Presentation on theme: "Endocrinology Subspecialty Rounds Prudhvi Karumanchi Dr. K. Onyemere 2/26/09."— Presentation transcript:
Endocrinology Subspecialty Rounds Prudhvi Karumanchi Dr. K. Onyemere 2/26/09
Case ID: 46 y/o wm CC: Headache x 1 month HPI: Facial fullness, sinus tenderness and headache x 1 month Significant worsening of headache x 1 day – Frontal Associated With photophobia 6 episodes of vomiting Swelling and pain in left eye x 1 day
Case.. ROS: –Positive for fever, chills, vomiting, hearing loss, nasal congestion, productive cough Home meds: –Keflex 500 mg po QID –Metformin 500 mg po BID –Pravastatin 40 mg po daily –Tylenol Codeine #3 prn PMH: –COPD –DM-2 (A1c: 7.9%) –Sleep apnea (uses BiPAP) Social history: –Quit smoking 5 years ago. Used to smoke 1 ppd x 6 yrs –Occasional alcohol Family history: –DM-2 in both parents. Cancer in maternal grand father.
Case.. Physical Exam: –VS: T: F, P: 76, R: 20, O2: 87% on RA, BP: 140/71 –Gen: AOx3, cooperative, fatigued, moderately obese –Head: Atraumatic, sinuses tender to palpation –Eyes: conjunctiva – swollen with hemorrhages. Left eye: Ptosis. protruded and swollen – Deviated inferiorly and laterally –Lungs: CTA bilaterally –Heart: S1, S2, RRR, no murmur –Abd: Soft, ND, NT, BS+ve, no organomegaly –Extr: no edema, palpable pulses –Neuro: Rt pupil: 3 mm reactive, Left pupil: 5 mm – sluggish reaction. Afferent pupillary defect
Visual field testing adadfaf asdfada dfa
LABS CBC: –Wbc: 16.3 with N: 71% and L: 21% –Hb: 17.5 –Plt: 259 CMP: –Na: 130, K: 3.7, Cl: 97, HCO3: 26, BUN: 8, Cr: 0.6 –LFTs: Normal IMAGING: –CT head: Near complete opacification of the sphenoid sinuses, mucosal thickening of the ethmoid sinuses and left frontal sinus mucous retention cyst. The globes are intact. No intracranial abnormality.
MRI Brain – Coronal
MRI Brain Hemorrhagic pituitary macroadenoma measuring approximately 2.3 x 1.8 x 2.4 cm (AP, TR, cc) Suprasellar component of the mass causes mass effect on optic chiasm Prominent chronic mucosal disease is present within sphenoid sinus, which is nearly completely obstructed Mild mucosal disease is present within ethmoid sinuses bilaterally without significant sinus opacification MRA brain: Grossly normal study
Pituitary apoplexy Sudden onset ACTH deficiency Decreased Cortisol At onset, gonadotropin and growth hormone secretion is decreased. ACTH and TSH deficiency may follow afterwards Rarely, there is isolated TSH deficiency Hence, all hormones need to be tested when there is clinical suspicion
Cosyntropin stim test Cosyntropin – Synthetic ACTH 1-24 Healthy person – greatest response in morning Adrenal insufficiency – same response in morning and afternoon Administer 250 mcg iv bolus 30 – 60 min peak cortisol of mcg/dL
Hypogonadism Decreased FSH and LH – Secondary hypogonadism Inappropriately normal FSH and Low LH with low testosterone indicate developing sec. hypogonadism Men with hypogonadism –Testicular hypofunction decreased testosterone –Infertility, decreased energy and libido –Hot flashes is very severe –Decreased bone mineral density Treatment: –Testosterone replacement if fertility is not desired –Gonadotropins if fertility is desired
Growth hormone deficiency Clinical features: –Diminished muscle mass and increased fat mass –Increased LDL cholesterol –Decreased bone mineral density –Diminished sense of well being –Increased risk of cardiovascular disease –Increased inflammatory cardiovascular risk markers (IL- 6 and C-reactive protein) Diagnosis: Low IGF-1 level Treatment –known to improve muscle mass and bone mineral density
Pituitary Apoplexy Risk Factors: –endocrine stimulation tests –bleeding disorders –pregnancy –estrogen therapy –head trauma –pituitary radiation –diabetes –surgery Diagnosis: MRI scan Treatment: –High dose corticosteroids –When stable, trans-sphenoidal hypophysectomy –Pituitary and visual functions are restored after surgery –Pts with extensive pituitary necrosis require lifelong hormone replacement therapy