2The Era of Good Feelings The Era of good feelings ( ) was dubbed the era of good feelings because of the strong spirit of nationalism, optimism, and goodwill, due to ONE PARTYRULE ( The federalist party was almost dead by thispoint )The NAME however was MISLEADING, due to the fact that there were heated debates over tariffs, the national bank ,internal improvements and public land sales.
3James Monroe Fought in the revolutionary war Served as Jefferson’s minister to BritainServed as Madison's secretary of stateBecame the 5th president of the U.S.A in 1816, beating federalist candidate Rufus king, by 183 to 34 electoral votes and received every electoral vote except 1, in 1820
4Cultural NationalismBy Monroe’s presidency, a younger generation of Americans had arrivedThey cared little about European politics, and focused on America’s western expansionThey believed America was entering an era of unlimited prosperityThe nation was heavily patriotic, as revealed in its paintings, of revolutionary heroes by Gilbert Stuart, Charles Wilson Peale, and John TrumballAlso, nationalistic, was literature, such as that of Parson Mason’s fictionalized biography of George Washington
5Economic NationalismTariff of Before the war of 1812, congress lowered the tariff, after the war, congress raised tariffs, to protect U.S manufacturingThis was the FIRST protective tariff in the U.SNew England which had little manufacturing at that time opposed it. The South and the West supported itHenry Clay’s American system- Was a plan to advance America’s economy. The plan consisted of three parts(1) a protective tariff(2) a national bank(3) Internal improvementsA protective tariff would protect manufacturing, and provide a source of income for infrastructure.A national bank would provide a national currencyThe tariffs benefited the north, the internal improvements, thesouth and west.
6Economic nationalism continuation Two areas of Clay’s American system was already in place, the tariff and the bankHowever internal improvements, were a subject of controversy as Madison and Monroe both felt that the constitution did not provide for the spending of federal money on roads, and canalsThus Monroe vetoed acts of congress that provided for funds for road building
7The Panic of 1819The Panic of 1819, was largely caused by the second bank of the united states when it tightened credit, to control inflation.The results of the depression lead to the closing of numerous state banks and inflation, unemployment, bankruptcies, and imprisonment for debtsThe bank foreclosed a large amount of western farmlandCreated a backlash against the bank, and debtors’ prisons. Shook up optimistic views.
8Changes in the Democratic- Republican party After the collapse of the federalist party, America was essentially under one party rule.The democratic-republican party however went through internal problemsOnly a minority of democratic-republicans believed in the ideals of limited government and strict interpretation of the constitution, many had adopted federalist policies such as the national bankIn candidates vied for the candidacy
9The Supreme courtDespite the federalist party’s death, chief justice, John Marshall was still alive. Appointed by James Madison in 1800, John marshal constantly ruled in favor of the central government and the rights of property against states rightsEven though a majority of the court were sympathetic to the democratic-republicans, they were often persuaded that the constitution had created a union of states
10Important supreme court cases Fletcher v. Peck (1810) – This case involved land fraud. Marshall concluded that a state could not pass legislation invalidating a contract ( This was the first time the supreme court declared a state law unconstitutional )Dartmouth College V Woodward ( 1819)- This case involved a law in new Hampshire that changed Dartmouth college from a private college to a public institution. The supreme court invalidated the law, stating that a contract for a private corporation could not be altered by the stateGibbons V Ogden ( 1821)- The supreme court established that a New York monopoly was unconstitutional since it conflicted with a charter from congress. This case established the government’s control over interstate commerce
11Important Supreme court decision 2 Mcculloch v Maryland ( 1819)- This case dealt with whether a state could place taxes on the bank, and on whether congress had the power to create a bank. Marshall stated that the government had the implied power to create a bank, and that a state could not tax a federal institution. Thus federal laws were superior to state laws.Cohen V Virginia ( 1821) – In Virginia, the Cohen's were convicted of selling lottery tickets, authorized by the gov, in which the supreme court upheld the ruling. This case established the supreme court’s power to review a state’s court decisionMartin V Hunter’s lease (1816)- This case established the supreme court’s power over state courts in cases involving constitutional rights
12Western SettlementMany people moved to the west because of Acquisition of Native American lands, economic pressures ( In the north, the embargo led many people to go to the wets, while in the south, farmers were looking for more land), internal improvements, and immigration.Western states began to bargain for easy credit from the banks, cheap land and improved transportation. The issue of slavery was decisive, with wide agreements and disagreements.
