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China and the WTO Econ 508 Michael Ochs Belton M. Fleisher.

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Presentation on theme: "China and the WTO Econ 508 Michael Ochs Belton M. Fleisher."— Presentation transcript:

1 China and the WTO Econ 508 Michael Ochs Belton M. Fleisher

2 Geography Located in E. Asia Located in E. Asia 4 th largest country in the world (size wise) 4 th largest country in the world (size wise) Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas and hills in the east Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas and hills in the east

3 Population 1.3 Billion 1.3 Billion Age 0-14: 21.4% Age 0-14: 21.4% Age 15-64: 71% Age 15-64: 71% Age 65 and older: 7.6% Age 65 and older: 7.6% Median age in China is 32 Median age in China is 32

4 Economy 4 th largest GDP (ppp) 4 th largest GDP (ppp) 9 th largest GDP Real Growth Rate 9 th largest GDP Real Growth Rate GDP By Sector: GDP By Sector: -Agriculture: 14.4% -Industry/Construction: 53.1% -Services: 32.5%

5 Labor Force Largest Labor Force in the world (791.4 billion) Largest Labor Force in the world (791.4 billion) Half of Labor Force is in agriculture Half of Labor Force is in agriculture Industry and Service provide the other 50% Industry and Service provide the other 50% Unemployment rate is 4.2% Unemployment rate is 4.2%

6 Trade 4th largest in exports 4th largest in exports 4 th largest in imports 4 th largest in imports Main Trade Partners: Main Trade Partners:-USA-Japan -Hong Kong -South Korea -Taiwan

7 What is the WTO? World Trade Organization World Trade Organization International, multilateral organization which sets rules for global trading system International, multilateral organization which sets rules for global trading system Resolves disputes between member states Resolves disputes between member states As of December 2005, there were 150 member states As of December 2005, there were 150 member states All member states must be signatories to its about 30 agreements. All member states must be signatories to its about 30 agreements. Main goal is to encourage smooth and free trade Main goal is to encourage smooth and free trade

8 China entry to WTO China was voted in as a member on November 11, 2001 but became an official member one month later, December 11, 2001 China was voted in as a member on November 11, 2001 but became an official member one month later, December 11, 2001 In order for China to gain member status, China had to agree to separate negotiations with all of the current WTO members In order for China to gain member status, China had to agree to separate negotiations with all of the current WTO members China tried to get member status for 15 years prior to 2001 China tried to get member status for 15 years prior to 2001

9 Timeline for Qualification China applies to join General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), predecessor to WTO China's suppression of pro-democracy demonstrators in Tiananmen Square on June 4 derails negotiations. November China unveils economic and trade reforms aimed at winning U.S. backing to enter the WTO. It plans to slash import tariffs by 30 percent and allow joint venture companies to be set up. April 8, President Bill Clinton and Premier Zhu Rongji sign a joint statement in Washington welcoming substantial progress and committing them to completion of a WTO deal by the end of the year. The gap is closed on about 90 percent of WTO issues. May 7, China freezes WTO talks after NATO forces accidentally bomb the Chinese embassy in Belgrade. September 11, Clinton and Chinese President Jiang Zemin agree on the sidelines of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum in New Zealand to resume WTO negotiations. November 15, U.S. and China announce a WTO pact. China agrees to open a wide range of markets, from agriculture to telecommunications. Clinton must persuade the U.S. Congress to grant China permanent normal trade relations (PNTR).

10 Timeline for Qualification May 19, The European Union signs a WTO accession pact with China October Clinton signs a law giving China normal trade status with U.S. January, Further multilateral talks end in acrimony as China and some WTO members disagree on farm subsidies. June 9 -- China and the U.S. announce consensus on issues holding up China's entry, including farm subsidies, after meetings on the sidelines of an APEC trade ministers' meeting. June The European Union says it has resolved outstanding bilateral issues with China over its accession. September WTO members agree on terms for China's entry at an informal meeting, clearing the way for the nation to join by the end of the year. November Trade ministers from across the world officially approve China's entry. The move was approved unanimously at the WTO meeting in the Gulf state of Qatar December China ends its 15-year quest to join, officially becoming a fully-fledged member of the international trading system.

11 What has been changed/reformed? Chinas entry into the WTO set in motion the most far-reaching reforms since Beijing since Chinas entry into the WTO set in motion the most far-reaching reforms since Beijing since Over 1100 laws and regulations have been changed since 2001 Over 1100 laws and regulations have been changed since 2001 China can not impose one level of barriers (e.g., tariffs) against one member country and another level for others China can not impose one level of barriers (e.g., tariffs) against one member country and another level for others China will participate in the WTO's dispute settlement system China will participate in the WTO's dispute settlement system Manufactured goods saw the largest decrease in tariffs. Manufactured goods saw the largest decrease in tariffs. Tariffs were eliminated on computers, semiconductors and other information technology products in compliance with the Information Technology Agreement Tariffs were eliminated on computers, semiconductors and other information technology products in compliance with the Information Technology Agreement In agriculture, it has pledged to bind all tariffs and reduce them from an average level of 31.5 percent to 17.4 percent In agriculture, it has pledged to bind all tariffs and reduce them from an average level of 31.5 percent to 17.4 percent Foreign car makers will be able to distribute and retail vehicles on their own, and provide financing to buyers. Foreign car makers will be able to distribute and retail vehicles on their own, and provide financing to buyers.

