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1 of 23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools OSullivan, Sheffrin,

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Presentation on theme: "1 of 23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools OSullivan, Sheffrin,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 of 23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools OSullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e.

2 2 of 23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools OSullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e.

3 3 of 23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools OSullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. International Trade and Public Policy F ERNANDO Q UIJANO, Y VONN Q UIJANO, AND X IAO X UAN X U P R E P A R E D B Y Ever since World War II, the nations of the world have regularly negotiated trade agreements with each other that have successively reduced barriers to global trade. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools OSullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e.

4 C H A P T E R 18 International Trade and Public Policy 4 of 23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools OSullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. BENEFITS FROM SPECIALIZATION AND TRADE 18.1 How Free Trade Affects Employment Under free trade, each nation will begin to specialize in a single good, causing considerable changes in the countrys employment in different industries. Switching from self-sufficiency to specialization and trade increases consumption in both nations, so on average, people in each nation benefit from free trade.

5 C H A P T E R 18 International Trade and Public Policy 5 of 23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools OSullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. PROTECTIONIST POLICIES 18.2 Import Bans FIGURE 18.3 Effects of an Import Ban In the free-trade equilibrium, demand intersects the total supply curve at point c, with a price of $12 and a quantity of 80 shirts. If shirt imports are banned, the equilibrium is shown by the intersection of the demand curve and the domestic supply curve (point a). The price increases to $23.

6 C H A P T E R 18 International Trade and Public Policy 6 of 23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools OSullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. PROTECTIONIST POLICIES 18.2 Quotas and Voluntary Export Restraints import quota A government-imposed limit on the quantity of a good that can be imported. voluntary export restraint (VER) A scheme under which an exporting country voluntarily decreases its exports.

7 C H A P T E R 18 International Trade and Public Policy 7 of 23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools OSullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. PROTECTIONIST POLICIES 18.2 Quotas and Voluntary Export Restraints FIGURE 18.4 Market Effects of a Quota, a VER, or a Tariff An import quota shifts the supply curve to the left. The market moves upward along the demand curve to point d, which is between point c (free trade) and a (an import ban). We can reach the same point with a tariff that shifts the total supply curve to the same position.

8 C H A P T E R 18 International Trade and Public Policy 8 of 23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools OSullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. PROTECTIONIST POLICIES 18.2 Quotas and Voluntary Export Restraints import licenses Rights, issued by a government, to import goods. tariff A tax on imported goods. Responses to Protectionist Policies A restriction on imports is likely to lead to further restrictions on trade. Many import restrictions have led to retaliatory policies and substantially lessened trade. The most famous was the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act of When the United States increased its average tariff on imports to 59 percent, its trading partners retaliated with higher tariffs on U.S. products. The resulting trade war reduced international trade and deepened the worldwide depression of the 1930s.

9 C H A P T E R 18 International Trade and Public Policy 9 of 23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools OSullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. Economists have found that tariffs in the United States fall most heavily on lower- income consumers. Footwear accounts for: 1.3 percent of the expenditure of lower-income households. 0.5 percent of the expenditure of higher-income households. The highest tariffs fall on the cheapest productsprecisely those that will be purchased by lower-income consumers. Low-price sneakers face a 32 percent tariff. Expensive track shoes face only a 20 percent tariff. To protect U.S. industries, tariffs are highest on labor-intensive goods. But these goods tend to be lower priced. That is why tariffs do fall disproportionately on the poor. THE IMPACT OF TARIFFS ON THE POOR APPLYING THE CONCEPTS #1: Do tariffs (taxes) on imported goods hurt the poor disproportionately? A P P L I C A T I O N 1

10 C H A P T E R 18 International Trade and Public Policy 10 of 23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools OSullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. WHAT ARE THE RATIONALES FOR PROTECTIONIST POLICIES? 18.3 To Shield Workers from Foreign Competition learning by doing Knowledge and skills workers gain during production that increase productivity and lower cost. infant industries Industries that are at an early stage of development. To Help Domestic Firms Establish Monopolies in World Markets To Nurture Infant Industries until They Mature One of the most basic arguments for protectionism is that it shields workers in industries that would be hurt by trade. If the production of a particular good requires extremely large economies of scale, the world market will support only a few, or perhaps just one, firm.

11 C H A P T E R 18 International Trade and Public Policy 11 of 23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools OSullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. The Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas examined the cost to the United States to protect jobs in 20 different industries. Following are the top five industries in terms of costs per job saved: In other industries, the cost per job may be a bit lower, but the total cost to the economy is much higher because the number of jobs saved is much higher. In textiles and apparels, the annual cost per job is only $199,241, but the total cost of protecting this industry is $33.6 billion a year. MEASURING THE COSTS OF PROTECTING JOBS APPLYING THE CONCEPTS #2: How much does it really cost to save a job that might be lost under free trade? A P P L I C A T I O N 2

12 C H A P T E R 18 International Trade and Public Policy 12 of 23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools OSullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. In response to the spread of protectionism, the French economist Frédéric Bastiat (1801–1850) wrote the following fictitious petition, in which French candle makers asked for protection from unfair competition: Does it not argue to the greatest inconsistency to check as you do the importation of coal, iron, cheese, and goods of foreign manufacture, merely because... their price approaches zero, while at the same time you freely admit, and without limitation, the light of the sun, whose price is during the whole day at zero? PROTECTION FOR CANDLE MAKERS APPLYING THE CONCEPTS #3: Does the concept of unfair competition make sense? A P P L I C A T I O N 3

13 C H A P T E R 18 International Trade and Public Policy 13 of 23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools OSullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. A BRIEF HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL TARIFF AND TRADE AGREEMENTS 18.4 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) An international agreement established in 1947 that has lowered trade barriers between the United States and other nations. World Trade Organization (WTO) An organization established in 1995 that oversees GATT and other international trade agreements, resolves trade disputes, and holds forums for further rounds of trade negotiations. In addition to the large group of nations in the WTO, other nations have formed trade associations to lower trade barriers and promote international trade: The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) The European Union (EU) Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Dominican Republic - Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA)

14 C H A P T E R 18 International Trade and Public Policy 14 of 23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools OSullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. RECENT POLICY DEBATES AND TRADE AGREEMENTS 18.5 dumping A situation in which the price a firm charges in a foreign market is lower than either the price it charges in its home markets or the production cost. price discrimination The process under which a firm divides consumers into two or more groups and charges a different price for each group buying the same product. Are Foreign Producers Dumping Their Products? predatory pricing A pricing scheme under which a firm decreases the price to drive rival firms out of business and increases the price when rival firms leave the market.

15 C H A P T E R 18 International Trade and Public Policy 15 of 23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Macroeconomics: Principles, Applications, and Tools OSullivan, Sheffrin, Perez 6/e. RECENT POLICY DEBATES AND TRADE AGREEMENTS 18.5 outsourcing Firms producing components of their goods and services in other countries. Do Trade Laws Inhibit Environmental Protection? Do Outsourcing and Trade Cause Income Inequality? Why Do People Protest Free Trade? Trade disputes about environmental issues are part of a larger phenomenon that occurs when trade issues and national regulations collide. As we have seen in this chapter, trade and specialization provide important opportunities to raise living standards throughout the globe. But they also mean individuals and nations surrender some of their independence and sovereignty.


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