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Feeding the Dairy Cow Have to Understand the Lactation Curve.

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Presentation on theme: "Feeding the Dairy Cow Have to Understand the Lactation Curve."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Feeding the Dairy Cow

3 Have to Understand the Lactation Curve

4 Your Handout

5 Lactation Curve Lactation curve Gradually increases following calving Peaks at days in milk (DIM) Stage 1 is where most metabolic diseases occur.

6 Cures There are many band aid cures that will make the dairy producer feel better that they are doing something at the moment, but the real problem is solving the reason it occurs and fixing it

7 10 wk High fertility No metritis Critical Days 0 -8 wk 44 wk of lactation -3 wk Deliver a healthy calfNo milk fever No retained placenta Increase DMI No fatty liver No displaced abom. No ketosis Limited loss of BCS No mastitis High peak production 6-8 wk

8 Energy balance Managing Cow During Critical Days -8 Dried-off Wk Far-off -4 Calving stress Depressed Immune system Acute calcium demand Calving Close up Successful insemination Bred Fat mobilization High forage dietHigh Conc. Diet Highest Req.Lowest Req. Slow rise in DMI (rumen capacity) Lowest rumen capacity & 50% loss in absorption by papillae Severe drop in DMI Early lactationDry period Production & repro are set for the next 200- days

9 DMI is the Key Dry matter intake (DMI) General shape of curve is same as for milk Peak is later in lactation than milk curve

10 About Metabolic Disorders Metabolic disorders occur primarily in early lactation Metabolic disorders occur primarily in early lactation period of great stress and drastic changes in nutritional requirement period of great stress and drastic changes in nutritional requirement Energy metabolism Energy metabolism (ketosis, fatty liver, rumen acidosis) (ketosis, fatty liver, rumen acidosis) Minerals and vitamin metabolism (milk fever, metritis, udder edema, retained placenta) Minerals and vitamin metabolism (milk fever, metritis, udder edema, retained placenta)

11 About Metabolic Disorders Metabolic disorders are correlated with each other: Metabolic disorders are correlated with each other: A cow with milk fever is 4 x more likely to also suffer from retained placenta and 16 x more likely to develop ketosis than a cow with no milk fever. A cow with milk fever is 4 x more likely to also suffer from retained placenta and 16 x more likely to develop ketosis than a cow with no milk fever. Early detection and prevention is far better than treatment Early detection and prevention is far better than treatment

12 DMI Dry matter intake Factors used to estimate DMI: body weight milk production fat test days in milk

13 Overview of Metabolic Disorders in Dairy Cattle

14 Metabolic Disorders 2- Udder edema 1- Hypocalcemia (Milk Fever) 2- Ketosis (Acetonemia) 1- Fatty Liver Syndrome 3- Retained Placenta 5- Displaced Abomasum 3- Rumen Acidosis 6- Milk Fat Depression Energy-Related Disorders Minerals & Vitamins-Related Disorders 4- Laminitis (Locomotion Score)

15 Disorders Related to Mineral Metabolism 1 - Hypocalcemia (Milk Fever)

16 Hypocalcemia and milk fever Most cows suffer from (sub-clinical) hypocalcemia in early lacation Most cows suffer from (sub-clinical) hypocalcemia in early lacation Clinical hypocalcemia or milk fever is a misnomer: cows do not have a fever, but rather are paralyzed. Clinical hypocalcemia or milk fever is a misnomer: cows do not have a fever, but rather are paralyzed. The disease has a low heritability, but has a genetic component as Jerseys and Swedish red have a higher incidence than other breeds. The disease has a low heritability, but has a genetic component as Jerseys and Swedish red have a higher incidence than other breeds.

