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**Electric Forces Mr. Burns**

SPH4U Electric Forces Mr. Burns

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Maxwell’s Equations Gauss’s Law: The electric field’s mapping is equal to the charge density divided by the permittivity of free space. The relationship between electric field and electric charge Gauss’s Law for Magnetism: The net magnetic flux out of any closed surface is zero. There is no such thing as a magnetic monopole We can make an electric field by changing a magnetic field The divergence (del opeerator) measures the magnitude of a vector field’s source Del E = dEx/dt+dEy/dt+dEz/dt The curl operator is the cross product of partial deritatives. We can make a magnetic field with a changing electric field or with a current

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Maxwell’s 1st Equation. Maxwell’s first equation is Gauss’s Law. This equation tells us that electric field lines (E) DIVERGE outward from positive charges and CONVERGE inward to the negative charges.

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Maxwell’s 2nd Equation. Maxwell’s second equation tells us that the magnetic field (B) never DIVERGES or CONVERGE. They always go around in closed loops, therefore there doesn’t exist a single magnetic pole.

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Maxwell’s 3rd Equation. Maxwell’s third equation is Faraday’s Law. This equation tells us that electric field lines (E) CURL around changing magnetic fields (B) and that changing magnetic fields induce electric fields.

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Maxwell’s 4th Equation. Maxwell’s fourth equation tells us that the magnetic field (B) lines CURL around electric currents AND that magnetic field (B) lines CURL around changing electric fields.

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**The Origin of Electricity**

The electrical nature of matter is inherent in atomic structure. coulombs

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**The Origin of Electricity**

In nature, atoms are normally found with equal numbers of protons and electrons, so they are electrically neutral. By adding or removing electrons from matter it will acquire a net electric charge with magnitude equal to e times the number of electrons added or removed, N.

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**The Origin of Electricity**

Example 1 A Lot of Electrons How many electrons are there in one coulomb of negative charge?

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**Charged Objects and the Electric Force**

It is possible to transfer electric charge from one object to another. The body that loses electrons has an excess of positive charge, while the body that gains electrons has an excess of negative charge.

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**Charged Objects and the Electric Force**

LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ELECTRIC CHARGE During any process, the net electric charge of an isolated system remains constant (is conserved).

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**Charged Objects and the Electric Force**

Like charges repel and unlike charges attract each other.

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Lightning

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**Conductors and Insulators**

Not only can electric charge exist on an object, but it can also move through an object. Substances that readily conduct electric charge are called electrical conductors. Materials that conduct electric charge poorly are called electrical insulators.

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**Charging by Contact and by Induction**

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**Charging by Contact and by Induction**

Charging by induction.

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**Charging by Contact and by Induction**

The negatively charged rod induces a slight positive surface charge on the plastic.

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Coulomb’s Law They preferred to think of an object producing a “field” and other objects interacting with that field Physicists did not like the concept of “action at a distance” i.e. a force that was “caused” by an object a long distance away they liked to think... Thus rather than ... + - - +

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Coulomb’s Law

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**The magnitude of the electrostatic force exerted by one point charge **

Coulomb’s Law COULOMB’S LAW The magnitude of the electrostatic force exerted by one point charge on another point charge is directly proportional to the magnitude of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

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**Example 3 A Model of the Hydrogen Atom **

Coulomb’s Law Example 3 A Model of the Hydrogen Atom In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the electron is in orbit about the nuclear proton at a radius of 5.29x10-11m. Determine the speed of the electron, assuming the orbit to be circular.

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Coulomb’s Law

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**Electrostatics Gravitational Force**

Coulomb’s Law Electrostatics Gravitational Force Two types of charges (q): positive and negative One type of mass (m): positive mass Attraction (unlike charges) and repulsion (like charges) Attraction (all masses) F: Potential energy:

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**Gravitational vs. Electrical Force**

Coulomb’s Law Gravitational vs. Electrical Force r F q1 m1 q2 m2 * smallest charge seen in nature! For an electron: * q = 1.6 ´ C m = 9.1 ´ kg F elec grav = + 4 17 10 42 .

