Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Global Marketplace 19 Principles of Marketing.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Global Marketplace 19 Principles of Marketing."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Global Marketplace 19 Principles of Marketing

2 Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Discuss how the international trade system, economic, political-legal, and cultural environments affect a companys international marketing decisions 2. Describe three key approaches to entering international markets 3. Explain how companies adapt their marketing mixes for international markets 4. Identify the three major forms of international marketing organizations 19-2

3 Chapter Outline 1. Global Marketing Today 2. Looking at the Global Marketing Environment 3. Deciding Whether to Go Global 4. Deciding Which Markets to Enter 5. Deciding How to Enter the Market 6. Deciding on the Global Marketing Program 7. Deciding on the Global Marketing Organization 19-3

4 Global Marketing Today A global firm is one that, by operating in more than one country, gains marketing, production, R&D, and financial advantages that are not available to purely domestic competitors The global firms sees the world as one market 19-4

5 Global Marketing Today Global firms ask a number of basic questions What market position should we try to establish in our own country, in our economic region, and globally? Who will our global competitors be, and what are their strategies and resources? Where should we produce or source our product? What strategic alliances should we form with other firms around the world? 19-5

6 Looking at the Global Marketing Environment The International Trade System Restrictions on trade between nations include: Tariffs Quotas Exchange controls Non-tariff trade barriers 19-6

7 Looking at the Global Marketing Environment The International Trade System Tariffs are taxes on certain imported products designed to raise revenue or to protect domestic firms Quotas are limits on the amount of foreign imports a country will accept in certain product categories to conserve on foreign exchange and protect domestic industry and employment 19-7

8 Looking at the Global Marketing Environment The International Trade System Exchange controls are a limit on the amount of foreign exchange and the exchange rate against other currencies Nontariff trade barriers are biases against bids or restrictive product standards that go against American product features 19-8

9 Looking at the Global Marketing Environment The International Trade System The World Trade Organization and GATT The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is a 59-year-old treaty designed to promote world trade by reducing tariffs and other international trade barriers Uruguay Round reduced merchandise tariffs by 30 percent and set up the World Trade Organization to enforce GATT rules 19-9

10 Looking at the Global Marketing Environment World Trade Organization Enforces GATT rules Mediates disputes Imposes trade sanctions 19-10 The International Trade System The World Trade Organization and GATT

11 Looking at the Global Marketing Environment Economic communities are free trade zones created by nations to work toward common goals in the regulation of international trade European Union (EU) North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Caribbean Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) South American Community of Nations (CSN) 19-11 The International Trade System Regional Free Trade Zones

12 Looking at the Global Marketing Environment Economic factors reflect a countrys attractiveness as a market Industrial structure Income distribution 19-12 Economic Environment

13 Looking at the Global Marketing Environment Economic Environment Industrial Structure Subsistence economies Raw material exporting economies Industrializing economies Industrial economies 19-13

14 Looking at the Global Marketing Environment Economic Environment Industrial Structure Subsistence economies have a large majority of people engaged in agriculture. They consume most of their output and barter the rest for simple goods and services. They offer few market opportunities. Raw material exporting economies are rich in one or more natural resources. They are good markets for large equipment, tools, supplies, and trucks. If there is a wealthy upper class, then they are also a market for luxury goods. 19-14

15 Looking at the Global Marketing Environment Economic Environment Industrial Structure Industrializing economies have manufacturing that represents 10 percent to 20 percent of the economy and needs imports of raw textile materials, steel, and heavy machinery and fewer imports of finished textiles, paper products, and automobiles. These economies create a rich upper class and a small but growing middle class that demand new types of imported goods. Industrial economies are major exporters of manufactured goods, services, and investment funds. They trade among themselves and export to other economies. They represent an attractive market for all types of goods and services. 19-15

16 Looking at the Global Marketing Environment Economic Environment Income Distribution Low-income households Middle-income households High-income households 19-16

17 Looking at the Global Marketing Environment Political-Legal Environment Countrys attitude toward international buying Government bureaucracy Political stability Monetary regulations 19-17

18 Looking at the Global Marketing Environment Political-Legal Environment Countrys attitude toward international buying involves the countrys receptiveness to foreign business Monetary regulations involve the stability of exchange rates and currency limitations 19-18

19 Looking at the Global Marketing Environment Political-Legal Environment Countertrade is a non-cash payment Barter is the exchange of goods or services Compensation or buyback is the sale of a plant or equipment and the payment in resulting products Counterpurchase is when the seller receives payment and agrees to spend some of the money in the other country 19-19

