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QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES. AWARENESS ABOUT HANDLING OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS. AT A GLANCE.

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Presentation on theme: "QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES. AWARENESS ABOUT HANDLING OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS. AT A GLANCE."— Presentation transcript:

1 QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES

2 AWARENESS ABOUT HANDLING OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS. AT A GLANCE

3 Introduction PETROLEUM PRODUCTS FUEL OILS LUBRICATING OILS LUBRICATING GREASES

4 PETROLEUM PRODUCTS TESTS AND SIGNIFICANCE THE MAJOR FUNCTION OF LUBRICATING OIL IS REDUCTION OF FRICTION & WEAR BY SEPARATION OF SURFACES LUBRICATING OILS ALSO ACT AS A CARRIER FOR ADDITIVES ADVANCEMENT IN LUBRICATION TECHNOLOGY GOOD QUALITY OF BASE OILS HAVE MORE RESPONSE TO ADDITIVES PROPERLY FORMULATED LUBRICATNS LAST LONGER AND GENERATE LESS WASTE SYSTEMATIC MANAGEMENT & TRANSFER OF KNOWLEDGE IS KEY TO SUCCESS

5 PETROLEUM PRODUCTS TESTS AND SIGNIFICANCE contd. IT IS POSSIBLE TO MAKE LUBRICANTS SAFE FOR PEOPLE & ENVIRONMENT CLOSE RELATIONSHIP WITH OEMS OEMS ARE BECOMING INCREASINGLY RECEPTIVE BECAUSE IT IS THEIR OBJECTIVE FOR BETTER PERFORMANCE TO GENERATE QUALITY AWARENESS IN THE USER COMMUNITY THROUGH PROPER CUSTOMER EDUCATION CHALLENGE - TO CONVINCE THE PUBLIC TO PAY MORE FOR QUALITY PRODUCTS

6 QUALITY CONCEPT ADVANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION NATIONAL & INTERNATIONAL QUALITY CONCEPT TEST METHODS DEFINITION OF QUALITY

7 QUALITY STATEMENT ADVANCEMENT IN PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY CHANGES IN QUALITY CONTROL TESTS REVIEW OF TEST METHODS CUSTOMER CARE AND FEEDBACK

8 ASSESSMENT OF QUALITY ADOPTION OF NEW FORMULATION TECHNOLOGY CONSTANT REVIEW OF THE TEST METHODS INSTRUMENTAL TECHNIQUES PRODUCT QUALITY IS TAILOR MADE FOR CUSTOMERS TRADITIONAL TEST METHODS ARE SUPPLIMENTED BY MODERN INSTRUMENTAL TECHNIQUES TEST MODULES FOR PERFORMANCE TESTS AND BENCH TESTS TEST RIGS AND ENGINE TEST TO SATISFY CUSTOMERS FOR ENERGY SAVING, POWER REDUCTION, TO REDUCE MACHINERY DOWN TIME, SAFETY AND HEALTH ASPECTS ARE ALSO BEING CONSIDERED WHILE ASSESSING THE QUALITY OF THE PRODUCTS.

9 PETROLEUM PRODUCTS TESTS & SIGNIFICANCE

10 TESTS ON PETROLEUM PRODUCTS CAN BE BROADLY CLASSIFIED AS : PHYSICAL TESTS CHEMICAL TESTS PERFORMANCE - BASED TESTS

11 A. PHYSICAL TESTS APPEARANCE ANILINE POINT ASH CONTENT COLOUR COPPER STRIP CORROSION DENSITY DISTILLATION FLASH POINT INSOLUBLES POUR POINT RESIDUE ON EVAPORATION VISCOSITY VISCOSITY INDEX WATER CONTENT

12 B. CHEMICALS TESTS NEUTRALIZATION NO : TOTAL ACID NUMBER STRONG ACID NO. TOTAL BASE NO. STRONG BASE NO. LEAD CONTENT (TEL) METAL CONTENT : Ca, Ba, Zn etc

