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Grout. 2 History of Grout Reinforced masonry came to the forefront following the 1933 Long Beach, California earthquake. Prior to the 1990s, Michigan.

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Presentation on theme: "Grout. 2 History of Grout Reinforced masonry came to the forefront following the 1933 Long Beach, California earthquake. Prior to the 1990s, Michigan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Grout

2 2 History of Grout Reinforced masonry came to the forefront following the 1933 Long Beach, California earthquake. Prior to the 1990s, Michigan designers utilized unreinforced masonry.

3 3 Purpose Thinner walls

4 4 Purpose Taller and stronger walls

5 5 Purpose Sound resistance

6 6 Purpose Increased Fire Resistance

7 7 Purpose Improved thermal performance

8 8 Grout Products ASTM C 476 Scope Referenced Documents Materials Grout Type and Proportions Measurement and Production Application

9 9 ASTMs Related to Grout Standard Specifications C404Standard Specification for Aggregates for Masonry Grout C476Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry

10 10 not in binder

11 11

12 12 Grout Products ASTM C 476 Scope Referenced Documents Materials Grout Type and Proportions Measurement and Production Application

13 13 C Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry 1 1.1This specification covers two types of grout, fine and coarse grout, for use in the construction of masonry structures. Grout is specified by (1) proportions or (2) strength requirements.

14 14 C1180 – 03a ε1 Standard Terminology for Mortar and Grout for Unit Masonry 1 grout, n – a mixture of cementitious materials, aggregates, water, with or without admixtures, initially produced to pouring consistency without segregation. Requirements for grout are contained in Specification C476. not in binder

15 15 Grout Products ASTM C 476 Scope Referenced Documents Materials Grout Type and Proportions Measurement and Production Application

16 16 2.Referenced Documents 2.1ASTM Standards C 5Specification for Quicklime for Structural Purposes 2 C143/ C143MTest Method for Slump of Hydraulic-Cement Concrete 3 C150Specification for Portland Cement 2 C207Specification for Hydrated Lime for Masonry Purposes 2 C260Specification for Air-Entraining Admixtures for Concrete 3 C Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry 1

17 17 C404Specification for Aggregates for Masonry Grout 4 C595Specification for Blended Hydraulic Cements 2 C618Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use as a Mineral Admixture in Concrete 2 C989Specification for Ground Granulated Blast- Furnace Slag for Use in Concrete and Mortars 3 C1019Test Method for Sampling and Testing Grout 4 C1157Performance Specification for Hydraulic Cement 2 C Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry 1

18 18 C Standard Specification for Aggregates for Masonry Grout 1 3.1Aggregates shall consist of natural sand or manufactured sand, used alone or in combination with coarse aggregate as described in this specification. not in binder

19 19

20 20 Grout Products ASTM C 476 Scope Referenced Documents Materials Grout Type and Proportions Measurement and Production Application

21 21 C Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry 1 3.1Materials used as ingredients in grout shall conform to the requirements specified in

22 22 C Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry Cementitious Materials

23 23 C Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry Aggregates sand pea gravel

24 24 C Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry Water

25 25 C Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry Admixtures – Integral waterproofing compounds, accelerators, or other admixtures not mentioned definitely in the specification shall not be used in grout for use in reinforced masonry without approval from the purchaser.

26 26 C Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry Pumping Aids – Pumping aids are permitted to be used in cases where the brand, quality, and quantity are approved in writing by the purchaser or are definitely stipulated in the specification.

27 27 C Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry Antifreeze Compounds – No antifreeze liquids, salts, or other substances shall be used in grout to lower the freezing point.

28 28 C Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry Storage of Materials – Cementitous materials and aggregates shall be stored in such a manner as to prevent deterioration or intrusion of foreign material or moisture. Any material that has become unsuitable for good construction shall not be used.

29 29 Grout Products ASTM C 476 Scope Referenced Documents Materials Grout Type and Proportions Measurement and Production Application

30 30 4.1Type – Grout type shall be specified as fine or coarse. C Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry 1

31 31 C Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry 1 Note 2 – Building code provisions and grout space dimensions should be reviewed when selecting grout type or types.