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**That’s smaller than one cell in your body!**

Coulomb’s Law Suppose your friend can push their arms apart with a force of 450 N. How much charge can they hold outstretched? +Q -Q 2m F= 450 N = 4.47•10-4 C That’s smaller than one cell in your body!

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**Example 4 Three Charges on a Line **

Coulomb’s Law Example 4 Three Charges on a Line Determine the magnitude and direction of the net force on q1.

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Coulomb’s Law

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Coulomb’s Law

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**Find the net force exerted on the point charge q2.**

Coulomb’s Law F42 Find the net force exerted on the point charge q2. F32 F12 y x F32 F12 F42 F net

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Coulomb’s Law

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**The positive charge experiences a force which is the vector sum of the **

The Electric Field The positive charge experiences a force which is the vector sum of the forces exerted by the charges on the rod and the two spheres. This test charge should have a small magnitude so it doesn’t affect the other charge.

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**(a) (b) Example 6 A Test Charge**

The Electric Field Example 6 A Test Charge The positive test charge has a magnitude of 3.0x10-8C and experiences a force of 6.0x10-8N. Find the force per coulomb that the test charge experiences. Predict the force that a charge of +12x10-8C would experience if it replaced the test charge. (a) (b)

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**DEFINITION OF ELECTRIC FIELD **

The Electric Field DEFINITION OF ELECTRIC FIELD The electric field that exists at a point is the electrostatic force experienced by a small test charge placed at that point divided by the charge itself: The strength of the electric field can be thought of as the ratio of the force on that charge and the test charge itself SI Units of Electric Field: newton per coulomb (N/C)

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The Electric Field It is the surrounding charges that create the electric field at a given point.

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**Electric fields from different sources add as vectors.**

The Electric Field Electric fields from different sources add as vectors.

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**Example 10 The Electric Field of a Point Charge **

The isolated point charge of q=+15μC is in a vacuum. The test charge is 0.20m to the right and has a charge qo=+0.8μC. Determine the electric field at point P.

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The Electric Field

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**The electric field does not depend on the test charge.**

Point charge q:

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**Example 11 The Electric Fields from Separate Charges May Cancel **

Two positive point charges, q1=+16μC and q2=+4.0μC are separated in a vacuum by a distance of 3.0m. Find the spot on the line between the charges where the net electric field is zero.

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The Electric Field

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**Conceptual Example 12 Symmetry and the Electric Field **

Point charges are fixes to the corners of a rectangle in two different ways. The charges have the same magnitudes but different signs. Consider the net electric field at the center of the rectangle in each case. Which field is stronger?

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**THE PARALLEL PLATE CAPACITOR**

The Electric Field THE PARALLEL PLATE CAPACITOR charge density Change in potential (voltage) Parallel plate capacitor Distance between plates

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**in the space surrounding electric charges.**

Electric Field Lines Electric field lines or lines of force provide a map of the electric field in the space surrounding electric charges.

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**toward negative charges.**

Electric Field Lines Electric field lines are always directed away from positive charges and toward negative charges.

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**Electric field lines always begin on a positive charge **

and end on a negative charge and do not stop in midspace.

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**The number of lines leaving a positive charge or entering a **

Electric Field Lines The number of lines leaving a positive charge or entering a negative charge is proportional to the magnitude of the charge.

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Electric Field Lines

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**Conceptual Example 13 Drawing Electric Field Lines **

There are three things wrong with part (a) of the drawing. What are they?

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**The Electric Field Inside a Conductor: Shielding**

At equilibrium under electrostatic conditions, any excess charge resides on the surface of a conductor. At equilibrium under electrostatic conditions, the electric field is zero at any point within a conducting material. The conductor shields any charge within it from electric fields created outside the conductor.

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**The Electric Field Inside a Conductor: Shielding**

The electric field just outside the surface of a conductor is perpendicular to the surface at equilibrium under electrostatic conditions.

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Flash – Coulombs Law

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**Flash – Electric Forces**

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There are only two charges, positive and negative.

There are only two charges, positive and negative.

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