13 C. PERFORMANCE BASED TESTS OXIDATION STABILITY EXTREME PRESSURE CHARACTERISTICS LEAKAGE TENDENCY WATER WASHOUT PROPERTIES RUST PROTECTION FOAMING CHARACTERISTICS AIR RELEASE PROPERTY KNOCK RATING

14 PHYSICAL TESTS APPEARANCE APPEARANCE : VISUAL OBSERVATION BRIGHT & CLEAR : GOOD PRODUCT FREE FROM CONTAMINATION HAZY/CLOUDY : PRESENCE OF SEDIMENT WATER AND /OR WAX

15 ANILINE POINT MINIMUM TEMPERATURE AT WHICH ANILINE AND OIL IN EQUAL QUANTITY ARE MISCIBLE. IT IS USEFUL IN THE CHARACTERISATION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS. IT INCREASES WITH INCREASE IN PARAFINICITY. IT GIVES THE IDEA OF COMPOSITION OF PETROLEUM CARBON RESIDUE.

16 ASH CONTENT METALLIC DEPOSITS FORMED IN THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER & OTHER ENGINE PARTS DURING THE HIGH TEMPERATURE OPERATION.

17 ASH CONTENT : ASTM D 482/874,IP 4/163,IS 1448 P:4 EQUIPMENT :CRUCIBLE ANALYTICAL BALANCE MUFFLE FURNACE BURNER ASH IS NON COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL IN PETROLEUM PRODUCT CONTRIBUTED BY1) SOLID PARTICLES 2) OIL OR WATER SOLUBLE METALLIC COMPOUNDS …….CONTD PHYSICAL TESTS ASH CONTENT

18 ASH FROM FUELS: AFFECTS FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS, INDUCES BOILER CORROSION, ATTACKS REFRACTORY LINING OILS: INDICATES PRESENCE OF OIL SOLUBLE METALLIC COMPOUNDS. SULPHATED ASH : BASIC TOOL FOR MFG. QUALITY CONTROL …….CONTD PHYSICAL TESTS ASH CONTENT

19 LOWER : LESSER ADDITION OF ADDITIVES, ADMIXTURE OF BASE OIL. HIGHER: INCREASED ADDITIVE DOSAGE, ADMIXTURE WITH OILS OF HIGHER ADDITIVE CONCENTRATION. PHYSICAL TESTS ASH CONTENT

20 COLOUR TEST IS USED FOR MANUFACTURING CONTROL PURPOSES. IT IS IMPORTANT SINCE COLOUR IS READILY OBSERVED BY CUSTOMER.

21 PROPERTIES OF FUELS AND LUBRICANTS COLOUR USED FOR MANUFACTURING CONTROL PURPOSE. READILY OBSERVED BY THE CUSTOMER. A VARIATION OUTSIDE THE ESTABLISHED RANGE INDICATES CONTAMINATION/ADULTERATION.

22 COLOUR : 1. SAYBOLT: ASTM D 156 / IS 1448 P :14 2. ASTM: ASTM D1500 / IP 196 / IS 1448 P :12 EQUIPMENT : SAYBOLT CHROMOMETER,ASTM COLORIMETER NO QUALITY SIGNIFICANCE : ENSURES PRODUCT UNIFORMITY APPRECIABLE CHANGE FROM NORMAL INDICATES CONTAMINATION PETROL COLOUR INDICATES PRESENCE OF LEAD & PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION. PHYSICAL TESTS COLOUR

23 COPPER STRIP CORROSION A QUALITATIVE MEASURE OF THE TENDENCY OF A PETROLEUM PRODUCT TO CORRODE PURE COPPER.

24 COPPER STRIP COROSSION : ASTM D 130 / IP 156 / IS 1448 P:15 EQUIPMENT : WATER BATH - THERMOSTATICALLY CONTROLLED. STD. COPPER STRIP,TEST TUBES, POLISHING MATERIAL INDICATES PRESENCE OF CORROSIVE SULPHUR IN PETROLEUM PRODUCTS CAUSES: IMPROPER REFINING IMPROPER STORAGE CONDITION WATER BOTTOMS & PRESENCE OF SULPHIDES INDUCE CORROSION. PHYSICAL TESTS CORROSION …..CONTD.