17 Hypocalcemia and milk fever The disease is related to age and occurs more in third lactation than second or first lactation. The disease is related to age and occurs more in third lactation than second or first lactation. Cows having milk fever once are apt to repeat Cows having milk fever once are apt to repeat More than about 5-8 % incidence in a herd is cause for concern More than about 5-8 % incidence in a herd is cause for concern If you find milk fever in dry cows, there is a problem with your mineral balance of Ca:P If you find milk fever in dry cows, there is a problem with your mineral balance of Ca:P

18 Prevention Calcium levels during Close-up period Calcium levels during Close-up period Check forage levels? Check forage levels? DCAD level – negative 20 (neg ) DCAD level – negative 20 (neg ) Urine pH 5.5 to 6.0 during the close up time Urine pH 5.5 to 6.0 during the close up time Use palatable sources to lower DCAD Use palatable sources to lower DCAD Soy-clor, Bio-clor, Molasses Soy-clor, Bio-clor, Molasses Anionic Salts - less palatable Anionic Salts - less palatable

19 Disorders Related to Mineral Metabolism 2 - Retained Placenta

20 Retained Placenta Overview Retention of placental membrane for more than 12 hours after calving *(twins do not count) Retention of placental membrane for more than 12 hours after calving *(twins do not count) Often time this condition is due to bacterial infections, but it might also have a nutritional component Often time this condition is due to bacterial infections, but it might also have a nutritional component Deficiency of selenium and vitamin E and imbalance of Calcium may be implicated in increased incidences of retained placenta Deficiency of selenium and vitamin E and imbalance of Calcium may be implicated in increased incidences of retained placenta

21 Prevention Provide 2400 – 2500 IU Vitamin E during close up Provide 2400 – 2500 IU Vitamin E during close up Provide selenium in combination with vitamin E Provide selenium in combination with vitamin E Monitor forage Calcium levels Monitor forage Calcium levels This can sneak up on you! This can sneak up on you!

22 Disorders Related to Energy Metabolism 3 - Ketosis

23 Ketosis or Acetonemia Glucose lost in feces: ~0 g/d Body reserve: 0 g Glucose secretion in milk (as lactose): 2.kg/d (for 35 kg/d of milk) Intake during Dry period: ~0 g/d Lactation: ~0 g/d Insufficient glucose is the source of ketosis or acetonemia: Blood concentration of glucose drops from 50 mg/100 ml to < mg/100 ml Signals cow to digest body fat!

24 Ketosis Occurs 2 to 4 weeks after calving (peak incidence is about 3 week) Occurs 2 to 4 weeks after calving (peak incidence is about 3 week) Affect most high producing cows (sub- clinically) in early lactation Affect most high producing cows (sub- clinically) in early lactation Detection: Urine - Ketostik

25 Ketosis Typical ketone (acetone) smell in the breath; Typical ketone (acetone) smell in the breath; Lack of appetite, especially for grain associated with drop in milk yield; Lack of appetite, especially for grain associated with drop in milk yield; Decreased rumen mobility and production of dry feces Decreased rumen mobility and production of dry feces Loss of weight, gaunt appearance, and dullness Loss of weight, gaunt appearance, and dullness Symptoms:

26 Ketosis - Prevention Avoid excessive fatness at calving (proper BCS) < 4.25 Avoid excessive fatness at calving (proper BCS) < 4.25 Smooth dietary transition between dry cow ration and early lactation ration Smooth dietary transition between dry cow ration and early lactation ration Close-up ration should contain same feeds with anions and Niacin Close-up ration should contain same feeds with anions and Niacin No Bicarb No Bicarb Gradual change in forage types Gradual change in forage types Gradual change in amount of concentrates Gradual change in amount of concentrates

27 Disorders Related to Energy Metabolism 4 - Fatty Liver

28 Lower Intake at Calving Means Increased Fat Mobilization (Blood NEFA) Grummer, Dry Matter Intake Kg/day Weeks relative to calving Non- Esterified Fatty Acids um/l % intake depression 300% Increased fat mobilization

29 Triglycerides Adipose tissue NEFA FFA Liver Key: NEFA = Non-Esterified Fatty Acids FFA = Free fatty acids TG-r-LP = Triglyceride-rich-lipoproteins or Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) Excess Fat Mobilization Means Liver Problem Energy Ketones Triglyceride TG-r-LP Storage Fatty liver FFA Milk fat (Triglycerides) Glycerol Energy TG-r-LPKetones Low blood glucose Low insulin ++

30 Ketosis - Prevention Supplementation with niacin Supplementation with niacin Niacin supplementation (6-12g/d) seem to work best when forage and grain are fed separately (greatest fluctuation of glucose, insulin, NEFA and ketones in the blood.) Niacin supplementation (6-12g/d) seem to work best when forage and grain are fed separately (greatest fluctuation of glucose, insulin, NEFA and ketones in the blood.)

