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ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 1/21 Trade Restrictions: Tariffs Chapter 8.

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Presentation on theme: "ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 1/21 Trade Restrictions: Tariffs Chapter 8."— Presentation transcript:

1 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 1/21 Trade Restrictions: Tariffs Chapter 8

2 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 2/21 1 Introduction The partial equilibrium effects and general equilibrium effects of a tariff in a small and large country; The effective rate of protection and the optimum tariff; The theory of tariff structure.

3 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 3/21 Key Terms Ad valorem tariff Specific tariff Compound tariff Sonsumption effect Production effect Trade effect Revenue effect Consumer surplus Producer surplus Norminal tariff Prohibitive tariff Optimum tariff

4 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 4/21 2 Tariff and Its Effects A tariff is a tax or duty levied on the traded commodities as they cross national boundaries. An import tariff is a duty on imported commodities, while an export tariff is a duty on exported commodities. We levy tariff according to the price, the quantity or both. The first is called ad valorem tariff, the second one is called specific tariff and the last one is called a compound tariff.

5 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 5/ Effects of a Tariff in a Small Nation Consumption effect: the reduction in domestic consumption; Production effect: expansion of domestic production resulting from the tariff; Trade effect: the decline in imports; Revenue effect: the revenue collected by the government. But the effect of tariff in a small nation is totally different from the effect of a tariff in a large nation.

6 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 6/ Partial Equilibrium Effects of a Tariff in a Small Nation

7 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 7/ Consumer and Producer Surplus in a Small Nation What is consumer surplus? What is producer surplus?

8 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 8/21 What is a, b, c, and d ? 2.4 Partial Equilibrium Costs and Benefits of a Tariff in a Small Nation

9 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 9/21 When a small nation imposes a tariff, it will not affect world prices. However the domestic price of the importable commodity will rise by the amount of the tariff for producers and consumers in the small nation. But for the whole nation, the price remains the same since the small nation itself collects the tariff. When a small nation imposes a tariff, it will not affect world prices. However the domestic price of the importable commodity will rise by the amount of the tariff for producers and consumers in the small nation. But for the whole nation, the price remains the same since the small nation itself collects the tariff. THIS POINT IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT! 2.5 General Equilibrium Analysis of a Tariff in a Small Nation

10 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 10/ General Equilibrium Effects of a Tariff in a Small Nation

11 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 11/21 3 The Stolper-Samuelson Theorem It postulates that an increase in the relative price of a commodity raises the return or earnings of the factor used intensively in the production of the commodity. For example, when nation 2 imposes an import tariff on X, Px/Py rises for domestic producers and consumers and it will raise the real wage of labor because X is labor intensive. It postulates that an increase in the relative price of a commodity raises the return or earnings of the factor used intensively in the production of the commodity. For example, when nation 2 imposes an import tariff on X, Px/Py rises for domestic producers and consumers and it will raise the real wage of labor because X is labor intensive. The Stolper-Samuelson theorem is always true for small nations and is usually true for large nations as well. The Stolper-Samuelson theorem is always true for small nations and is usually true for large nations as well.

12 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 12/21 4 General Equilibrium Analysis of a Tariff in a Large Nation When a large nation imposes a tariff, its offer curve shifts or rotates toward the axis measuring its importable commodity by the amount of the import tariff. The reason is that for any amount of the export commodity, importers now want sufficiently more of the import commodity to also cover (i.e., pay for) the tariff. When a large nation imposes a tariff, its offer curve shifts or rotates toward the axis measuring its importable commodity by the amount of the import tariff. The reason is that for any amount of the export commodity, importers now want sufficiently more of the import commodity to also cover (i.e., pay for) the tariff. Under these circumstances, imposition of a tariff by a large nation reduces the volume of trade but improves the nation's terms of trade. The reduction in the volume of trade, by itself, tends to reduce the nation's welfare, while the improvement in its terms of trade tends to increase the nation's welfare. Whether the nation's welfare actually rises or falls depends on the net effect of these two opposing forces. Under these circumstances, imposition of a tariff by a large nation reduces the volume of trade but improves the nation's terms of trade. The reduction in the volume of trade, by itself, tends to reduce the nation's welfare, while the improvement in its terms of trade tends to increase the nation's welfare. Whether the nation's welfare actually rises or falls depends on the net effect of these two opposing forces.

13 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 13/ Partial Equilibrium Effects of a Tariff in a Large Nation

14 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 14/ General Equilibrium Analysis of a Tariff in a Large Nation

15 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 15/21 Px/ Py=0.625, Py/Px=1/ 0.625=1.6 5 Optimum Tariff and Retaliation

16 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 16/21 6 Effective Rate of Protection We have norminal tariff & effective rate of Protection. Nominal tariff: it is calculated on the value of the final commodity. It is important to consumers because it indicates the increased price. Effective rate of protection: it is calculated on the domestic value added that takes place in the nation. It is important to the producers because it indicates how much protection is actually provided to the domestic processing and import- competing commodity.

17 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 17/ Example of ERP Suppose that $80 of imported wool goes into the domestic production of a suit and the free trade price of the suit is $100 but the nation imposes a 10% nominal tariff on each imported suit. The price of suits to domestic consumers would then be $110. Of this, $80 represents imported wool, $20 is domestic value added, and $10 is the tariff. Suppose that $80 of imported wool goes into the domestic production of a suit and the free trade price of the suit is $100 but the nation imposes a 10% nominal tariff on each imported suit. The price of suits to domestic consumers would then be $110. Of this, $80 represents imported wool, $20 is domestic value added, and $10 is the tariff. The $10 tariff collected on each imported suit represents a 10 percent nominal tariff rate since the nominal tariff is calculated on the price of the final commodity (i.e., $10/$100 = 10%) but corresponds to a 50% effective tariff rate because the effective tariff is calculated on the value added domestically to the suit (i.e., $10/$20 = 50%). The $10 tariff collected on each imported suit represents a 10 percent nominal tariff rate since the nominal tariff is calculated on the price of the final commodity (i.e., $10/$100 = 10%) but corresponds to a 50% effective tariff rate because the effective tariff is calculated on the value added domestically to the suit (i.e., $10/$20 = 50%).

18 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 18/ Measurement of the ERP g=the effective rate of protection g=the effective rate of protection t=the nominal rate on final commodity t=the nominal rate on final commodity a i = the ratio of the cost of the imported input to the price of the final commodity in the absence of tariffs a i = the ratio of the cost of the imported input to the price of the final commodity in the absence of tariffs t i =the nominal tariff rate on the imported input t i =the nominal tariff rate on the imported input For many inputs: For one input:

19 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 19/21 A tariff on imported inputs is a tax on domestic producers that increases their costs of production, reduces the rate of effective protection on the final commodity produced domestically, and therefore discourages domestic production. A tariff on imported inputs is a tax on domestic producers that increases their costs of production, reduces the rate of effective protection on the final commodity produced domestically, and therefore discourages domestic production. 6.3 Conclusion

20 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 20/21 7 Cascading Tariff Structure Nominal tariff is very low on the raw materials, and it is getting higher and higher with the greater degree of processing.

21 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 21/21 8 Questions for Discussion What are the different forms of tariff? What are the different effects? What is the difference between nominal tariff and effective rate of protection? What are the differences what a large nation and small nation levy a tariff? What is the tariff structure of different nations?

22 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 22/21 THANK YOU!


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