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Community Tourism Conference 2013 GAINING COMMUNITY SUPPORT FOR TOURISM IN RURAL AREAS OF PORTUGAL Lúcia de Jesus Polytechnic Institute of Viseu.

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Presentation on theme: "Community Tourism Conference 2013 GAINING COMMUNITY SUPPORT FOR TOURISM IN RURAL AREAS OF PORTUGAL Lúcia de Jesus Polytechnic Institute of Viseu."— Presentation transcript:

1 Community Tourism Conference 2013 GAINING COMMUNITY SUPPORT FOR TOURISM IN RURAL AREAS OF PORTUGAL Lúcia de Jesus Polytechnic Institute of Viseu

2 Outline Introduction Literature Review Methodology Study Regions Procedures Discussion of Results Descriptive analysis Test of hypothesis Conclusions

3 Introduction

4 Tourism As a dynamic and exchange process involves a direct relationship between producers and consumers of the tourism product The interaction component, is often the principal element which characterizes the tourism experience (Brida et al., 2011), can have both positive and negative effects Tourists Host Community, since tourism experience is (partly) produced and consumed in the destination

5 Introduction Local community Are key to the success of tourism development, particularly in rural areas Knowledge of their perceptions and attitudes helps the process of planning and marketing a destination (Jurowski & Gursoy, 2004) And to steer present and future tourism development programmes When residents are involved in planning, developing the destination will tend to be more sustainable in that its effects will be considered more appropriate by the host community (Robson & Robson, 1996)

6 Introduction The Study focus On perceptions and attitudes toward rural tourism in rural communities of Portugal and how those perceptions influence the support of residents to tourism development These relationships involves four constructs, namely: Personal benefits, positive and negative perceptions, satisfaction, support

7 Literature Review

8 Literature review Community based Tourism Community Based Tourism Focus on the involvement of the host community, in planning and maintaining tourism development in order to induce the sustainability of the activity (Hall, 1997) Permit host communities to break away from the power of large and tour companies and the oligopoly of some tour elites at a national level Seeks develop the industry in harmony with needs and aspirations of host communities in a way that is acceptable to them, sustains their economies, rather than economies of others, and is not detrimental to their culture, traditions or, their day-to-day convenience (Fitton & Price, 1996, p. 173)

9 Literature review Community based Tourism Local Communities Integrate the touristic product Since their culture, traditions, and history serve as tourist attractions Influence tourists´ experience Kindness Apathy

10 Literature review Community based Tourism Laggard regions Tourism has generally been controlled by large companies Which have given little attention to local economic and sociocultural conditions (Timothy & Loannides, 2002) Many have lack power, making them prone to decision-making beyond their control (Timothy, 2002) Is the case where local people are simply used for tourism development Gap between discourse and practice

11 Literature review Models integrating residents´ perceptions and attitudes Several theoretical models Since 1990s, have proposed explanations for the variations in perceptions and attitudes toward tourism (e.g Andereck et al., 2005), Nonetheless, they use similar constructs Perdue et al., 1990 … Personal benefits, Perceived Positive Impacts, Perceived Negative Impacts, Support for Additional Tourism … Ko & Stewart, 2002 … Personal benefits, Perceived Positive Impacts, Perceived Negative Impacts, Community Satisfaction, Attitudes for Additional Tourism Development… Mcgehee & Andereck, 2004 … Personal benefits, Perceived Positive Impacts, Perceived Negative Impacts, Support for Additional Tourism … Oviedo- Garcia et al., 2008 … Personal benefits, Positive Impacts, Negative Impacts, Global evaluation, Support for Tourism Development….

12 Proposed Model to study Residents´ Support H1: The personal benefits obtained from rural tourism influence residents positive and negative perceptions H2: The personal benefits obtained from rural tourism influence residents satisfaction H3: Residents perceptions toward rural tourism determine their satisfaction H4: Residents satisfaction in relation to rural tourism contributes to the support given to the activity

13 Methodology

14 Framework This presentation is the result of A broader investigation, inserted in a co-financed doctoral project by the Portuguese Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) A larger Research Project - "The overall rural tourism experience (ORTE) and sustainable local community development", financed by the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (co-financed by COMPETE, QREN e FEDER) (PTDC/CS-GEO/104894/2008) and coordinated by Elisabeth Kastenholz

15 Methodology Study Regions and Procedures Study Regions Dão-Lafões Region and Douro Region Present symptoms of interiority and poverty, with few job opportunities Due to their resources, these two regions hold an enormous tourism potential DLR has the most attractive spas of the country DR is a World Heritage Site, since 2001

16 Methodology Study Regions and Procedures Procedures The data on residents perceptions and support was collected with face to face questionnaires (190) in 2010 Including open, closed and likert scale questions In the regions the number of surveys to be conducted was determined by sampling by quotas (which took into account the criteria of residents gender and age) Data was treated with SPSS software General description of results Test the hypothesis that affect residents support - were tested with Mann-whitney and Spearman rho tests, for = 0.050

