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Dr Gary K Banks PhD, MClin Psych, MBA, MAPS Principal Clinical Psychologist Sydney Counselling Centre Level 4, 7 Help St., CHATSWOOD NSW 2057 Ph: 02 9415.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr Gary K Banks PhD, MClin Psych, MBA, MAPS Principal Clinical Psychologist Sydney Counselling Centre Level 4, 7 Help St., CHATSWOOD NSW 2057 Ph: 02 9415."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Dr Gary K Banks PhD, MClin Psych, MBA, MAPS Principal Clinical Psychologist Sydney Counselling Centre Level 4, 7 Help St., CHATSWOOD NSW 2057 Ph: Fax

3 Testing A standardized measure of a sample of behaviour This can take a variety of forms Aim of sample is to tell us something beyond it main classification: ability - maximum performance personality - typical performance © Dr Gary K. Banks Sydney Counselling Centre 2012

4 Types of Testing Measure of individual differences in: Intelligence General mental ability Aptitude Potential More specific abilities Achievement Knowledge and mastery Personality Traits and characteristics © Dr Gary K. Banks Sydney Counselling Centre 2012

5 High Reliability © Dr Gary K. Banks Sydney Counselling Centre 2012

6 Low Reliability © Dr Gary K. Banks Sydney Counselling Centre 2012

7 Validity The extent to which the test measures what it is suppose to measure For example: Test for aggression Test for identifying programmers Criterion-related validity Relate scores to an independent measure or criterion © Dr Gary K. Banks Sydney Counselling Centre 2012

8 A Short History of IQ tests (1) Binet 1904 Identify students who need extra help Wanted objective measure Test of general mental ability Verbal skills and abstract reasoning Developed concept of Mental age Measure of mental ability Problem with mental age CA =16 MA = 14 CA = 6 MA =4 © Dr Gary K. Banks Sydney Counselling Centre 2012

9 A Short History of IQ tests (2) Terman 1916 Expanded and revised Binet Introduced concept of IQ IQ = MA/CA X 100 Compare across age groups 4/6 x 100 = 67 14/16 x 100 = 87 © Dr Gary K. Banks Sydney Counselling Centre 2012

10 A Short History of IQ tests (3) Wechsler 1939 Added performance items Picture arrangement Picture completion Block design Object assembly IQ score based on normal distribution © Dr Gary K. Banks Sydney Counselling Centre 2012

11 Distribution of Intelligence The Normal Distribution of IQ Scores Largest frequency of scores, as well as average occurs at 100. Standard deviations of 15 points © Dr Gary K. Banks Sydney Counselling Centre 2012

12 An Operational Definition of Intelligence Many models: Spearman (1927) single g factor Thurstone (1938) 7 abilities, no g Vernon (1950) A hierarchy of abilities Horn & Cattell (1967) Fluid and Crystallised abilities Guilford (1967) 120 separate abilities the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment. (Wechsler, 1944) © Dr Gary K. Banks Sydney Counselling Centre 2012

13 Stanford-Binet Intelligence Tests 1916 First Stanford revision of the Binet-Simon Scales nd Revision - two versions: L and the M rd Revision - one version: the LM 1972 restandardisation of the LM. Content unchanged, renorming showed IQ increases of >10pts 1986 (4th Revision) 2003 (5th Revision) © Dr Gary K. Banks Sydney Counselling Centre 2012

14 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) Children and young people aged 6 to 16 years 1949 First edition WISC-R WISC-III 2003 – WISC-IV © Dr Gary K. Banks Sydney Counselling Centre 2012

15 Achievement Tests Focus on the 3 rs: ( reading, writing, rithmetic) Screening Reading (decoding) Spelling (encoding) Maths reasoning Full Review Reading Comprehension Numerical Operations Listening Comprehension Oral Expression Written Expression © Dr Gary K. Banks Sydney Counselling Centre 2012

16 Guidelines for Intelligence Assessments (1) Intelligence tests scores should never be the only basis for determining a childs abilities Criterion scores (e.g. high IQs of 130 or 140 or conversely low scores of 70-80) should not be used to exclude individuals from programs Bands of errors in test scores should be taken into account when determining inclusion into programs © Dr Gary K. Banks Sydney Counselling Centre 2012

17 Guidelines for Intelligence Assessments (2) Intelligence test scores should also be used for educational & vocational planning Achievement testing not just aptitude testing should be included Review of higher mental processes and critical thinking Emotional/Personality status to be reviewed © Dr Gary K. Banks Sydney Counselling Centre 2012

18 Nature vs Nurture? (1) Is intelligence inherited or a product of our environment? © Dr Gary K. Banks Sydney Counselling Centre 2012

19 Nature vs Nurture (2) Early Intervention Programmes show long term benefits for groups with an intellectual disability (e.g. Fine, Swift & Beck, 1987) and groups of socially disadvantaged children (Woodhead, 1988). Prenatal and early developmental influences, malnutrition and famine, family background, amount of schooling and psychosocial factors in the family home vary in their utility as predictors of IQ. © Dr Gary K. Banks Sydney Counselling Centre 2012

20 Nature vs Nurture (2) (i) Genetic Factors Bouchard & McGue (1981) looked at the correlations between IQ's of persons having different degrees of kinship. They concluded that intelligence has a strong heritable component but what you make of your potential is environmentally determined. © Dr Gary K. Banks Sydney Counselling Centre 2012

21 No, its Nurturing Nature ! Research suggests that Natures gifts can be nurtured into talents: © Dr Gary K. Banks Sydney Counselling Centre 2012

22 Restricted Availability of Tests to prevent familiarity resulting in invalidity to ensure qualified examiners to prevent abuse to maximise standardisation of delivery to maximise integrity of interpretation process © Dr Gary K. Banks Sydney Counselling Centre 2012

23 Summary Reports and Fees Health Fund Rebates School Liaison G.P. Liaison Psychological Support A Final Word... © Dr Gary K. Banks Sydney Counselling Centre 2012

24 A Final Word......Intelligence scores should not be used to make decisions about people. People make decisions - tests are just one source of information that assist in the decision making... (Kaufman & Harrison, 1986). © Dr Gary K. Banks Sydney Counselling Centre 2012


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