25 ATTACKS FUEL SYSTEM & ALL COPPER/COPPER BEARING COMPONENTS POSITIVE TEST INDICATES PROBABLE ADMIXTURE OF ACTIVE SULPHUR BASED CUTTING OIL. PHYSICAL TESTS CORROSION

26 DENSITY MASS/VOLUME DENSITY PROVIDES CHECK ON UNIFORMITY OF SHIPMENT. DENSITY PROVIDES CHECK ON UNIFORMITY OF SHIPMENT.

27 DENSITY : ASTM D 1298 / IP-160 / IS 1448 P:32 EQUIPMENT : HYDROMETER, GLASS JAR, THERMOMETER IP 64C HELPS TO COMPUTE WEIGHT - VOLUME RELATIONSHIP ASSISTS TO DETECT CONTAMINATION IN COMPARISON TO PARENT FIGURE IN FUELS. SERVES AS BASIC GUIDE FOR PRODUCT MOVEMENT. PHYSICAL TESTS DENSITY ….CONTD.

28 FOR OILS : LOWER VALUE :FUEL OIL DILUTION, ADMIXTURE OF LOW DENSITY PRODUCT. HIGHER VALUE :OXIDATION, INSOLUBLES, WATER,MIXTURES OF HIGH DENSITY PRODUCT. PRECAUTIONS :1.HYDROMETER CALIBRATION MUST BE AT 15°C 2. SHIFTING OF GRADUATED SCALE 3. BREAK IN THERMOMETER THREAD PHYSICAL TESTS DENSITY

29 SPECIFIC GRAVITY RATIO OF A WEIGHT OF A GIVEN VOLUME OF MATERIAL TO THE WEIGHT OF THE SAME VOLUME OF WATER.

30 API GRAVITY API GRAVITY, DEGREE = O C CO-EFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION. CHANGE OF DENSITY WITH TEMPERATURE.

31 DISTILLATION THE SIGNIFICANCE OF DISTILLATION RESULTS IS BASED ON CLOSE RELATIONSHIP TO VOLATILITY

32 VOLATILITY VOLATILITY THE TENDENCY OF A LIQUID OR LIQUIFIED GAS TO VAPOURISE IS CALLED ITS VOLATILITY. IT HAS IMPORTANCE DURING COMBUSTION. IT KEEPS THE LIQUID IN GASEOUS STATE. FOR VAPOURIZATION FLASH POINT, FIRE POINT, VAPOUR PRESSURE & EVAPORATION ARE ESSENTIAL.

33 DISTILLATION TEMPERATURES DISTILLATION TEMPERATURES INITIAL BOILING POINT (IBP) THE TEMPERATURE AT WHICH THE FIRST DROP OF DISTILLATE IS COLLECTED IN THE MEASURING CYLINDER. END POINT OR FINAL BOILING POINT (FBP) THE HIGHEST TEMPERATURE RECORDED DURING THE DISTILLATION PROCESS. DRY POINT THE TEMPERATURE AT WHICH THE LAST DROP EVAPOURATES AND THE DISTILLATION FLASK BECOMES DRY DURING THE DISTILLATION PROCESS.

34 DISTILLATION TEMPERATURE (continued) DISTILLATION TEMPERATURE (continued) RECOVERY THE TOTAL VOLUME OF DISTILLATE RECOVERED IN THE CYLINDER. RESIDUE MATERIAL REMAINED IN THE FLASK AFTER DISTILLATION. IF RESIDUE IS HIGH IT GIVES THE INDICATION OF IMPURITY.

35 DISTILLATION : ASTM D 86/IP-123 / IS 1448 : P18 EQUIPMENT : FRONT VIEW DISTILLATION APPARATUS, STD. THERMOMETER, DISTILLATION FLASK,MEASURING CYLINDER (100 ML) CONTROLS VOLATILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF FUELS. CONTRIBUTES TO : EASE OF STARTING WARM UP AND UNIFORM DISTRIBUTION OF FUEL. PHYSICAL TESTS DISTILLATION …..CONTD.

