Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Taxes, Subsidies, and Tariffs: Small Country Udayan Roy

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Taxes, Subsidies, and Tariffs: Small Country Udayan Roy"— Presentation transcript:

1 Taxes, Subsidies, and Tariffs: Small Country Udayan Roy

2 The Effects of a Tariff A tariff is a tax on imported goods Tariffs raise the price of imported goods above the world price by the amount of the tariff. This –Reduces consumption, … –Increases production, and thereby … –Reduces the amount imported

3 Price of Steel 0 Quantity of Steel Domestic supply Domestic demand Price after tariff Tariff Imports under free trade Equilibrium without trade Price before tariff World price Imports with tariff Q S Q S Q D Q D Effects of a Tariff on Prices and Quantities

4 Price of Steel 0 Quantity of Steel Domestic supply Domestic demand Imports under free trade Equilibrium without trade Price before tariff World price Q S Q D Producer surplus before tariff Consumer surplus before tariff Welfare under free trade

5 A B Price of Steel 0 Quantity of Steel Domestic supply Domestic demand Price after tariff Tariff Imports under free trade Equilibrium without trade Price before tariff World price Imports with tariff Q S Q S Q D Q D Consumer surplus after tariff Consumer Surplus after Tariff

6 C G Price of Steel 0 Quantity of Steel Domestic supply Domestic demand Price after tariff Tariff Imports under free trade Equilibrium without trade Price before tariff World price Q S Imports after tariff Q S Q D Q D Producer surplus after tariff Producer Surplus after Tariff

7 E Price of Steel 0 Quantity of Steel Domestic supply Domestic demand Price after tariff Tariff Imports under free trade Price before tariff World price Q S Imports after tariff Q S Q D Q D Tariff Revenue Governments Revenue from Tariff

8 Effects of Tariff on Social Welfare C G A EDF B Price of Steel 0 Quantity of Steel Domestic supply Domestic demand Price with tariff Tariff Imports without tariff Price without tariff World price Imports after tariff Q S Q S Q D Q D Deadweight Loss

9 Effects of Tariff on Social Welfare C G A EDF B Price of Steel 0 Quantity of Steel Domestic supply Domestic demand Price with tariff Tariff Imports without tariff Price without tariff World price Imports after tariff Q S Q S Q D Q D Deadweight Loss

10 The Effects of a Tariff

11 Welfare Effects of a Tariff Consumers of the imported good are worse off (compared to free trade) Producers of the imported good are better off The government gains some revenue Total surplus decreases, because the loss to consumers is larger than the gains to the producers and to the government The decrease in total surplus is called the deadweight loss of the tariff.

12 Tariffs are third best The tariff can be thought of as the combination of a production subsidy and a consumption tax The only rationale for a tariff is that it helps producers But even that goal can be better achieved by using only a production subsidy That way, the bad effects of the consumption tax can be avoided

13 CONSUMPTION TAX

14 Price of Steel 0 Quantity of Steel Domestic supply Domestic demand Consumption Tax Imports under free trade Equilibrium without trade World price Imports after tax = Q S Q S Q D Consumption Tax Purchase price after tax Purchase price before tax Q D

15 Price of Steel 0 Quantity of Steel Consumption Tax Imports under free trade Imports after tax = Q S Q D Consumption Tax Purchase price before tax D C G A EF B Domestic demand Purchase price after tax Q D World price Domestic supply Equilibrium without trade Deadweight loss of the consumption tax Free TradeConsumption Tax Consumers SurplusABCDEFAB Producers SurplusGG GovernmentCDE Total SurplusABCDEFGABCDEG Q S

16 Price of Steel 0 Quantity of Steel Consumption Tax Imports under free trade Imports after tax = Q S Q D Consumption Tax Purchase price before tax D C G A EF B Domestic demand Purchase price after tax Q D World price Domestic supply Equilibrium without trade Deadweight loss of the consumption tax Q S

17 Consumption Tax Free TradeConsumption Tax Consumers Surplus ABCDEFAB Producers Surplus GG GovernmentCDE Total SurplusABCDEFGABCDEG The deadweight loss of the consumption tax is F, less than D + F, the deadweight loss of the tariff.