32 32 C Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry 1 4.2Proportions of Ingredients – Grout proportions shall be determined by one of the following methods: 4.2.1Requirements of Table 1.

33 33 TABLE 1 Grout Proportions by Volume Type Parts by Volume of Portland Cement or Blended Cement Parts by Volume of Hydrated Lime or Lime Putty Aggregate, Measured in a Damp, Loose Condition FineCoarse Fine Grout 10 – 1 / 10 2¼ - 3 times the sum of the volumes of cementitious materials --- Coarse Grout 10 – 1 / 10 2¼ - 3 times the sum of the volumes of cementitious materials 1-2 times the sum of volumes of the cementitious materials C Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry 1

34 34 NCMA TEK 9-2 (2002) Grout for Concrete Masonry

35 35 C Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry Specified Compressive Strength – Proportions established by 28-day compressive strength tests in accordance with Test Method C1019 that obtain the specified compressive strength. The grout shall be mixed to a slump of 8 to 11 in. as determined by Test Method C143/C143M and shall have a minimum compressive strength of 2000 psi at 28 days.

36 36 ASTM C 476 Grout Type and Proportions Proportions of Ingredients Table 1 By volume Specified Compressive Strength Proportions established by 28-day comp. strength tests (C1019) Slump of 8 to 11 inches Minimum compressive strength of 2000 psi at 28 days

37 37 C Standard Test Method for Sampling and Testing Grout 1 Note 1 – The testing agency performing this test method should be evaluated in accordance with Practice C1093.

38 38 C Standard Test Method for Sampling and Testing Grout 1 Note 3 – Nonabsorbent blocks may be of plastic, wood, or other nonabsorbent material. Certain species of wood contain sugars which retardation of cement. In order to prevent this from occurring, new wooden blocks shall be soaked in limewater for 24 h, sealed with varnish or wax, or covered with an impermeable material prior to use.

39 39 5.Test Specimens 5.1Each grout specimen shall have a square cross-section, 3 in. or larger on the sides and twice as high as its width. Dimensional tolerances shall be within 5% of the width selected. C Standard Test Method for Sampling and Testing Grout 1

40 40 6.Mold Construction 6.1Select a level location where the molds remain undisturbed for 48 h. Note 5 – The location of specimen construction should be protected and as free from perceptible vibration as possible. C Standard Test Method for Sampling and Testing Grout 1

41 41 6.3Form a space with a square cross-section, 3 in. or larger on each side and twice as high as its width, by stacking masonry units of the same type and moisture condition as those being used in the construction. The surface of the unit in contact with the grout specimen shall not have been previously used to mold specimens… C Standard Test Method for Sampling and Testing Grout 1

42 42 6.3…Tolerance on space and specimen dimensions shall be within 5% of the specimen width. See Fig. 1, Fig. 2, and Fig 3 and accompanying notes. C Standard Test Method for Sampling and Testing Grout 1

43 43 C Standard Test Method for Sampling and Testing Grout 1 Note 6 – Other methods of obtaining grout specimens and specimens of different geometry have been employed in grout testing, but are not described in this test method. Other methods used to obtain grout specimens include: drilling grout-filled cores of regular units; filling cores of masonry units specifically manufactured to provide grout specimens; filling compartments in slotted corrugated cardboard boxes specifically manufactured to provide grout specimens; and forming specimens from different sized masonry units of the same or similar material…

44 44 C Standard Test Method for Sampling and Testing Grout 1 …Since test results vary with methods of forming and specimen geometry, comparative test results between the specimen described in this test method and the proposed specimen should be required and confined to a single specimen shape and method of forming.