17 Discussion of Results

18 Discussion of Results Descriptive Analysis VARIABLESn% GENDER Female Male 109 81 42,6 AGE < 24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 > 65 years 34 18 19 36 40 43 17,9 9,5 10 18,9 21,1 LITERACY Do not know read or write 1.º Cycle (1-4 years) 2.º Cycle (5-6 years) 3.º Cycle (7-9 years) General secondary Higher educations 4 103 9 35 27 8 2,1 4,7 18,4 14,2 4,2 RELATION WITH TOURISM Yes No 35 155 18,4 INT. LOCAL ASSOCIATION Yes No 3 187 1,6 Socio-demographic profile of residents 57,4 22,6 54,2 81,6 98,4

19 Discussion of Results Descriptive Analysis Positive perceptions±S Sociocultural Stimulation of cultural initiatives2,57±0,53 Preservation of local customs and traditions2,24 0,63 Support of handicrafts and traditional crafts2,15±0,51 Investment in local economic activities 2,06±0,34 Global score Environmental Improvement of environmental/green zones2,84±0,92 Renovation of historic heritage2,72±0,87 Improved image/appearance of the community3,01±0,94 Global score Socioeconomic Local job creation2,22±0,72 Development of new services2,00±0,27 Improving economic conditions of residents 2,27±0,70 Global score Perceções negativas ±S Socioeconomic Economically benefit a small number of people 3,93±0,59 Accentuate the differences between rich and poor 3,62±0,77 Global score Environmental Damage to plant and animal life 1,99±0,19 Increased pollution 1,98±0,14 Global score Sociocultural Exploitation and alteration of local customs and traditions 2,09±0,37 Global score Residents´ perceptions 2,16±0,41 2,86±0,80 2,16±0,44 3,77±0,58 1,99±0,14 2,09±0,37

20 Discussion of Results Descriptive Analysis Satisfaction ±S I am pleased to have rural tourism in my community 2.9±0.85 Resident´ satisfaction Residents´ Support Support ±S I would like to collaborate with rural tourism 2.8±0.84 It seems that residents´ attitudes are neutral…

21 Discussion of Results Testing hypothesis Positive perceptions Personal Benefits RankP Negative perceptions Personal benefits RankPSatisfaction Personal Benefits RankP SocioculturalNo93,0SocioculturalNo94,8 0,11 I am pleased… No92,7 yes136,2Yes106,3 EnviromentalNo91,3EnviromentalNo95,4 0,84 yes155,1Yes96,6 yes140,45 Socio- economic No93,2SocioeconomicNo97,6 yes132,8yes61,6 Rho Sperman Environmen- tal benefits Socio-economic benefits Sociocultural benefirs Environmental benefits R,313,462 p,000 Socio-economic benefits R,313,274 p,000 Sociocultural benefirs R,462,274 p,000 I am pleased… R p Rho Sperman Environmen tal costs Socio-economic Costs Sociocultural costs Environmental costs R,047,016 p,524,831 Socio-economic Costs R,047-,214 p,524,003 Sociocultural costs R,016-,214 p,831,003 I am pleased… R,000,033 p,999,656 Relationship between personal benefits and residents´ perceptions and residents´ satisfaction Relationship between residents´ perceptions and residents´satisfaction,455,304,284,000 -,315,000 0,02 0,00 0,04

22 Discussion of Results Testing hypothesis Rho Sperman I am pleased to have rural tourism in my community I would like to colaborate to rural tourism I am pleased to have rural tourism in my community R p I would like to collaborate to rural tourism R p Relationship between satisfaction and Support,421,000,421,000

23 Conclusions & Suggestions

24 Descriptive Analysis Results suggest that probably the population has been neglected in the process of tourism development We observed that residents don´t have a great and positive perceptions toward tourism Accordingly, it seems that tourism, benefits only a small number of people, thereby accentuating differences between rich and poor Thus, like Cristovão (1999) we argue that tourism is yet an elitist activity, developed by people that belong to higher social groups at a regional or national level The tourism that exists is not the tourism that local people want (cf. Valente & Figueiredo, 2003)

25 Conclusions & Suggestions Test of Hypothesis Personal Benefits and positive perceptions are important in predict tourism satisfaction and support – the four hypothesis are confirmed, at least partially These results are in line with the social-exchange theory That is, people who receive benefits from the activity develop more positive perceptions than those who do not It ´s important develop strategies that benefit the community in some way to get their support in order to develop the sector, but also the host community

26 Conclusions & Suggestions Local entities should Define a strategy for the tourist development Integrate stakeholders and thus community in the process of tourism development Culture Traditional Agriculture Songs and Traditional Dances Desportive Activities Traditional Cuisine Traditional Crafts Local Heritage

27 Conclusions & Suggestions Future Research Complement Quantitative data with Qualitative Data With Data Triangulation or a Study case In order to understand better the feelings of people and interpret their opinions and suggestions Indeed, this is being done in ORTE Project

28 ORTE Project Thank you for your attention! Contacts: mljesus@sapo.ptmljesus@sapo.pt Please visit http://cms.ua.pt/orte This presentation is part of a larger Research Project - The overall rural tourism experience and sustainable local community development, financed by the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (co-financed by COMPETE, QREN e FEDER) (PTDC/CS-GEO/104894/2008) and coordinated by Elisabeth Kastenholz. UNIÃO EUROPEIA Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional


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