36 LIMITS : UNWARRANTED HEAVY ENDS ARRESTS: EXHAUST SMOKING - ENGINE DEPOSITS FUEL DILUTION - IMPROPER MIXTURE DISTRIBUTION TO CYLINDER. DISTILLATION TEST AIDS DETECTING ADULTERATION OF PETROL WITH SKO/HSD PHYSICAL TESTS DISTILLATION

37 FLASH POINT IMPORTANT INDICATION OF FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD

38 FLASH POINT : 1. ABEL FLASH POINT: IP 170 / IS 1448 P:32 2. PENSKY MARTENS : ASTM D 93/IP 34/ FLASH POINT IS 1448 P :21 3. CLEVELAND OPEN: ASTM D 92/ IP 36 / CUP FLASH POINT IS-1448 P 69 EQUIPMENT : ABEL FLASH TESTER - FUELS UPTO 70°C PM FLASH TESTER - FUELS & OILS COC FLASH TESTER - OILS PHYSICAL TESTS FLASH POINT ……CONTD.

39 FLASH POINT CONTROLS FLAMMABILITY PROPERTY OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS - INDICATES DEGREE OF SAFETY IN STORAGE, TRANSPORTATION AND USE. IN USED CRANKCASE OILS LOWER FLASH INDICATES FUEL DILUTION. BASIC CRITICAL TEST FOR FUEL DELIVERIES. PHYSICAL TESTS FLASH POINT

40 FLASH & FIRE POINT IT IS THE TEMPERATURE TO WHICH THE OIL MUST BE HEATED UNDER SPECIFIED TEST CONDITIONS TO GIVE OFF SUFFICIENT VAPOURS TO FORM A MIXTURE WHICH WILL IGNITE IN THE PRESENCE OF A SOURCE OF IGNITION FLASH POINT TEST GIVES AN INDICATION OF PRESENCE OF VOLATILE COMPONENTS IN AN OIL. FIRE POINT IS THE TEMPERATURE AT WHICH THE PRODUCT STARTS BURNING CONTINUOUSLY IT GIVES AN INDICATION OF FIRE HAZARD.

41 INSOLUBLES CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN USED OILS DUE TO DUST, WEAR PARTICLES AND OXIDATION PRODUCTS

42 INSOLUBES - ASTM D 893 EQUIPMENT : OIL CENTRIFUGE - CONE SHAPED 100ML TUBES ANALYTICAL BALANCE - AIR OVEN THIS TEST IS BASICALLY FOR USED LUBRICATING OILS HEXANE INSOLUBLE = CARBON + OXIDISED OIL + RESINS + SEDIMENT BENZENE INSOLUBES = CARBON + SEDIMENT ASH ON BENZENE INSOLUBES; SEDIMENT, SILICA,WEAR METAL PARTICLES. ESSENTIAL TOOL TO JUDGE USED OIL QUALITY. PHYSICAL TESTS INSOLUBLES

43 POUR POINT AN INDICATOR OF THE ABILITY OF OIL TO FLOW UNDER COLD OPERATING CONDITIONS

44 CLOUD & POUR POINT 1. CLOUD POINT. TEMPERATURE AT WHICH THE OIL BECOMES HAZY WHEN COOLED IN A SPECIFIED CONDITION. IT HAS IMPORTANCE WHEN NARROW CLEARANCE MIGHT BE RESTRICTED BY ACCUMULATION OF SOLID MATERIAL EX-SUCTION LINE STRAINERS, SMALL SIZE OIL-FEED LINES OR FILTERS.

45 CLOUD & POUR POINT POUR POINT IS THE LOWEST TEMPERATURE AT WHICH THE OIL WILL JUST FLOW UNDER SPECIFIC TEST CONDITIONS. IT'S USE IS FOR LOW TEMPERATURE APPLICATION. POUR POINT OF WAXY OILS CAN BE REDUCED BY POUR POINT DEPRESSANT (PPD) SIGNIFICANCE IN REFRIGERATION COMPRESSOR LUBRICANTS & AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE OILS.