31 Band Aid = Metabolic Switch Propylene glycol drench or paste Propylene glycol drench or paste Propylene glycol is a glucose precursor which is effective in reducing blood NEFA and the severity of fatty liver at calving and blood ketones after calving (~300 g/cow/day for 20 days starting 10 days before calving). Propylene glycol is a glucose precursor which is effective in reducing blood NEFA and the severity of fatty liver at calving and blood ketones after calving (~300 g/cow/day for 20 days starting 10 days before calving). Can add niacin to drench Can add niacin to drench

32 5- Displaced Abomasum

33 Cross Section Abdominal Cavity A B C L B C L A Abomasum = A Rumen = B C = Omasum L = Liver

34 Displaced Abomasum (DA) Sharp and sudden drop in feed intake Sharp and sudden drop in feed intake Ping Test Ping Test 80% of DAs occur within the first month of lactation. 80% of DAs occur within the first month of lactation.

35 Displaced Abomasum (DA) Exact cause is unknown, but incidence has been associated with: Exact cause is unknown, but incidence has been associated with: High concentrate diet during the transition period and/or early lactation (high ruminal gas formation and passage into the abomasum) High concentrate diet during the transition period and/or early lactation (high ruminal gas formation and passage into the abomasum) (Difficult) calving leaving open space into the abdominal cavity (Difficult) calving leaving open space into the abdominal cavity Stress conditions that limit dry matter intake and gut fill in early lactation (e.g., over-conditioned cows, overcrowding, etc.,) Stress conditions that limit dry matter intake and gut fill in early lactation (e.g., over-conditioned cows, overcrowding, etc.,)

36 Displaced Abomasum (DA) Avoid over-conditioned cows (body condition score >4.0) Avoid over-conditioned cows (body condition score >4.0) Begin concentrate feeding ( % of body weight) during the last three weeks before calving (close-up ration) Begin concentrate feeding ( % of body weight) during the last three weeks before calving (close-up ration) Feed long and / or coarsely chopped good quality forage during the dry period and early lactation. Feed long and / or coarsely chopped good quality forage during the dry period and early lactation. Keep a minimum of 50% forage in the diet Keep a minimum of 50% forage in the diet Minimize stress due to other peri-parturient diseases (milk fever, ketosis) Minimize stress due to other peri-parturient diseases (milk fever, ketosis)

37 Prevention Management is implicated in too many cases of DAs! Management is implicated in too many cases of DAs!

38 Disorders Related to Energy Metabolism 6- Rumen Acidosis

39 Acidity In The Digestive System pH Feed Feces (Forestomachs) Glandular stomach Liver Pancreas Small intestineLarge intestine HCl Saliva

40 Average pH vs. Length of Time Under 6.0 pH of rumen content Hours Sub Acute Rumen Acidosis - Poor appetite - Little cellulose digestion - Poor microbial growth. - Good appetite - Good cellulose digestion - Good microbial growth. Rumen Acidosis Length of time under pH 6.0 and cow-to-cow variations must be taken into account in the diagnosis of rumen acidosis Acute Rumen Acidosis - Deep physiological changes -

41 Rumen Acidosis (Prevention) - Effective Fiber Avoid ration with more than 50% Concentrates Avoid ration with more than 50% Concentrates Limit high starch concentrates (corn) Limit high starch concentrates (corn) Maintain Sufficient Effective Fiber Maintain Sufficient Effective Fiber Ration NDF > 32% Ration NDF > 32% Ration Effective NDF > 22% Ration Effective NDF > 22% Gradual Changes in diets Total Mixed Rations (TMR) Gradual Changes in diets Total Mixed Rations (TMR)

