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©2011 – H. Kim, J. Morrison – ICSSSM11 – June 26, 2011 Experiments on Education as a Service Hyoyoung Kim James R. Morrison Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering KAIST

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©2011 – H. Kim, J. Morrison – ICSSSM11 – June 26, 2011 - 2 Contents Motivation Experiments Statistical Analysis Concluding Remarks

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©2011 – H. Kim, J. Morrison – ICSSSM11 – June 26, 2011 - 3 Literature Review Past ResearchMy Research University Experience O [1,2,4] X Class experienceXO Kano Classification Basic Need O [1,4] X Performance Need O [1,2,4] X Excitement NeedXO QFD Approach O [1,3] X SERVQUAL Approach O [3,4] O Statistical Analysis Wilcoxon signed-rank testXO Kruskal-Wallis testXO Experiment on single courseXO [1] Bagchi, U.;, "Delivering student satisfaction in higher education: A QFD approach," Service Systems and Service Management (ICSSSM), 2010 7th International Conference on, vol., no., pp.1-4, 28-30 June 2010, doi: 10.1109/ICSSSM.2010.5530090 [2] Mathew Joseph, Beatriz Joseph, (1997) "Service quality in education: a student perspective", Quality Assurance in Education, Vol. 5 Iss: 1, pp.15 – 21 [3] Sangeeta Sahney, D.K. Banwet, S. Karunes, (2004) "A SERVQUAL and QFD approach to total quality education: A student perspective", International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Vol. 53 Iss: 2, pp.143 – 166 [4] Kay C. Tan and Sei W. Kek, (2004) Service Quality in Higher Education Using an enhanced SERVQUAL approach, Quality in Higher Education, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 17-24

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©2011 – H. Kim, J. Morrison – ICSSSM11 – June 26, 2011 - 4 Motivation Course Experience Satisfaction Evaluation Teaching Better Take Home Point: Good service improves the student experience and increases satisfaction But what is good service? Service

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©2011 – H. Kim, J. Morrison – ICSSSM11 – June 26, 2011 - 5 Motivation Identify how to increase customer satisfaction in Education Experiment 1 – GOAL: Determine Basic, Performance, and Excitement needs – Kanos model survey – Result: Identified 4 BN, 11 PN, 20 EN Experiment 2 – GOAL: Determine which services (among excitement needs) make statistically significant difference in student satisfaction – SERVQUAL survey – Result: Observed drift of service and service memory effect Numerous services improve/influence student perceptions

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©2011 – H. Kim, J. Morrison – ICSSSM11 – June 26, 2011 - 6 Experiment 1 - Spring, 2010 GOAL: Determine Basic, Performance, and Excitement needs KAIST IE 200 Introduction to Operations Research class Class size: 186 students (from all science and engineering majors) Conducted Kanos model survey – 76 Functional and Dysfunctional questions – 18 Solution questions – 15 Overall satisfaction questions Functional Dysfunctional

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©2011 – H. Kim, J. Morrison – ICSSSM11 – June 26, 2011 - 7 Experiment 1 - Spring, 2010 RESULTS: Basic Need (Must-be): – Lecture room density is NOT high (large room size with small number of students) – Lecture notes are uploaded at least one day before class – Lecture room is NOT disturbed by outside noise – Class time is well kept Must-be Dissatisfaction Done very wellDone very poorly Satisfaction

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©2011 – H. Kim, J. Morrison – ICSSSM11 – June 26, 2011 - 8 Experiment 1 - Spring, 2010 RESULTS: Performance Need (One-dimensional): – Exams and/or homework are directly related to lectures – You feel you learned a lot at the end of the semester – Lecture room is close to dormitory – Professor is confident about lecture contents – Professor enjoys teaching – Professor prepares the lecture well – Professor delivers the lecture clearly – Lecture is easy to understand – Professor respects you – TAs are kind – Lecture notes are easily understandable – Lecture room is clean Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Done very wellDone very poorly One-dimensional

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©2011 – H. Kim, J. Morrison – ICSSSM11 – June 26, 2011 - 9 Experiment 1 - Spring, 2010 RESULTS: Excitement Need: – Furniture and classroom equipment are up-to-date – Professor gives candies when answering questions – Professor and TAs provide sufficient and convenient office hours – Professor is humorous – Professor smiles while giving lectures – Professor cares about students – Professors appearance is neat – Professor calls students by name – Professor is kind – In-class activities are fun – Course material can be applied in the real world – Lectures make you think Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Done very wellDone very poorly Attractive

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©2011 – H. Kim, J. Morrison – ICSSSM11 – June 26, 2011 - 10 Experiment 2 - Fall, 2010 KAIST IE 332 Operations Research II class, 60 students (IE majors) SERVQUAL survey to measure expectation, performance, and importance GOAL: Determine which excitement needs measurably improve student satisfaction TopicServiceDuration Chap. 2Professor is humorous2 weeks Chap. 3Candies or rewards are given when asking or answering questions2 weeks Chap. 4Fun in-class activities2 weeks Chap. 5Nominal service2 weeks Chap. 6Full service3 weeks Chap. 7Real world application + full service3 weeks

