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Technical Training Seminar on Egress & Ingress Testing and Troubleshooting for CCTA Member Companies August 25, 26 and 27, 2009 San Juan, Puerto Rico Tony.

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Presentation on theme: "Technical Training Seminar on Egress & Ingress Testing and Troubleshooting for CCTA Member Companies August 25, 26 and 27, 2009 San Juan, Puerto Rico Tony."— Presentation transcript:

1 Technical Training Seminar on Egress & Ingress Testing and Troubleshooting for CCTA Member Companies August 25, 26 and 27, 2009 San Juan, Puerto Rico Tony Holmes Mario Sebastiani

2 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Seminar Summary How the Egress and Ingress of unwanted signals in the forward and reverse plant behave How they effect picture, data and voice quality What to look for and how to fix it

3 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Technical Training Outline Egress terminology What is egress Why do we test for egress What causes egress Egress characteristics Locating source of egress Signal Egress/Leakage Automation

4 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Egress Terminology Leakage Radiation (Never Say!!!) µV/M Squelch Calibration Tagging (CT-2 or CT-3)

5 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 What is Egress/Leakage? Definition: –Undesired emission of signals out of HFC networks –Egress is generally referred to as signal leakage

6 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Egress & Ingress Ingress –RF or electrical energy that enters the coaxial environment Egress –RF signal leaking out of the coaxial environment

7 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Why do we test for leakage?

8 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Reason #1 to Test for Leakage Meet FCC Compliance

9 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Spectrum Chart 108MHz 137MHz Aircraft Radio & Navigation CH 98CH 99CH 14CH 15CH 16 Off-air Cable

10 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Cumulative Leakage Index (CLI) CLI is the net effect of the combination of all the leaks in the system added together These cumulative leaks form an invisible cloud of unwanted RF energy over the cable system

11 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 CLI Quarterly Rules Ride out 100% of system and log all leaks Log should include Date found and Date fixed Documenting leakage levels isnt required for this drive out Actual practice for your system may vary!

12 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 CLI Annual Rules Ride out 75% of the oldest part of the system and log all leaks location and measured level Must be performed within a reasonable period of time – Usually within 2 wks of due date

13 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Required Actions All leaks 20µV/m must be logged and fixed Only leaks above 50 μV/m are used in CLI calculation All measurements taken outside MHz must be converted as if they were taken within the band

14 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 μV/M Standard unit of measure for CLI 50 Ohm off air measurement Voltage developed in 1 meter of infinitely thin section of wire submerged in a leakage field produces 1µV of energy

15 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Acceptable Procedures for Leakage Measurement Use a calibrated halfwave dipole antenna Antenna must be elevated 3 meters off the ground and positioned 3 meters from the leakage source Antenna must be rotated 360º in the horizontal plane for maximum reading CLI Fly-over

16 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Reason #2 to Test for Leakage Prevent Off-Air Interference

17 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Off-Air Interference Aeronautical & Aircraft Communications Amateur Communications Broadcast TV signals (Analog & Digital) Public and Emergency Communications Radio Mobile Communications

18 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA Off-Air Spectrum (forward path) Source: NTIA Frequency in MHz

19 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Reason #3 to Test for Leakage Improves System Performance Reduces Repeat Service Calls Locate Physical problems

20 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Common Causes 70% of all leakage is caused by problems between the tap and entry to the house –Aging and environmental stress –Physical trauma to cables or connectors –Loose drop connectors –Inferior quality coaxial cable, passives, or connectors –Loose hard line connectors

21 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Other Causes of Leakage Improperly installed connectors Cracks in the trunk and feeder cables Animal chews Poorly-shielded drop cables Bad connectors at the taps Bad/loose port terminators Corroded connectors

22 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Other Causes Continued Customer installed equipment Damaged amplifier housings Loose amplifier housing lids Broken tap ports Poor installation of splices and connectors Poorly-shielded customer premise equipment

23 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Polarization Angle Dipole Monopole

24 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Leakage Antennas-Whip

25 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Leakage Antennas-Dipole

26 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Signal phasing

27 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Standing Waves

28 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Electrical Noise

29 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Leakage Field Strength Highest Potential Lowest Potential Amp

30 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Distance Correction Reading x Distance (meters) = Corrected Reading 3

31 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA meters 3 meters 20µVm 2 μVm Patrolling for Leakage

32 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Walking Out a Leakage Area 5 – 10 meters

33 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Leakage Detection Tools

34 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Seeker Lite Frequency Agile Leakage Detector Built-in directional Antenna

35 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 How to Automate the Signal Leakage Process

36 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Seeker GPS System Seeker Bluetooth GPS Rx Serial GPS Rx LAW Server MCA LAW Client BB-2

37 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Seeker GPS Data Storage GPS Equipped WiFi Upload Capable MapQuest Mapping Server Based

38 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Driving Preparation GPS –This icon is shown when the Seeker is placed in the mobile mount and a GPS connection is established with the MCA. When the icon is not shown, the Seeker is not in the mobile mount or the GPS connection cannot be established with the MCA. If the icon blinks the MCA is connected to the GPS but the GPS does not have a good position fix

39 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Seeker Data Paths Records uploaded to client Leak Readings Records From GPS WIFI Port Law Server Port 80 Third Party Software Other Applications

40 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Work Order Distribution As leaks are uncovered, work orders will be assigned –to technicians assigned to a specific leakage territory –or to the supervisor responsible for the area Work order sent to designated person via Techs can act on a leak reported via , take the appropriate pre- and post-fix snapshots, upload the data in the usual manner and the work orders will then close themselves out as the leaks are repaired