45 45 6.4Line the masonry surfaces that will be in contact with the grout specimen with a thin, permeable material to prevent bond to the masonry units. Note 7 – The lining, such as paper towel, is used to aid in stripping the grout specimen from the mold. Proper installation of the lining prevents irregularly sized specimens and varying test results. C Standard Test Method for Sampling and Testing Grout 1

46 46 8.Temperature and Slump Test 8.1Measure and record the temperature of the grout sample in accordance with Test Method C1064/C1064M. 8.2Begin filling the slump cone within 5 min of obtaining the final portion of the sample. C Standard Test Method for Sampling and Testing Grout 1

47 47 8.3Measure and record the slump in accordance with the requirements of Test Method C143/C143M C Standard Test Method for Sampling and Testing Grout 1 8 to 11 inches

48 48 9.Compressive Test Specimen 9.2Fill the mold with grout in two layers of approximately equal depth. Rod each layer 15 times with the tamping rod. Rod the bottom layer through its depth. Slightly overfill the mold. Rod the second layer with the tamping rod penetrating ½ in. into the lower layer. Distribute the strokes uniformly over the cross section of the mold. C Standard Test Method for Sampling and Testing Grout 1

49 49 9.3Strike off the top surface of the specimen with a straightedge to produce a flat surface that is even with the top edge of the mold and that has no depressions or projections larger than 1/8 in. Cover immediately with a damp absorbent material such as cloth or paper towel. C Standard Test Method for Sampling and Testing Grout 1

50 50 9.4Within 30 min after filling the mold, add sufficient grout without rodding to fill the depression caused by initial water loss… 9.5Protect the specimens from freezing and variations in temperature… C Standard Test Method for Sampling and Testing Grout 1

51 51 10.Transportation, Curing, and Testing of the Specimens 10.1Remove the molds between 24 and 48 h after making the specimens. 10.2Within 30 min after removing the molds, place specimens in a protective container and keep specimens damp. C Standard Test Method for Sampling and Testing Grout 1

52 Transport field specimens to the laboratory within 8 h after mold removal. 10.4Within 8 h after mold removal, place in a moist room, moist cabinet, or water storage tank conforming to Specification C511. Store there until day of testing. C Standard Test Method for Sampling and Testing Grout 1

53 53 Grout Products ASTM C 476 Scope Referenced Documents Materials Grout Type and Proportions Measurement and Production Application

54 54 C Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry 1 5.Measurement and Production 5.1Measurement of Materials – Measure materials for grout such that the required proportions of the grout materials are controlled and accurately measured.

55 55 C Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry Materials Mixed at Job Site: Individual cementitous materials and aggregates stored at the job site shall be mixed in a mechanical mixer for a minimum of 5 min with sufficient water to achieve the desired consistency.

56 56 C Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry Individual dry ingredients transported to the job site in suitable compartments shall be mixed with water at the job site using continuous volumetric proportioning equipment to achieve the desired consistency. Mix with an auger of appropriate length to provide adequate mixing. Typically not used in Michigan.

57 57 C Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry Materials Transported to the Job Site: Factory dry-blended cementitious materials and aggregates delivered to the job site shall be mixed in a mechanical mixer for a minimum of 5 min with sufficient water to achieve the desired consistency.

58 58 C Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry Wet-mixed grout shall arrive at the job site in a ready-mixed condition. Slump shall be adjusted as necessary, and grout shall be re-mixed at mixing speed for at least 1 min before discharging to achieve the desired consistency.

59 59 Grout Products ASTM C 476 Scope Referenced Documents Materials Grout Type and Proportions Measurement and Production Application

60 60 NCMA TEK 3-2 (2003) Grouting Concrete Masonry Walls In reinforced concrete masonry wall construction, grout often is placed only in wall spaces containing steel reinforcement. The grout bonds the masonry units and steel so that they act together to resist imposed loads. In some reinforced loadbearing masonry walls, all cores with and without reinforcement are grouted to further increase the walls resistance to loads.

61 61 NCMA TEK 3-3A (2001) Reinforced Concrete Masonry Construction Standard two-core concrete masonry units can be effectively reinforced when protruding lap splices are not long, since the mason must lift the units over any protruding reinforcing bars.

62 62 NCMA TEK 3-3A (2001) Reinforced Concrete Masonry Construction Open-ended units allow the units to be placed around reinforcing bars. This eliminates the need to thread units over the top of the reinforcing bar.

63 63 Grout is a material used in reinforced masonry that is quite misunderstood. Grout is not mortar and grout is not concrete. The big difference between concrete, mortar and grout is their plasticity or fluidity in the initial stage. Grout…the Third Ingredient

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