46 POUR POINT : ASTM D 97/ IP 15 /IS 1448 P :10 EQUIPMENT : CLOUD & POUR TEST CABINET, STD. THERMOMETER, POUR POINT JARS PETROLEUM PRODUCTS ON COOLING SEPARATE WAX CRYSTALS. FIRST APPEARANCE OF WAX IS CLOUD POINT. CONTINUED CHILLING INCREASES WAX PRECIPITATION AND ENDS IN MATRIX FORMATION. THIS MATRIX OF WAX STRUCTURE ARRESTS OIL FLOW. PHYSICAL TESTS POUR POINT ……CONTD.

47 POUR POINT CONTROLS FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AND PUMPABILITY PROPERTY. POUR DEPRESSANTS RETARD MATRIX FORMATION AND CONTRIBUTE TO LOWERING OF POUR POINT AND INCREASE FLOW PROPERTIES. PHYSICAL TESTS POUR POINT

48 RESIDUE ON EVAPORATION : ASTM D 381 / IP 131 / IS 1448 P 29 EQUIPMENT : EXISTENT GUM BATH WITH PR.GAUGE & THERMOMETER - STD. GUM BEAKER - ANALYTICAL BALANCE - AIR OVEN. TEST IS APPLICABLE TO FUELS & SOLVENTS. ALL FUELS CONTAIN CERTAIN UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS. PHYSICAL TESTS RESIDUE ON EVAPORATION …..CONTD.

49 THESE COMBINE WITH THEMSELVES AND WITH OXYGEN TO FORM NON VOLATIE STICKY SUBSTANCES CALLED GUM. GUM DEPOSITS IN ENGINE PARTS. - CARBURETTER & INTAKE SYSTEM (INTAKE MANIFOLD - VALVE STEMS, SEATS ETC) - RESTRICTS FLOW THROUGH CARBURETTER JETS, FLOAT STICKING AND IN EXTREME CASES VALVE STICKING. PHYSICAL TESTS RESIDUE ON EVAPORATION

50 VISCOSITY VISCOSITY OF A FLUID IS A MEASURE OF ITS RESISTANCE TO FLOW. VISCOSITY AND VISCOSITY VARIATION WITH CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE ARE IMPORTANT FACTORS FOR ESTABLISHING PERFORMANCE STANDARD OF LUBE OILS

51 VISCOSITY VISCOSITY MEASURE OF FLOW CHARACTERISTICS. VISCOSITY CHANGES WITH TEMPERATURE. IT FORMS BY THE COHESION OF FORCE OF MOLECULES. AS THE PRESSURE INCREASES VISCOSITY INCREASES. VISCOSITY INCREASE IN USED OIL INDICATES THAT THE OIL HAS OXIDISED. VISCOSITY DECREASE USUALLY INDICATES DILUTION BY FUEL.

52 VISCOSITY = ASTM D 445 / IP 71 / IS 1448 P25 MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE TO FLOW. EQUIPMENT : CONSTANT TEMPERATURE VISCOSITY BATH,CALIBRATED CAPILLARY GLASS VISCOMETERS, STOP WATCH. UNITS OF VISCOSITY : ABSOLUTE, CENTI POISE, KINEMATIC,CENTI STOKES RELATIONSHIP : CENTI TEMPERATURE LUBE OILS ARE CONTOLLED AT 40°C AS PER ISO VISCOSITY SYSTEM. = VISCOSITY FORMS BASIS FOR SELECTION OF LUBRICANTS. = VISCOSITY CHANGES REFLECT USED OIL CONDITION. PHYSICAL TESTS VISCOSITY

53 VISCOSITY INDEX VISCOSITY INDEX VISCOSITY OF PETROLEUM BASE OILS DECREASES WITH A RISE IN TEMPERATURE. INDICATES THE EFFECTS OF CHANGE OF TEMPERATURE ON THE VISCOSIY OF OIL. STANDARD PARAFFINIC OIL HAVE VI=100. STANDARD NAPHTHENIC OIL HAVE VI=0. VI OF AN OIL IS OF IMPORTANCE IN ITS APPLICATION WHERE AN APPRECIABLE CHANGE IN THE TEMPERATURE OF LUBE OIL COULD AFFECT THE START-UP.