18 Consumption Tax When a small country imposes a consumption tax on the imported good –Production is unchanged, and –Consumption decreases. Therefore, –The amount imported decreases. –Consumers lose –Producers are unaffected –The government gains some tax revenue –The country as a whole is worse off

19 PRODUCTION SUBSIDY

20 Price of Steel 0 Quantity of Steel Domestic supply Domestic demand Production Subsidy Imports under free trade World Price Imports after subsidy Q S Q S Q D Q D = Production Subsidy Price sellers get after subsidy Price sellers get before subsidy price buyers pay, with or without the subsidy

21 D C G A EF B Price of Steel 0 Quantity of Steel Domestic supply Domestic demand Price For sellers Production Subsidy Imports under free trade Price For buyers World price Imports with subsidy Q S Q S Q D Deadweight Loss Q D = Production Subsidy Free TradeProduction Subsidy Consumers SurplusABCDEF Producers SurplusGCGCG Government-CD Total SurplusABCDEFGABCEFG

22 D C G A EF B Price of Steel 0 Quantity of Steel Domestic supply Domestic demand Price For sellers Production Subsidy Imports under free trade Price For buyers World price Imports with subsidy Q S Q S Q D Deadweight Loss Q D = Production Subsidy

23 Free TradeProduction Subsidy Consumers Surplus ABCDEF Producers Surplus GCGCG Government-CD Total SurplusABCDEFGABCEFG

24 Production Subsidy When a small country gives a subsidy to domestic producers of an imported good –Consumers are unaffected –Producers gain (C), same as under the tariff –Taxpayers have to pay for the subsidy (CD) –Overall, the country is worse off (D). –Recall that under the tariff, the country suffered even more (DF) –Tariffs are third best

25 Tariff = Consumption Tax + Production Subsidy

26 TARIFFS ARE A THIRD-BEST POLICY

27 Price of Steel 0 Quantity of Steel Domestic supply Domestic demand Price with tariff Tariff Imports without tariff Equilibrium without trade Price without tariff World price Imports with tariff Q S Q S Q D Q D Q: What if a tariff is replaced by a production subsidy and a consumption tax, both equal in size to the tariff? A: The outcome would be identical to the outcome under the tariff.

28 Tariffs are third best The tariff can be thought of as the combination of a production subsidy and a consumption tax The only rationale for a tariff is that it helps producers But even that goal can be better achieved by using only a production subsidy That way, the bad effects of the consumption tax can be avoided

29 Tariffs are third best We can also establish the superiority of the production subsidy over the tariff by a head- to-head comparison

30 D C G A EF B Price of Steel 0 Quantity of Steel Domestic supply Domestic demand Price For sellers Production Subsidy Imports under free trade Price For buyers World price Imports with subsidy Q S Q S Q D Q D = Q: What if the tariff shown earlier were replaced by a production subsidy equal in size to the tariff? A: Producers would not complain. Consumers would be delighted. Taxpayers would complain. The country as a whole would be better off. TariffProduction Subsidy Consumers SurplusABABCDEF Producers SurplusCG GovernmentE-CD Total SurplusABCEGABCEFG

31 D C G A EF B Price of Steel 0 Quantity of Steel Domestic supply Domestic demand Price after intervention government intervention Imports under free trade Free Trade Price World price Q S Q S Q D Deadweight Loss Free Tradezero Production SubsidyD Consumption TaxF TariffD + F Q D

32 THE IMPORT QUOTA In its welfare effects, not all that different from the tariff

33 The Effects of an Import Quota An import quota is a limitimposed by the domestic governmenton the quantity of a good that can be produced abroad and sold domestically.

34 The Effects of an Import Quota Price of Steel 0 Quantity of Steel Domestic supply Domestic supply + Import supply Domestic demand Isolandian price with quota Imports without quota Equilibrium with quota Equilibrium without trade Quota Imports with quota Q D World price World price Price without quota = Q S Q D Q S

35 The Effects of an Import Quota Because the quota raises the domestic price above the world price, –domestic buyers of the good are worse off, and –domestic sellers of the good are better off. Import license holders are better off –they make a profit from buying at the world price and selling at the higher domestic price.

36 The Effects of an Import Quota A E' C B G D E" F Price of Steel 0 Quantity of Steel Domestic supply Domestic supply + Import supply Domestic demand Isolandian price with quota Imports without quota Equilibrium with quota Equilibrium without trade Quota Imports with quota Q D World price World price Price without quota = Q S Q D Q S

37 The Effects of an Import Quota

38 With a quota, total surplus in the market decreases by an amount referred to as a deadweight loss. The quota can potentially cause an even larger deadweight loss, if a political mechanism such as lobbying is employed to allocate the import licenses.

39 Tariffs v. Quotas If government sells import licenses for full value, –the revenue would equal that from an equivalent tariff and –tariffs and quotas would have identical results. Otherwise, quotas are worse than tariffs

40 The Lessons for Trade Policy Both tariffs and import quotas... –raise domestic prices. –reduce the welfare of domestic consumers. –increase the welfare of domestic producers. –cause deadweight losses.


Download ppt "Taxes, Subsidies, and Tariffs: Small Country Udayan Roy"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google