20 Looking at the Global Marketing Environment Cultural Environment Impact of Culture on Marketing Strategy Business norms Cultural preferences, traditions, and behaviors 19-20

21 Deciding Whether to Go Global Factors to consider Global competition in the home market Stagnant or shrinking home market Foreign markets with more opportunity Expansion of customers to international markets 19-21

22 Deciding Which Markets to Enter Define international marketing objectives and policies Foreign sales volume How many countries to market to Types of countries to market to based on: Geography Income and population Political climate 19-22

23 Deciding Which Markets to Enter Rank potential global markets based on: Market size Market growth Cost of doing business Competitive advantage Risk level 19-23

24 Deciding How to Enter the Market Ways to enter global markets include: Exporting Joint venturing Direct investment 19-24

25 Deciding How to Enter the Market Exporting is when the company produces its goods in the home country and sells them in a foreign market. It is the simplest means involving the least change in the companys product lines, organization, investments, or mission. Indirect exporting Direct exporting 19-25

26 Deciding How to Enter the Market Exporting Indirect exporting is when the firm works through an independent international marketing intermediary. This requires less investment and risk since the firm does not require an overseas organization or network. Direct exporting is when the firm handles its own exports. This requires a greater investment and risk. Domestic export department Send home-based salespeople abroad Use of foreign distributors 19-26

27 Deciding How to Enter the Market Joint venturing is when a firm joins with foreign companies to produce or market products or services Licensing Contract manufacturing Management contracting Joint ownership Joint venturing differs from exporting in that the company joins with a host country partner to sell or market abroad 19-27

28 Deciding How to Enter the Market Licensing is when a firm enters into an agreement with a licensee in a foreign market. For a fee or royalty, the licensee buys the right to sue the companys process, trademark, patent, trade secret, or other item of value 19-28 Joint Venturing

29 Deciding How to Enter the Market Joint Venturing Contract manufacturing is when a firm contracts with manufacturers in the foreign market to product its product or provide its service. Benefits include faster startup, less risk, and the opportunity to form a partnership or to buy out the local manufacturer. 19-29

30 Deciding How to Enter the Market Joint Venturing Management contracting is when the domestic firm supplies management skill to a foreign company that supplies capital. The domestic firm is exporting management services rather than products. Joint ownership is when one company joins forces with foreign investors to create a local business in which they share joint ownership and control. Joint ownership is sometimes required for economic or political reasons. 19-30

31 Deciding How to Enter the Market Direct investment is the development of foreign- based assembly or manufacturing facilities and offers a number of advantages: Lower costs Raw material Labor Government incentives Logistics Control 19-31

32 Deciding on the Global Marketing Program Standardize marketing mix involves selling the same products and using the same marketing approaches worldwide Adapted marketing mix involves adjusting the marketing mix elements in each target market, bearing more costs but hoping for a larger market share and ROI 19-32

33 Deciding on the Global Marketing Program Product Strategies Straight product extension means marketing a product in a foreign market without any change Product adaptation involves changing the product to meet local conditions or wants Product invention consists of creating something new for a specific country market Maintain or reintroduce earlier products Create new products 19-33

34 Deciding on the Global Marketing Program Companies can either adopt the same communication strategy they use at home or change it for each market 19-34 Promotion Strategies

35 Deciding on the Global Marketing Program Price Strategies Uniform pricing is the same price in all markets but does not consider income or wealth where the price may be too high in some markets or not high enough in other markets Market-based pricing is the price that markets can pay but does not consider actual costs Standard markup pricing is a price based on a percentage of cost but can cause problems in countries with high costs 19-35

36 Deciding on the Global Marketing Program Distribution Strategies Whole-Channel View Sellers headquarters organization supervises the channel and is also a part of the channel Channels between nations move the products to the borders of the foreign nations Channel within nations move the products from their foreign point of entry to the final customers 19-36

37 Deciding on the Global Marketing Program Numbers and types of intermediaries Size and character of retail units 19-37 Distribution Strategies Differences Within Countries

38 Deciding on the Global Marketing Organization Typical management of international marketing activities include: Organize and export department with a sale manager and staff Create an international division organized by geography, products, or operating units Become a complete global organization 19-39

39 The End


Download ppt "The Global Marketplace 19 Principles of Marketing."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google