54 VISCOSITY INDEX : ASTM D 2270 / IP 226 / IS 1448 P 56. NUMERICAL EVALUATION OF THE PROPERTY OF RESISTING CHANGES IN VISCOSITY DUE TO CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE. MEASUREMENT : VI = L - U X 100 L - H VI CAN BE OBTAINED FROM READYMADE ASTM TABLES. = HELPS IDENTIFICATION OF TYPE OF BASE STOCK = CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF OIL FOR WIDE OPERATING TEMPERATURE = PRIME INDICATION OF HIGH QUALITY - BETTER OXIDATION RESISTANCE PHYSICAL TESTS VISCOSITY INDEX

55 WATER CONTENT : ASTM D 95 / IP 74 / IS 1448 P 40 EQUIPMENT : DEAN & STARK WATER CONTENT APPARATUS,HOT PLATE, BALANCE TRACE MOISTURE IN OIL IS FOUND BY CRACKLE TEST PETROLEUM PRODUCTS PICK UP WATER DURING STORAGE, HANDLING AND CONDENSATION FROM ATMOSPHERE. PRESENCE OF WATER IN USED OILS INDICATE PROBABLE LEAKAGE IN COOLING SYSTEM OR STEAM GLANDS IN TURBINE. WATER WHEN PRESENT FORMS EMULSION & SLUDGE - CLOGS SUCTION SCREEN, OIL COOLER & FILTERS. WATER IS A DEADLY ENEMY FOR DETERGENT OILS. PHYSICAL TESTS WATER

56 RESEARCH OCTANE NUMBER A MEASURE OF FULES ABILITY TO PREVENT DETONATION IN A SPARK IGNITION ENGINE

57 AUTOMOTIVE GASOLINES ARE ESSENTIALLY BLENDS OF HYDROCARBONS DERIVED FROM PETROLEUM. SELECTED ADDITIVES ARE ADDED TO IMPART SPECIFIC FEATURES TO MS. GASOLINES ARE BLENDED TO SATISFY DIVERSE AUTOMOTIVE REQUIREMENTS. ANTIKNOCK RATING, DISTILLATION CHARECTERISTICS, VAPOUR PRESSURE, SULPHUR, OXIDATION STABILITY AND ANTICORROSION BEHAVIOUR ARE WELL BALANCED TO PROVIDE SATISFACTORY EHICLE PERFORMANCE. OCTANE NO...

58 PREMIUM 93 OCTANE REGULAR 87 OCTANE IF ANTI-KNOCK RATING IS TOO LOW KNOCK OCCURS. KNOCK IS A HIGH PITCH METTALIC RAPPING NOISE. KNOCK DEPENDS ON COMPLEX PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PHENOMENA; HIGHLY INTERRELATED WITH ENGINE DESIGN AND OPERATING CONDITIONS.

59 KNOCK IN AN ENGINE IS A FORM OF ABNORMAL COMBUSTION WHERE AIR/FUEL CHARGE IN THE CYLINDER IGNITES SPONTANEOUSLY IN A LOCALISED AREA INSTEAD OF BEING CONSUMED PROGRESSIVELY BY THE SPARK INITIATED FLAME FRONT. KNOCKING COMBUSTION CAN DAMAGE THE ENGINE AND GIVE SERIOUS POWER LOSS IF ALLOWED TO PERSIST. OCTANE NO...

60 NEUTRALISATION NUMBER - BY I) COLOUR - INDICATOR TITRATION ASTM D 974 / IP 139 / IS 1448 P :2 II)POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION - ASTM D 664 / IP177 / IS 1448 P :1 ASTM D 2896 / IP 276 / IS 1448 P :86 NEUTRALISATION NUMBER IS A MEASURE OF ACIDITY OR ALKALINITY IN OIL - REPORTED AS EQUIVALENT mg KOH / gm OF OIL. COLOUR INDICATOR TITRATION : NEW/USED OIL WHERE COLOUR CHANGE IS VISIBLE. CHEMICAL TESTS NEUTRALISATION NUMBER ……CONTD.

