotes and coins in circulation, January 2002 –national banknotes and coins withdrawn from use (February 2002) common labor market Schengen Agreement, 1985

30 European Union (EU) – Political Integration political integration –common political institutions e.g. European Parliament –common European citizenship freedom of movements fundamental rights civil and political rights –common social citizenship (limited) access to social programs in other countries –common currency money traditionally symbol of sovereignty requires integrated monetary policy

31 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Brunei Indonesia Laos Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam

32 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) + 3 Brunei Indonesia Laos Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam Japan S. Korea China

33 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Australia Brunei Canada Chile China Hong Kong Indonesia Japan South Korea Malaysia Mexico New Zealand Papua New Guinea Peru Philippines Russia Singapore Taiwan Thailand U.S.A. Vietnam

34 North American Free-Trade Area (NAFTA) Canada United States Mexico

35 The International Monetary Fund (IMF) 1.IMF was created to assist nations in becoming and remaining economically viable 2.It assists countries that seek capital for economic development and restructuring 3.IMF loans come with stipulations that borrowing countries slash spending and impose controls to curb inflation 4.It helps maintain stability in the world financial markets Objectives of the IMF include: 1.stabilization of foreign exchange rates 2.establish convertible currencies to facilitate international trade 3.lend money to members in financial trouble Objectives of the IMF include: 1.stabilization of foreign exchange rates 2.establish convertible currencies to facilitate international trade 3.lend money to members in financial trouble

36 World Bank Group (WBG) The functions of the WBG include: The goal of WBG is to reduce poverty and the improvement of living standards by promoting sustainable growth and investment in people. 1.lending money to countries to finance development projects in education, health, and infrastructure; 2.providing assistance for projects to the poorest developing countries; 3.lending directly to the private sector in developing countries with long-term loans, equity investments, and other financial assistance; 4.provide investors with investment guarantees against noncommercial risk, so developing countries will attract FDI; and 5.provide conciliation and arbitration of disputes between governments and foreign investors

37 Protests Against Global Institutions In 1999 anti-capitalist protestors complained against the WTO, and IMF, over the unintended consequences of globalization that include: 1.environmental concerns 2.worker exploitation and domestic job losses 3.cultural extinction 4.higher oil prices, and 5.diminished sovereignty of nations


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