41 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 LAW Map Versatile Map Interface Sort-able Leak List Simple Work Order Generation

42 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Aerial Image

43 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Work Order Distribution

44 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Pre and Post-Fix Measurements Snapshot Mode Use the Seekers Snapshot button to access the snapshot mode

45 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Demonstration Egress/Leakage

46 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Reason #4 to improve system quality Eliminates forward and return Ingress Prepares network for triple play deployments To increase plant performance and reliability

47 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Ingress

48 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Ingress on Analog Channels Lines in picture Ghosting Pay-per-view problems High speed data problems Interference with two-way radio services using the same frequencies Repeat Service Calls

49 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Ingress on Digital Channels Macro Blocking (Tiling) Freeze Frame Picture and Sound go to black Robotic Voice Data Packet Loss or slower speeds Repeat Service Calls

50 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Increased implementation of services requiring return path activation –If a system has egress it will most likely have ingress –Ingress brings the viability of two-way services into question –VoIP demands higher network reliability

51 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Forward and Return Ingress Troubleshooting Tools

52 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 QAM EVS Troubleshooting in-channel ingress is easy with the QAM EVS mode –Typical ingress areas Loose connector Tap plate loose Home wiring Sometimes –CSO/CTB from an over driven amplifier

53 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Constellation Good MER Poor MER

54 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Digital signals work well until very close to the point of failure Measurement of digital carriers critical to determine the system margin –Signal level –MER –BER The BER Mode helps to find problems BER

55 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Demonstration Interferences from VHF/UHF sources

56 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Return Path Ingress Troubleshooting Techniques

57 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Ingress Funnelling Effect Bi-directional system return path funnelling effect

58 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Impairments Radio Communications and Transient Noise

59 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Off-Air Spectrum (return path) 3MHz9MHz 10MHz40MHz30MHz Source: NTIA

60 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Ingress Mitigation Test This is a test where you can quickly check the drop and home wiring for ingress Set Ref level so as to not over-load the meter Detector set for averaging RBW at 300 KHz 10 db/div Spectrum MHz Use peak hold

61 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Ingress Mitigation Test What you should see is NOTHING! Just the noise floor

62 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Ingress Mitigation Test Look for ingress by using the Peak Hold function Identify the problem by working back towards the house

63 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Ingress Mitigation Test

64 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Using the I-Stop Probe Press the button on the side of the probe –If the ingress decreases by 4-6 dB when the button is depressed, the source of the ingress is farther from the node than you are –Ingress that doesn't decrease is entering the system nearer to the node than you are. The I-Stop Probe has little or no visible effect on forward path signals.

65 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Preparing for Return Path Monitoring

66 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Network Topology Viewer II Clients Viewer II Server SST 9581 R4s TCP Live Spectrum UDP 162 SNMP Traps TCP 80 and/or 443 Viewer II Services TCP SST Data UDP 161 SNMP UDP Multicast on UDP Multicast on SST Return Path Analyzer

67 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Monitoring Thresholds Alarm threshold information is stored in the 9581 SST Five degrees of severity –For Ingress levels Critical to Warning –For Outages No Signal Warning Persistence Settings –Authenticate alarm conditions Traffic Curve –Identifies the frequency and amplitude of carrier

68 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Viewer II User Interface Components –Status Tree –Incident Log –Alarm History –Node Reporting –Spectrum Display –ADIA Web View

69 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Node Status Tree Geography –Groups nodes by City Headend Hubsite Services –Groups nodes by CMTS Blade

70 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Incident Log Displays Current Node Alarm Events based on –SNMP Traps received by the Guardian II Server Traps Originate in the 9581 SST based on –Alarm Threshold Violations –Persistence Settings Displayed information is based on Status Tree Configuration, but typically includes –Node ID –Severity –Elapsed Time –Total Alarm Time

71 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Alarm Management Prioritize Alarm Information –Sorting Tools Organize alarm information into logical groupings for managing service interruptions

72 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Alarm Troubleshooting To investigate alarm conditions NOC operators can click on alarm events in the incident log –Brings up Spectrum view with Alarm threshold and ingress signature that caused the alarm event Allows operator to correlate alarm data from other monitoring sources Evaluate the effect of ingress on system services

73 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Reporting Node Service Report –Returns Alarm Activity over user specified time periods and locations Provides correlation of service interruptions and return path ingress events Identifies and prioritizes nodes in need of maintenance –Selection Criteria Alarm severity Number of nodes per location

74 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Node Service Report Summary View –Includes selection criteria –Lists nodes meeting selection criteria Grouped by location Number of nodes per location or top X nodes Number of alarm events per location

75 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Spectrum Display View –Max/Min/Avg ingress spectra over reporting period –Pass/Fail Threshold –Pass/Fail Tolerance Ratio (dB) between threshold & ingress spectra

76 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 ADIA Web View Real time access to headend ingress levels –Max/Min/Avg Traces –Markers with Frequency Amplitude Delta

77 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Digital TV Transmitters Return Path Ingress Demonstration Impairments from :

78 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Response to Your Question!!!! s

79 Technical Training Presentation – CCTA 2009 Thank you-Gracias-Merci-Masha danki… Trilithic Applications Engineering Tel: Incospec Communications Inc. Your Value Adder Trilithic Re-Seller for the Caribbean Mario Sebastiani Bernard How


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