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Tom Bruulsema, PhD, CCA Director, Northeast Region, North America Program New Brunswick Soil & Crop Association Technical Workshop 24 February 2011 Woodstock,

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Presentation on theme: "Tom Bruulsema, PhD, CCA Director, Northeast Region, North America Program New Brunswick Soil & Crop Association Technical Workshop 24 February 2011 Woodstock,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Tom Bruulsema, PhD, CCA Director, Northeast Region, North America Program New Brunswick Soil & Crop Association Technical Workshop 24 February 2011 Woodstock, New Brunswick What is on a Soil Analysis Report?

2 IPNI Mission Better Crops, Better Environment… Through Science.

3 Outline – What is on a Soil Analysis Report? World Fertilizer Trends Soil Fertility Status of New Brunswick – Soil Test Summaries – Crop Nutrient Balances Soil Test Interpretation Potato Response to P 4R Nutrient Stewardship

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5 World Fertilizer Consumption Historical and Projected Tenkorang & Lowenberg- DeBoer, IFA Statistics N P2O5P2O5 K2OK2O

6 Fertilizer consumption (2005/06 – 2007/08) 14 % 10 % 11 % 17 % 38 % Mostly China

7 World Phosphate Rock Reserves Country 2008 Production Reserves Reserve Life Million tonnesYears China513,70070 USA301,80060 Morocco2551,0002,000 World Total16160, Source: IFDC, 2010 P

8 World Potash Reserves Country 2007 Production Reserves Reserve Life Million tonnes K 2 OYears Canada114, Russia71, World Total358, USGS Mineral Commodities Summaries, 2009 K

9 Outline World Fertilizer Trends Soil Fertility Status of New Brunswick – Soil Test Summaries – Crop Nutrient Balances Soil Test Interpretation Potato Response to P 4R Nutrient Stewardship

10 Assessing soil fertility status and trends in North America

11 Soil test equivalency assumptions The above equivalencies were assumed for the purpose of estimating soil test level frequency distributions across wide areas. They are not recommended for use in converting soil test values for individual fields for the purpose of determining appropriate rates to apply.

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14 P

15 K

16 pH

17 Mg

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21 Outline World Fertilizer Trends Soil Fertility Status of New Brunswick – Soil Test Summaries – Crop Nutrient Balances Soil Test Interpretation Potato Response to P 4R Nutrient Stewardship

22 What is on a soil analysis report? OM pH CEC P K Ca Mg Na Soil Index % base saturation K, Mg, Ca, Na B Cu Zn S Mn Fe Al Ratings Field name, size, crop Recommendations for lime and fertilizer Carbon Salt Nitrogen

23 Amount of nutrient (P, K, Mg, etc.) extracted is an index of the likelihood of crop response to that nutrient Soil Test Interpretation

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25 Soil Test Calibration Determines the relationship between soil test level and the rate to apply Depends on the nature of crop response to the nutrient, as a function of soil test level Crop responses are smaller and less frequent at higher soil test levels

26 Quebec P Calibration for Potato Khiari et al., 2000

27 Quebec P Calibration for Potato Khiari et al., 2000

28 Approaches to Soil Test Interpretation Sufficiency approach: Apply P to maximize net returns to fertilization in the year of application –Strategy: fertilize only when there is a good chance that a profitable yield response will be realized –Soil test levels kept in lower, responsive ranges –Normally adopted on land leased for short periods of time or when cash flow is limited Relative yield, % Soil test P level

29 Approaches to Soil Test Interpretation Build and maintenance approach: Remove P as a yield-limiting variable –Strategy: apply extra P (more than crop removal) to build soil tests to levels that are not yield-limiting –Soil test levels kept in higher, non-responsive ranges –Normally adopted on owned land or land leased for longer periods of time Relative yield, % Soil test P level

30 Some Factors that can Influence Response at a Given Soil Test Level Tillage system Placement Variety Planting date Weather Yield potential Variability within the field

31 Factors Influencing Fertilizer Recommended Farmer financial circumstances Land tenure Soil test change expected Farmer goals

32 Outline World Fertilizer Trends Soil Fertility Status of New Brunswick –Soil Test Summaries –Crop Nutrient Balances Soil Test Interpretation Potato Response to P 4R Nutrient Stewardship

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34 P Needs Research by: – Stephen Moorehead & Robert Coffin, Cavendish Farms – Brian Sanderson, AAFC – Brian Douglas, PEI Soil Test Lab – Dave Brubacher, Alpine Plant Foods