61 POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION : USED CRANKCASE OILS WHERE COLOUR CHANGE OF INDICATOR IS NOT VISIBLE. = STRAIGHT MINERAL NEW OILS HAVE LOW NEUTRALISATION NO. = HIGH NEUT. NO. IN NEW OILS IS DUE TO ADDITIVES. = INCREASE IN NEUT. NO. - USED OIL OXIDATION, PRESENCE OF MINERAL ACIDITY. NEUT. NO. SERVES AS GUIDELINE FOR MONITORING USED OIL PERFORMANCE. CHEMICAL TESTS NEUTRALISATION NUMBER

62 OXIDATION STABILITY (OILS) 1. OXIDATION CHARACTERISTICS OF INHIBITED MINERAL OILS ASTM D 943. OIL + WATER Fe, Cu CATALYST, OXYGEN 95°C OXIDATION JUDGED BY TIME TO REACH A NEUT. NO. OF OXIDATION STABILITY OF STEAM TURBINE OILS BY ROB ASTM D 2272 OIL + WATER, Cu CATALYST BOMB 90 PSI OXYGEN 150°C OXIDATION IS JUDGED BY TIME TO REACH A SPECIFIED PRESSURE DROP PERFORMANCE BASED TESTS OXIDATION STABILITY …..CONTD.

63 3. OXIDATION STABILITY OF INHIBITED MINERAL TURBINE OILS IP 280 OIL + S0L.MET. CATALYST Cu/Fe NAPHTHENATE OXYGEN 164 HRS 120°C OXIDATION JUDGED BY MEASURING ACIDITY, SLUDGE ETC 4. OXIDATION TEST FOR LUBRICATING OILS, IP 48 OIL+ AIR200°C 12 HRS OXIDATION IS JUDGED FROM INCREASE IN VISCOSITY AND CARBON RESIDUE. PERFORMANCE BASED TESTS OXIDATION STABILITY

64 5. OXIDATION STABILITY OF GREASE BY OXYGEN BOMB : ASTM D 942 OXIDATION MEASURED AS PRESSURE DROP AFTER 100 HRS - OXIDATION TESTS DATA PROVIDE GUIDELINE IN THE PERFORMANCE OF TURBINE OILS, HYDRAULIC OILS ETC. OXIDATION TEST DATA HELPS IN SELECTION OF ADDITIVE PACKAGES AS WELL AS BASE STOCKS. PERFORMANCE BASED TESTS OXIDATION STABILITY

65 FUNCTION OF EXTREME PRESSURE LUBRICANT IS TO SUSTAIN THE LOAD WITHOUT CAUSING SLIDING SURFACES TO BECOME SCORED OR WELDED. PERFORMANCE BASED TESTS EXTREME PRESSURE CHARACTERISTICS

66 1. TIMKEN LUBRICANT TESTER ASTM D 2782 / IP FOUR BALL EP LUBRICANT TESTER ASTM D 2783 / IP 39. PRINCIPLE : ROTATING MEMBER IS BROUGHT TO BEAR AGAINST A STATIONARY OR SLOW MOVING MEMBER IN PRESENCE OF LUBRICANT. LOAD REQUIRED TO CAUSE SCORING OR WELDING ASSESSED. THERE IS NO DIRECT RELATIONSHIP OR CO-RELATION BETWEEN LABORATORY TEST DATA AND FIELD PERFORMANCE. TEST HELPS TO DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN LUBRICANTS WITH LOW, MEDIUM & HIGH EP CHARACTERISTICS. SULPHUR & CHLORINE COMPOUNDS IMPART EP PROPERTIES TO LUBRICANTS. PERFORMANCE BASED TESTS EXTREME PRESSURE CHARACTERISTICS

67 THANK YOU


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