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Chapter 11 Test Review. Match the Scientists 1. Mendel A. recombination 2. Morgan helps make map 3. Sturtevant B. alleles segregate C. some genes linked.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Test Review. Match the Scientists 1. Mendel A. recombination 2. Morgan helps make map 3. Sturtevant B. alleles segregate C. some genes linked."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 Test Review

2 Match the Scientists 1. Mendel A. recombination 2. Morgan helps make map 3. Sturtevant B. alleles segregate C. some genes linked

3 Match the Scientists 1. Mendel B. alleles segregate 2. Morgan C. genes linked 3. Sturtevant A. recombination helps make map

4 4. What is fertilization? Process of sexual reproduction Joining egg + sperm Joining egg and pollen

5 What is true-breeding and hybrid? 5. True-breeding = E. offspring are identical to parents 6. Hybrid = D. offspring are of parents of different traits

6 7. Genes are____: F. the location on a chromosome for a trait

7 PUNNETT PRACTICE p.3 Dihybrid Cross What are the parental genotypes? Heterozygous running, heterozygous black mouse Homozygous running, homozygous black mouse

8 PUNNETT PRACTICE p.3 Dihybrid Cross What are the parental genotypes? Heterozygous running, heterozygous black mouse RrBb Homozygous running, homozygous black mouse RRBB

9 PUNNETT PRACTICE Dihybrid Cross How many boxes to you need for a dihybrid cross? ANSWER: 16

10 PUNNETT PRACTICE Show how you would place the parental alleles on each side of the Punnett Squares:

11 RB Rb rB rb RB

12 NOW FILL IN THE BOXES AND WHAT IS THE PHENOTYPIC RATIO?

13 100% running black RRBBRRBbRrBBRrBb RRBBRRBbRrBBRrBb RRBBRRBbRrBBRrBb RRBBRRBbRrBBRrBb RB Rb rB rb RB

14 8. Gametes are: A. body cells B. sex cells C. somatic cells D. skin cells ANSWER: sex cells B

15 9. The likelihood that a particular event will occur is: A. hybrid B. offspring C. probability D. recombination ANSWER: C probability

16 10. The wild type is… A. dominant trait B. recessive trait C. most common trait ANSWER: C

17 11. homologous D. male + corresponding female set of chromosomes

18 GO TO PUNNETT PRACTICE On your dry erase board. Do #4 on page 2. Cross two plants that are heterozygous for green pods.

19 #4 Answer Gg gg G g GgGg GG Genotypic ratio: GG:Gg:gg 1: 2: 1 Phenotypic ratio: Green:yellow 3:1

20 12. Haploid and 13. Diploid 13. C. one set of chromosomes N in humans B. two sets of homologous chromosomes 2N in humans 46

21 14. What is a tetrad? A. 4 homologous chromosomes

22 MULTIPLE ALLELE TRAITS IN CHICKENS Question #1:On the cross pictured, what must be the genotypes of the two parents for the outcome to always be a buttercup offspring? ANSWER: rrPP X RRpp

23 Did you set it up right? RP Rp rP rp RP rP rp Rp

24 9:3:3:1 RRPPRRPpRrPPRrPp RRPpRRppRrPpRrpp RrPPRrPprrPPrrPp RrPpRrpprrPprrpp RP Rp rP rp RP rP rp Rp

25 15. Crossing-over F. homologous chromosomes exchange segments

26 16. What is a chiasma? A. when 4 chromosomes come together B. when a cell divides into 4 cells C. when a cell splits D. making poopie E. is the point of crossing over of the two inner homologous chromosomes ANSWER: E

27 17. Contrast Mitosis and Meiosis Mitosis: starts with 2N parent Daughter cells are 2N Daughter cells identical Makes somatic cells Ends with 2 cells 1 division

28 17. Contrast Mitosis and Meiosis Meiosis: starts with 2N parent Daughter cells are N Daughter cells different Makes sex cells Ends with 4 cells 2 divisions

29 18. If you had a tall plant, how can you tell if it is TT or Tt? Cross it with tt (a test cross) T T T t tttt tttt

30 18. If you had a tall plant, how can you tell if it is TT or Tt? Cross it with tt Tttt Tttt Tt T T T t tttt tttt

31 19. Spongebob SsYy marries and mates Spongebetty ssYy Y=yellow y=blue S=square s=round

32

33 19. SsYy X ssYy SsYYSsYyssYYssYy SsYySsyyssYyssyy SsYYSsYyssYYssYy SsYySsyyssYyssyy SY Sy sY sy sY sy sY sy

34 19. SsYy X ssYy SsYYSsYyssYYssYy SsYySsyyssYyssyy SsYYSsYyssYYssYy SsYySsyyssYyssyy SY Sy sY sy sY sy sY sy