42 7 – LAMINITIS Locomotion Score

43 Locomotion Score Walk rapidly and confidently, making long strides with a level back Walk more slowly, making shorter strides with an arched back Difficult to detect any weight transfer from affected limb Score = 1 Score = 2

44 Often thin, walk slowly making deliberate short steps with an arched back and frequent stops Usually very thin, move very slowly making frequent stops to rest affected limb, which is only partially weight- bearing Grinding of teeth and/or drooling of saliva are signs of acute pain Score = 3 Score = 4 Weight transfer will cause sinking of the dew claws on the contra-lateral limb Encounter some difficulty turning Stand with an arched back and frequently rest lame foot Extreme difficulty turning Stand and walk with an arched back

45 8- Milk Fat Depression

46 Volatile fatty acids (VFA) produced in the rumen Milk production and composition Propionic Acid Milk production (kg/day) Total VFA production (moles/day) Milk Fat Depression and Forage to Concentrate Ratio Rumen pH Acetic Acid Butyric Acid Fat in the milk (%) 50 Concentrates 20 % ration dry matter 80 % ration dry matter Forages %

47 Udder edema Exact cause is unknown, but incidence of udder edema has been associated with management and feeding practices during the dry period: Exact cause is unknown, but incidence of udder edema has been associated with management and feeding practices during the dry period: Excess salt (>0.5 lb/d, 230 g/d or 2.5% diet DM) aggravates the problem Excess salt (>0.5 lb/d, 230 g/d or 2.5% diet DM) aggravates the problem Excess energy, sodium and potassium in pre- partum diet; Excess energy, sodium and potassium in pre- partum diet; First calf-heifers (primiparous cows) in excess BCS at calving show an increased incidence of udder edema. First calf-heifers (primiparous cows) in excess BCS at calving show an increased incidence of udder edema. Cause:

48 So How Do We Feed 1. Forages should be of very high quality to encourage intake of roughage 1. Forages should be of very high quality to encourage intake of roughage NDF 32% ADF 22% NDF 32% ADF 22% 2. Maintain at least 45% of ration DM in forages 2. Maintain at least 45% of ration DM in forages Corn Silage Corn Silage Alfalfa Hay Alfalfa Hay Other Silages Other Silages Other Hays Other Hays

49 So How Do We Feed 3. Supply Adequate Energy (NFC <40%) 3. Supply Adequate Energy (NFC <40%) Carbohydrates – grain Carbohydrates – grain (starch & sugar <30%) (starch & sugar <30%) Corn Corn Sorghum Sorghum Other Grains Other Grains Lipids (EE %) Lipids (EE %) tallow tallow by-pass fat (Megalac, Energy Booster) by-pass fat (Megalac, Energy Booster) Pay attention to specific LCFA Pay attention to specific LCFA

50 So How Do We Feed 4. Feed high quality protein sources 4. Feed high quality protein sources Ration DM Protein% % Ration DM Protein% % Soybean meal Soybean meal Cottonseed meal Cottonseed meal Blood meal Blood meal Fish Meal Fish Meal

51 So How Do We Feed 5. Allow rumen synthesis of proteins by feeding a balance of forage, energy and protein precursors. 5. Allow rumen synthesis of proteins by feeding a balance of forage, energy and protein precursors. Watch manure for indicators of acidosis Watch manure for indicators of acidosis Watch manure for tightness or looseness Watch manure for tightness or looseness

52 So How Do We Feed 6. Balance remaining fraction or ration for minerals, vitamins, etc 6. Balance remaining fraction or ration for minerals, vitamins, etc Calcium ~1% Calcium ~1% Phosphorus~.35% Phosphorus~.35% Potassium % + DCAD Balance Potassium % + DCAD Balance Magnesium.35-40% Magnesium.35-40% Vitamin A – 240 (KIU/day) Vitamin A – 240 (KIU/day)


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