12 What has been changed/reformed? China has promised to open its telecommunications, financial services, distribution, and many other industries to foreign service providers. China has promised to open its telecommunications, financial services, distribution, and many other industries to foreign service providers. Pledged to apply its trade policy uniformly across the country and to enforce only those laws, regulations, and other measures that have been published beforehand. Pledged to apply its trade policy uniformly across the country and to enforce only those laws, regulations, and other measures that have been published beforehand. Agreed to eliminate all prohibited subsidies (including those to state-owned enterprises), liberalize trading rights, and require state trading companies to conduct their operations in a commercial manner. Agreed to eliminate all prohibited subsidies (including those to state-owned enterprises), liberalize trading rights, and require state trading companies to conduct their operations in a commercial manner. - kari.htm

13 WTO Entry Boosts Economy GDP grew by 7.9% in the year following entry to WTO GDP grew by 7.9% in the year following entry to WTO Increase of 18.4% in trade volume with the United States after one year Increase of 18.4% in trade volume with the United States after one year Chinas exports increased by 19.7% after one year Chinas exports increased by 19.7% after one year Due to improved trading environment, China became the 4 th largest trade body in the world behind only the United States, EU and Japan Due to improved trading environment, China became the 4 th largest trade body in the world behind only the United States, EU and Japan

14 Foreign Investment Influx of foreign investment has increased rapidly since entry to WTO because of increased confidence from multinationals Influx of foreign investment has increased rapidly since entry to WTO because of increased confidence from multinationals China experienced an increase of 22.55% in foreign direct investment one year after WTO entry China experienced an increase of 22.55% in foreign direct investment one year after WTO entry Foreign Investment has exceeded the United States, making the country the largest foreign investment destination in the world Foreign Investment has exceeded the United States, making the country the largest foreign investment destination in the world Low cost labor and vast market, which provide a great scope for profit, make investors confident in investing time and resources into China Low cost labor and vast market, which provide a great scope for profit, make investors confident in investing time and resources into China

15 Private Sector Private Sector has seen rapid growth after being discriminated against in the past Private Sector has seen rapid growth after being discriminated against in the past Private Sectors have been barred from direct foreign trade Private Sectors have been barred from direct foreign trade Financing had been blocked by government policies which blocked growth Financing had been blocked by government policies which blocked growth WTO policies forced China to treat all enterprises, whether state owned or not, equally WTO policies forced China to treat all enterprises, whether state owned or not, equally All domestic enterprises can trade freely and idependently in foreign trade All domestic enterprises can trade freely and idependently in foreign trade In Zhejiang Province, for example, 80 % of the 1,700 enterprises that were granted the right to conduct foreign trade this year are private firms. In the first nine months of this year, the foreign trade volume of those private companies was 3.5 times that for the same period last year. In Zhejiang Province, for example, 80 % of the 1,700 enterprises that were granted the right to conduct foreign trade this year are private firms. In the first nine months of this year, the foreign trade volume of those private companies was 3.5 times that for the same period last year.

16 Benefits for United States: Agriculture Chinas entry into the WTO will cut barriers to the sale of American Agricultural products Chinas entry into the WTO will cut barriers to the sale of American Agricultural products This agreement will expand Americas access to a market of over a billion people This agreement will expand Americas access to a market of over a billion people Tariffs have dropped from an average of 31% to 14% Tariffs have dropped from an average of 31% to 14% beef, poultry, pork, cheese, and other commodities will experience a more significant drop beef, poultry, pork, cheese, and other commodities will experience a more significant drop -China is the worlds largest consumer of pork and up until recently they have had high import tariffs

17 Tariff Reductions

18 What does the future hold for China in the WTO? Economic growth will continue and more reforms will be made Economic growth will continue and more reforms will be made China will have access to advanced technology China will have access to advanced technology By 2010, all of Chinas tariffs will eventually be reduced to 15% By 2010, all of Chinas tariffs will eventually be reduced to 15% Banks will begin to launch massive market oriented reform programs to prepare for competition from outside markets Banks will begin to launch massive market oriented reform programs to prepare for competition from outside markets Business standards will continue to rise Business standards will continue to rise Chinese citizens will begin to receive 3 key things: Chinese citizens will begin to receive 3 key things: 1. More Rights 2. Better Government Services 3. Equal Treatment

19 Final Question As Chinas economy grows, so does their demand for energy. This is reflected through examples like cnoocs attempted acquisition of Unical and Chinas involvement with anti-American nations like Iran and Sudan. As Chinas economy grows, so does their demand for energy. This is reflected through examples like cnoocs attempted acquisition of Unical and Chinas involvement with anti-American nations like Iran and Sudan. -How will Chinas acquisition of energy in anti-American countries change the China- U.S. relationship?

20 The End


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