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©2011 – H. Kim, J. Morrison – ICSSSM11 – June 26, 2011 - 11 Experiment 2 - Fall, 2010 Handling missing data: Regression Data reliability: Cronbachs alpha (α) – 0 α 1, α, reliable – Recommended to have a reliability of 0.70 or higher to be used as data – Data of six surveys: 0.89 α 0.94 can trust data Correlation – Measure of how much each pair of scores relates Statistical testing – SAS 9.1 – Wilcoxon signed-rank test (paired sample test) – Kruskal-Wallis test 0.00-0.25: little if any 0.26-0.49: low 0.50-0.69: moderate 0.70-0.89: high 0.90-1.00: very high non-parametric statistical hypothesis test for the case of two related samples a non-parametric method for testing equality of population medians among groups

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©2011 – H. Kim, J. Morrison – ICSSSM11 – June 26, 2011 - 12 Statistical Analysis Service HumorCandyIn-classNominalFullApplication Survey Humor4.410 4.1884.1004.109 4.351 4.231 Candy3.8974.1733.3673.0474.2633.654 In-class2.9623.1164.2503.4784.4394.1 Application3.3723.3483.5503.5223.6323.712 Perception 1: Strongly disagree 2: Disagree 3: Neutral 4: Agree 5; Strongly agree

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©2011 – H. Kim, J. Morrison – ICSSSM11 – June 26, 2011 - 13 Statistical Analysis Service HumorCandyIn-classNominalFullApplication Survey Humor4.410 4.1884.1004.109 4.351 4.231 Accept (p-value: 0.420 0.05) Reject (p-value: 0.017 0.05) Reject (p-value: 0.003 0.05) Accept (p-value: 0.854 0.05) Reject (p-value: 0.013 0.05) Accept (p-value: 0.939 0.05) Input – Jokes and funny/silly examples – Short funny music Output – Spillover effect – effect of humor lasted longer than other services. – H0: there is no difference or relationship between the variables of interest – If p-value 0.05, H0 is accepted no difference in measurements – Students still remembered humor and rated humor higher on the next survey 1: Strongly disagree 2: Disagree 3: Neutral 4: Agree 5; Strongly agree

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©2011 – H. Kim, J. Morrison – ICSSSM11 – June 26, 2011 - 14 Statistical Analysis Service HumorCandyIn-classNominalFullApplication Survey Well prepared 4.3594.1164.2834.3044.4564.346 Overall Service 3.9493.7833.9173.8913.9823.885 Enjoyment3.7823.5513.7173.5223.5963.673 Kindness4.3854.2034.1674.1534.3904.308 Outcome Correlation of 0.672 1: Strongly disagree 2: Disagree 3: Neutral 4: Agree 5; Strongly agree

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©2011 – H. Kim, J. Morrison – ICSSSM11 – June 26, 2011 - 15 Input – Give candy to students when they ask or answer questions Output – Perceived candy – Drift of needs (Excitement need to basic need): 2.26/5 3.11/5 for the importance of giving candies Statistical Analysis Service HumorCandyIn-classNominalFullApplication Survey Candy3.8974.1733.3673.0474.2633.654 1: Strongly disagree 2: Disagree 3: Neutral 4: Agree 5; Strongly agree

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©2011 – H. Kim, J. Morrison – ICSSSM11 – June 26, 2011 - 16 Input – Skits – Games – Team activity – Active learning activities Output – Correlation of 0.43324 between in-class activities and confidence Statistical Analysis Service HumorCandyIn-classNominalFullApplication Survey In-class2.9623.1164.2503.4784.4394.1 Time, effort 1: Strongly disagree 2: Disagree 3: Neutral 4: Agree 5; Strongly agree

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©2011 – H. Kim, J. Morrison – ICSSSM11 – June 26, 2011 - 17 Statistical Analysis Service HumorCandyIn-classNominalFullApplication Survey Enjoyment3.7823.5513.7173.5223.5963.673 Kindness4.3854.2034.1674.1534.3904.308 Outcome Significant change Insignificant change 1: Strongly disagree 2: Disagree 3: Neutral 4: Agree 5; Strongly agree

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©2011 – H. Kim, J. Morrison – ICSSSM11 – June 26, 2011 - 18 Service HumorCandyIn-classNominalFullApplication Survey Humor4.410 4.1884.1004.109 4.351 4.231 Candy3.8974.1733.3673.0474.2633.654 In-class2.9623.1164.2503.4784.4394.1 Input – Candy – Humor – In-class activity – Enthusiasm – Neat appearance Output Statistical Analysis 1: Strongly disagree 2: Disagree 3: Neutral 4: Agree 5; Strongly agree

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©2011 – H. Kim, J. Morrison – ICSSSM11 – June 26, 2011 - 19 Statistical Analysis Service HumorCandyIn-classNominalFullApplication Survey Well prepared 4.3594.1164.2834.3044.4564.346 Overall Service 3.9493.7833.9173.8913.9823.885 Outcome – Positive – Negative Service HumorCandyIn-classNominalFullApplication Survey Lecture3.936 3.4493.5173.522 3.298 3.442 Lecture note 3.7693.5073.6833.6093.4913.654 Concentrate3.9103.7833.717 3.6323.654 Significant change Insignificant change

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©2011 – H. Kim, J. Morrison – ICSSSM11 – June 26, 2011 - 20 Concluding Remarks Students perceived the offering of such services We observed needs drift of such services We also observed the service memory effect Needs that require further improvement: Lecture notes are easy to understand Sufficient and convenient office hours Feel you learned a lot Exams and/or homework are directly related to lectures Future Research: Service increases student learning outcome

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©2011 – H. Kim, J. Morrison – ICSSSM11 – June 26, 2011 T hank You. Any Questions ?

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