13The Missouri Compromise Since the birth of America, politicians had attempted to preserve the sectional balance between north and southPopulation grew faster in the north than in the south, so that the north was allocated more seats in the house of representatives than the south. The senate however was more even.When Missouri attempted to enter the Union, many northerners feared that the balance would tip towards slavery
14The Missouri compromise 2 Tallmadge amendment- John Tallmadge started the debate when he suggested an amendment, that called(1) Prohibition of further introduction of slavery into Missouri(2) The children of Missouri slaves to be emancipated at the age of 25The amendment was quickly defeated in the senateClay’s proposal- Henry Clay won support for his idea(1) Missouri was to be admitted as a slaveholding state(2) Maine was to be admitted as a free state(3) In the rest of the Louisiana territory, north of 36’30, slavery would be prohibited.
16Foreign Policy- Canada After the war of 1812, the Us Adopted a more aggressive foreign policy.Rush-Baggot Agreement (1817) – Was a disarmament deal, that severely limited naval armament on the great lakes.Treaty of (1) shared fishing rights off the coast of Newfoundland (2) joint occupation of the Oregon territory for ten years (3)The setting of the northern limits of the Louisiana territory at the 49th parallel
17FloridaSpain had difficulty holding onto Florida, as they removed all their troops to fight in Florida. Many runaway slaves, and convicts went to Florida, some would conduct raids in the U.S and then go to Florida.Jackson’s military campaign- The president ordered Andrew Jackson to stop the raids, and thus Andrew entered Florida.Florida Purchase Treaty- ( 1819)- Spain worried that the U.S would seize Florida by force. Spain therefore, sold Florida, and its claims on the Oregon territory for 5 million dollars, and its claims on Texas
18The Monroe DoctrineThe U.S could not avoid the ambitions of Europe. Both Britain and U.S worried about Spain’s possible return to power in Latin AmericaBritish initiative and American response- The power of the British army was the strongest deterrent for Spain not to interfere in Latin America. Britain had suggested a joint Anglo-American warning to the European powers to not intervene in Latin America. America responded that it would not have Britain as a coauthor, as Adams believed that if the U.S acted alone, Britain could not be counted on, and that no European power would dare to go to war in South America.
19Monroe Doctrine ( continuation) On December , President Monroe revealed the Monroe Doctrine which asserted that the U.S was opposed to attempts by a European power to interfere in Latin American affairsThe Monroe doctrine wassupported by Americans,but the European powersdidn’t view it seriously.Britain was annoy as the doctrineaffected them also. However, theEuropean powers could not doanything because of the Britishnavy
20The EconomyPopulation growth- Between , the population of America doubled. After the 1830’s heavy immigration followed. By the 1830’s, 1/3 of the population lived west of the AlleghanyTransportation- Transportation was very important to the development of a national and industry economyRoads- Pennsylvania’s Lancaster Turnpike connectedPhiladelphia. Its successful, spurred the buildingof other roads. However states righter advocatesblocked spending of federal funds on internalimprovement, and therefore few highways crossed statelines.
21Canals- The Erie canal, completed in 1825, was one of the most important events, in that it stimulated economic growth. Lowered food costs in the east, and allowed more immigrants to settle in west. The economic ties between the east and the west increased.Steamboats-The age of the mechanized, steam powered travel began in 1807, with the success of the Clermont, a steamboat developed by Robert Fulton. The Steamboatmade round trip shipping faster and easier.Railroads- The first railroad lines began in the late 1820’s. The early railroads were hampered by safety problems , but by the 1830’s, the railroad had transformed western towns, such as Cincinnati, and Chicago into boomtowns
22Growth of IndustryBy the mid 1800s, manufacturing had surpassed agriculture in valueMechanical inventions helped simulate the economy greatly. Eli Whitney’s cotton gin, changed the southThe selling of stock also stimulated the economy as it made raising capital easier.The factory system, started by Samuel Slater, helped spur the development of factories
23Labor- At first finding workers for the mills, and factories, was a major problem, as factories had to compete with cheap land in the west. In Lowell, Massachusetts, young farm women began to be employed at the factories. Many of these factories used child labor.Unions- Unions had been in place since the 1790’s. Long hours, low pay and poor working conditions lead to discontent among factory workers, who wanted a reduced 10 hour work day
24Commercial Agriculture In the early 1800’s, farming changed from sustenance to commercial. The change to cash crops can be explained by cheap land and easy credit, and a flourishing easternmarketEli Whitney’s cotton gin, changed the south, as the planting of cotton became cotton. Cotton was profitable, as it was demanded by both Britain and Northern factories
25Effects of the Market revolution Specialization on the farm, the growth of cities, industrialization, and the development of modern capitalism meant the end of self sufficient households.Women- Women no longer worked side by side the men. Women seeking employment in the city, had two jobsdomestic servants, or teaching. Factory jobs were NOT common.Real wages did increase for urban workers, but the gap between rich and poor increased. Social mobility did increase, and economic opportunity was greater than that of Europe.Hopes for an end to slavery, were dashed by the success of cotton.