35 6 square yellow 6 round yellow 2 square blue 2 round blue SsYYSsYyssYYssYy SsYySsyyssYyssyy SsYYSsYyssYYssYy SsYySsyyssYyssyy SY Sy sY sy sY sy sY sy

36 20. Flower Parts

37 EXTRA: Male Flower Parts? Stamen pistil stigma anther ANSWER: stamen anther

38 21. Hetero or Homo zygous _____HH _____hh _____Hh ANSWER: Homozygous Heterozygous HH hh Hh

39 EXTRA: Recessive? T t H h ANSWER: t h

40 EXTRA: Dominant? T t H h ANSWER: T H

41 CHECK YOUR SKILLS: Go to Punnett Practice #7 Genotypic Ratio? Phenotypic Ratio?

42 Nn x nn N n n n nn Nn nn Genotypic: Nn:nn 2 : 2 Phenotypic Smooth;const. 2 : 2

43 CHECK YOUR SKILLS: BbFf x bbff How many boxes do you need? 16 How do you separate each parent? BF Bf bF bf bf bf

44 BF Bf bF bf BbFfBbffbbFfbbff BbFfBbffbbFfbbff BbFfBbffbbFfbbff BbFfBbffbbFfbbff bf

45 Genotypic Ratio BbFf : Bbff : bbFf : bbff Phenotypic Ratio Black fat : black thin : white fat : white thin

46 CHECK YOUR SKILLS: RR x RW incomplete dominance R R RWRW

47 CHECK YOUR ANSWER: RR x RW incomplete dominance R R RWRW RW Genotypic RR : RW 2 2 Phenotypic Red : Pink 2

48 #22 Black rooster and white chicken form black and white spotted chicks ANSWER: codominance

49 #23 The color of the skin is determined by six different locations on genes ANSWER: polygenic trait

50 #24 A red flower is crossed with a white flower to make pink offspring. ANSWER: incomplete dominance

51 #25 TT x WW = TW offspring ANSWER: codominance

52 #26 Eye color alternatives include blue, brown, green, black ANSWER: multiple alleles

53 #27 A black rabbit crossed with a white rabbit produced a gray rabbit ANSWER: incomplete dominance

54 #29 ANSWER: The higher the crossover frequency, the farther apart are the genes.

55 #28 The greater the number of recombination frequencies (crossovers), then the _____ the genes are to each other. ANSWER: farther apart

56 #29 Red, hair freckles, and fair skin seem to be inherited together. They must be on _____ genes. ANSWER: linked

57 #30 The location on a chromosome is referred to as the: ANSWER: locus gene

58 Back of chicken worksheet: Do questions #1 and #2

59 Incomplete dominance = the offspring show trait in-between the two dominant traits (like black and white have gray offspring) Codominance = both dominant traits will appear like black and white will have spotted black-white offspring

60 Genotype for black chickens BB Genotype for white chickens WW Genotype for erminette BW

61 #31 What is the difference between a trait and an allele? TRAIT: general description EX; eye color, height ALLELE: alternative choices EX: blue and green, and tall-short

62 A-B = 29% B-C=11% B-D=4% A-D = 21 % ADD: A-C =18% C-D = 3% What is the order of these genes? ANSWER: A C D B

63 32. Names of the phases in meiosis:

64 Anaphase I Anaphase II Prophase I Metaphase I Metaphase II Prophase IITelophase II Telophase I

65 #33 Structures of Prophase I

66 Go to Back and do Polygenic Inheritance Worksheet Human Skin Shades Mulatto denotes a person with one white parent and one black parent, or more broadly, a person of mixed black and white ancestry. May also include Native American and other backgrounds.

67 KNOW YOUR MATCHING Numbers of descriptions of offspring phenotypic ratio Numbers of letters of offspring, TT, Tt, tt genotypic ratio Trait that is expressed even if other trait is present dominant

68 32. MATCHING (cont.) Trait that is only expressed if the dominant trait is not present recessive Alternative choices of a trait alleles

69 32. MATCHING (cont) General description of a gene trait Plants pollen fertilizes the same plant self-pollination Plants pollen fertilizes a different plant cross-pollination

70 Can You Identify? locus

71 Compare egg and sperm: Egg forms one large egg and three smaller polar bodies Sperm form all the same size and shape

72

73 What is the purpose of the Punnett Square? A. show the exact offspring B. show only dominant offspring C. predict the probability from a cross D. predict who will win the sperm lotto ANSWER: C

74 Independent Assortment and Crossing Over Independent Assortment randomly segregates the alleles. Crossing-over breaks and reattaches chromosomes to make new gene arrangements. BOTH INCREASE DIVERSITY

75 ESSAYS? Punnett Squares Monohybrid Cross Codominant or Incomplete Dominant Dihybrid Cross Be able to write a genotypic and phenotypic ratio.


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