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41 Outline World Fertilizer Trends Soil Fertility Status of New Brunswick – Soil Test Summaries – Crop Nutrient Balances Soil Test Interpretation Potato Response to P 4R Nutrient Stewardship

42 Right Right Rate, Right Time & Right Place – Linking practices to science for sustainability performance

43 Sustainability Issues Related to Fertilizer Recommendations Food and nutrition security Employment Soil fertility Cadmium in soil Eutrophication Non-renewable resources Greenhouse gas emissions Stratospheric ozone depletion (N 2 O) Air quality: ammonia, smog Water quality: nitrate, algae Public perception

44 Healthy environment Productivity Profitability Durability CROPPING SYSTEM OBJECTIVES Net profit Resource use efficiencies: Energy, Labor, Nutrient, Water Return on investment Water & air quality Farm income Working conditions Nutrient balance Nutrient loss Yield Quality Soil erosion Biodiversity Ecosystems services Adoption Soil productivity 4R Nutrient Stewardship Performance indicators Stakeholder input Individuals working on one indicator remain cognizant of the others

45 Who decides whats RIGHT? a team of farmers, researchers, natural resource managers, extension staff and agribusiness professionals. - ??? An ethical question, more than scientific Input from ALL stakeholders on PERFORMANCE: – Indicators, Benchmarks, Targets Farmer (land manager) selects the PRACTICE – Dynamic site-specific decision on source, rate, time and place – Decision support for highest probability of performance – Adaptive management

46 ACTION Change in practice Farm Level Producers, Crop advisers, Dealers DECISION Accept, revise, or reject EVALUATION of OUTCOME Cropping System Sustainability Performance Adaptive Management for Plant Nutrition OUTPUT Recommendation of right source, rate, time, and place (BMPs) Regional Level Agronomic scientists DECISION SUPPORT based on scientific principles Policy Level Regulatory, Infrastructural LOCAL SITE FACTORS Climate Policies Land tenure Technologies Financing Prices Logistics Management Weather Soil Crop demand Potential losses Ecosystem vulnerability

47 Scientific Principles General – Physics, chemistry, biology – Soil fertility and plant nutrition – Fundamental processes – System performance Specific – source, rate, time and place

48 1. Supply in plant available forms 2. Suit soil properties 3. Recognize synergisms among elements 4. Blend compatibility 1. Appropriately assess soil nutrient supply 2. Assess all available indigenous nutrient sources 3. Assess plant demand 4. Predict fertilizer use efficiency 1. Assess timing of crop uptake 2. Assess dynamics of soil nutrient supply 3. Recognize timing of weather factors 4. Evaluate logistics of operations 1.Recognize root-soil dynamics 2.Manage spatial variability 3.Fit needs of tillage system 4.Limit potential off-field transport The basic scientific principles of managing crop nutrients are universal

49 Right Source Scientific Principle: Ensure a balanced supply of essential nutrients in plant-available form. Practices: Credit nutrients from manures and composts Credit N from previous crops Assess use of enhanced-efficiency sources

50 Right Rate Scientific Principle: Assess soil nutrient supply and plant demand. Practices: Soil test Balance crop removal Determine crop yield potential Assess price ratios

51 Right Time Scientific Principle: Assess timing of crop uptake, soil nutrient supply, weather, and logistics. Practices: Split-application for sandy soils Scouting and tissue sampling Cover crops to capture nutrients Suit tillage and planting operations

52 Right Place Scientific Principle: Place nutrients where they are accessible to the crop. Practices: Placement near seedlings Within-field management zones Apply soil survey information (drainage, etc.) Incorporate or inject

53 4R Nutrient Stewardship Crops & Soils 42(2): Mar-Apr 2009 Crops & Soils 42(3): May-Jun 2009 Crops & Soils 42(4): Jul-Aug 2009 Crops & Soils 42(5): Sep-Oct 2009 Crops & Soils 42(6): Nov-Dec 2009 Know Your Fertilizer Rights: Right Place by T.S. Murrell (IPNI), G.P. Lafond (AAFC), and T.J. Vyn (Purdue U.)

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55 Summary Fertilizers are strategic resources of increasing importance. Soil tests guide balanced nutrient replenishment. Soil tests are indexes of likelihood of crop response. Improving potato P use efficiency remains a challenge. 4R Nutrient Stewardship aims to apply the right source at the right rate, time and place to improve sustainability.

56 Comments Welcome nane.ipni.net


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