Why Standards? Impact Protection is invisible No good way to gauge it directly No good way to gauge it directly...or to complain about disappointment later...or to complain about disappointment later But Standards may allow riders to gauge impact protection indirectly Standards presume a tremendous number of reasonably identical units Standards presume a tremendous number of reasonably identical units Call out tests for representative samples Call out tests for representative samples Assume similar performance for the rest Assume similar performance for the rest
Standards Positives They provide crucial information About important functions About important functions Example: What will my helmet do for me in a crash That cant be determined on the spot That cant be determined on the spot Impact protection is invisible Sometimes you can tell when it isnt there Sometimes you can tell when it isnt there But you cant tell for sure that it is there But you cant tell for sure that it is there
Standards Negatives Youre taking someones word That the helmet actually meets the standard That the helmet actually meets the standard The tests were done on selected samples This helmet is identical to the ones tested That the standard has something to do with head protection That the standard has something to do with head protection Standards apply only to new helmets Routine use, crash damage, user mods etc may change everything Routine use, crash damage, user mods etc may change everything
Two Standards Types Mandatory - Issued by governments Set minimums for all with the force of law Set minimums for all with the force of law Public Safety Public Safety Regulation of Public Affairs; i.e.: traffic, commerce etc. Regulation of Public Affairs; i.e.: traffic, commerce etc. Voluntary – Issued by Anybody Sometimes public safety but also other reasons Sometimes public safety but also other reasons Demonstrate product capabilities Demonstrate product capabilities Superior capabilities and/or More plausible demonstrations Depends on Market Forces Depends on Market Forces
Two Standards DOT (FMVSS 218) Mandatory Mandatory Self-certified Self-certified Manufacturers arrange reasonable testing Claim DOT certification for their own products Snell M2005 Voluntary Voluntary Snell certified Snell certified Snell does pre-market and in-market testing Manufacturers are bound by contract Manufacturers are bound by contract
Snell Standards Independent Most stringent Updated every 5 years
Why DOT? Manufacturers Reasons Mandatory Mandatory Vulnerability Vulnerability Liability Lawsuits Product recalls Riders Reasons Its difficult to find a good helmet without it Its difficult to find a good helmet without it
Additional Wrinkle Standards Programs Standards are basically documents Standards are basically documents Programs are the means by which standards are applied Programs are the means by which standards are appliedExamples Third party test programs Third party test programs Snell, UL Self-certification Self-certification DOT, CPSC, ASTM, ANSI
Snell Testing Standards = Documents Experience and equipment Objective and reliable (A2LA)
Why Snell M2005 Riders Reasons Demonstrates superior capabilities Demonstrates superior capabilities Helmets tested at higher severities DOT says that Snell indicates a helmet complies with DOT Snell says the helmet does even better More Plausible Demonstration More Plausible Demonstration Snell does initial pre-market testing And in-market enforcement testing afterwards
M2005 & Riders #2 More Plausible Demonstration (continued) Snell is Independent Snell is Independent No government influence No manufacturer influence Snell is not-for-profit Snell is not-for-profit 501C(3 ) Corporation (testing for public safety) Snell is technically competent Snell is technically competent Expert board of directors Experienced staff +50 year track record +50 year track record
For Manufacturers Improved Market Appeal Many riders look for Snell Certification Many riders look for Snell Certification Dealers & Distributors want to sell to them Dealers & Distributors want to sell to them
Snell Motorcycle Helmet Standards Increased impact protection area Comparison of M2000 and M2005 New M2010 products in Oct. 2009
Gist Shock Attenuation (Peak Gs etc.) Mostly set by mandatory standards Mostly set by mandatory standards Here in the US thats DOT Here in the US thats DOT More shock attenuation possible More shock attenuation possible requires bigger, heavier helmets Impact Management (hit magnitude limits) Mandatory minimums Mandatory minimums Snell sets higher, premium levels Snell sets higher, premium levels
M2010 - Why New Standard? Encourage More Protective Helmets - European riders have no access to more protective helmet due to technical incompatibility. - European riders have no access to more protective helmet due to technical incompatibility. New Scientific & Medical Findings - Dr. Chings finding - Dr. Chings finding New Materials & Technology - Stiffer shell and softer liner - Stiffer shell and softer liner
Snell – DOT – ECE 22-05 Differences depend on helmet size Medium sizes Medium sizes Small sizes: XS, S, 54 cm to 57 cm Small sizes: XS, S, 54 cm to 57 cm Largest sizes: XXXL, 62 cm Largest sizes: XXXL, 62 cmComparing Stiffness – liner property: stiffer more Gs Stiffness – liner property: stiffer more Gs Less stiff less Gs and bigger, heavier helmets Severity – how big are the test impacts Severity – how big are the test impacts More severe bigger hits and bigger, heavier helmets
M2005 vs M2010 for US Riders Possibly identical in design and manufacturing for sizes medium and larger Softer liner in sizes small and extra small
Beyond Standards Theres more to helmets than standards Fit Quality Fit Quality Comfort Comfort Ventilation, Noise, Ease of Use etc. Looks Looks Cost Cost Snell claims no special knowledge of these and neither does DOT Riders can tell us better than we can tell them Riders can tell us better than we can tell them
The Helmet Took Some Punishment OOPS! Dropping an empty helmet is not likely to affect protective performance Dropping an empty helmet is not likely to affect protective performance But there may be some cosmetic scars as a result But there may be some cosmetic scars as a resultCrash If a helmet with a head inside takes a solid thump, protective capability may be degraded If a helmet with a head inside takes a solid thump, protective capability may be degraded But there may be few or no outward signs But there may be few or no outward signs
Cosmetic Damage ChipsDings Minor Scratches Freckles across the brow and chin bar, especially open car and motorcycle use Odor
Impact Damage On the Shell Broad patterns of parallel scratches Broad patterns of parallel scratches Broad patterns of fine cracks in the paint Broad patterns of fine cracks in the paint Radial and/or Concentric Splits and/or discontinuities in the shell Splits and/or discontinuities in the shell Delamination Delamination In the Impact Liner (EPS) Dents and depressions Dents and depressions Areas of Sponginess Areas of Sponginess
Caveats Some shells dont show damage oil-canning oil-canning Hidden delamination Hidden delamination Most liner damage may be hidden between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the liner
The Helmet Got Old Snell recommends owners routinely replace headgear after no more than 5 years of use. We also urge that rulebooks allow the current and immediately previous Snell certification. The manufacture date label may not be a fair way to judge helmet age.
Finally Snell is the only program that requires pre- market certification testing for gate- keeping and in-market random sample testing for compliance. Snell certified helmets can handle higher impact energy. Snell updates standards to make the best head protection available to all riders
Websitewww.smf.org Helmet Lists – Brand, Model, Size HeadsUp Newsletters Standards General Information Links to Manufacturers, Distributors, etc.
Last Words We have no direct indicators of helmet protective capability We can look for indirect indicators (e.g.:Snell/DOT stickers) There are reasonably foreseeable crashes that will exceed a helmets protective capabilities. In serious crashes riders need all the impact management capability a helmet can offer.
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