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Global History & Geography DO BELIEFS GUIDE BEHAVIOR? Unit 4 Essential Question.

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Presentation on theme: "Global History & Geography DO BELIEFS GUIDE BEHAVIOR? Unit 4 Essential Question."— Presentation transcript:


2 Global History & Geography

3 DO BELIEFS GUIDE BEHAVIOR? Unit 4 Essential Question

4 Unit 4 Belief Systems - An element of culture

5 DO BELIEFS GUIDE BEHAVIOR? Unit 4 Essential Question

6 Unit 4 - Belief Systems Unit Outline – what we will study Beliefs of... Belief Systems Expansion of... Timeline Map Definitions Hinduism Animism Judaism Christianity Chinese Philosophies (Taoism – Confucianism) Islam Buddhism Judaism Christianity Buddhism Islam Religion Social Philosophy

7 Map of World Belief Systems Where they began Animism Christianity Judaism Confucianism Buddhism Hinduism Taoism Islam

8 Timeline of World Belief Systems (copy right) Animism Hinduism Judaism Islam Christianity Taoism Confucianism Buddhism Shinto On Left side – write what you know about one religion (not Christianity) Write the approximate start date of each religion!

9 Belief System: Animism (copy into appropriate place on Frayer Diagram) A traditional religion Originated in Africa Still found in many countries Includes many sects No specific or common holy text derived from the Latin word anima meaning breath or soul.

10 Main beliefs of animism (copy into table) Worship spirits of nature (trees, animals, etc.) Worship their ancestors Animistic gods often are immortalized by mythology explaining the creation of fire, wind, water, man, animals, and other natural earthly things. Native Alaskan totem art

11 Other animist beliefs the worship of ancestors believe that the ancestors will talk to a "supreme being" for the worshipper believe in the placing of spells and magic. Usually concerns physical and mental disabilities Believe the have been placed under a spell or curse Believe it is reversible by the paying a witchdoctor who will use herbs, prayers, chanting or dance to "cure" the victim of the spell or curse.

12 Folktales are often used to explain Religion African Folktale

13 The mother- goddess Artemis (left) – lived in glory - her temple was one of the Seven Wonders of the World Animists fear their ancestors spirits – they want to please them – they will seek assistance from others to learn how to make their ancestors happy!

14 Totem – haida poles Spirit Worship

15 Zulu Tribe Fortune teller in South Africa Zulu War Dance

16 Celebrations in animism There are many celebrations in animism. The celebrations are part of everyday life – they celebrate birth, death, maturity, union of partners, and most of the major events of life. They may involve dance, music, and masks masks help personify or show a face for the gods that are being worshipped, prayed to, or entertained. Kuba Mask, Africa

17 Celebrations: Use of Masks Masks: The Faces We Present the World, by Meredith Small Audio Clip : November 17, 2005 · Since one person may display several faces to the would, it can be difficult to discern his or her true identity behind the mask. Audio Clip Draw a mask on the left!

18 How the animism affected a culture (copy in table) Great respect for nature Example of beliefs in Zanzibar, Africa Intro 2 min Masai Tribe Rituals & Tourism 0:03:22

19 Animism Video Discover C93CE4BE F3C F7283D56836&blnFromSearch=1 C93CE4BE F3C F7283D56836&blnFromSearch= F-763D-4D53-9C64- FB6785D6B23E&blnFromSearch= F-763D-4D53-9C64- FB6785D6B23E&blnFromSearch=1

20 Reference Sites Animism Website - igion/animism/animism.html Animism Website w/223/212/ w/223/212/ nimism

21 What is the purpose of religion or beliefs? Talk to your neighbor Decide how it helps/affects a culture Answer on the left (back of map). provides guidance gives structure and organization to a culture

22 Reading - 4 Religion Defined.mht

23 Important Terms Religion: Organized beliefs and rituals of a culture. Usually associated with a god (deity) or spiritual force (worship) Social Philosophy: A set of guiding principles that a community follows They have a great influence on how the community behaves

24 Religion helps us (dont copy) to transmit our values from one generation to another influences the way we interact with the natural environment teaches us how to see ourselves in light of the universe gives purpose and meaning to life.

25 Other Terms you will need to know (copy right) Sect a branch of a belief system Example: Christianity has many sects including Protestants, Baptists, Catholics, & Methodists

26 Eight Elements of a Culture Society: Types of people in a culture (Race, religious identity, nationality) Art: The way a culture expresses their ideas (dance, architecture, music) Geography: The land, location and natural resources of a culture (physical features, climate, raw materials) Language: Communication system of a culture (speech, writing, symbols) Religion: Organized beliefs and rituals of a group (worship, ceremonies) Economy: The way you get the things you need (trade, agriculture, industry, money, hunting) Politics: Government and laws of a culture (leadership, services, rules) Customs: Traditions of a culture (holidays, clothing, celebrations)

27 What do you see below? (LEFT SIDE) Symbol of the United States – the Flag Economy of the United States: Our Money The symbols of SOME of the religions and beliefs in the United States A road sign to a town: Pray A Song of Patriotism

28 Group Activity Each group will receive a reading and use your workbook and textbook to find more information (use index). The group will complete the following (15 minutes): Frayer Diagram for the religion Answer the following questions on the back of Frayer Diagram: How does Belief System affect behavior of society? Specific examples of the affect on behavior. Locations of religion today Other information not on Frayer

29 Christianity Frayer Diagram Frayer Diagram for the religion Christian - ity Essential Characteristics Non-Essential Characteristics Examples Non-Examples

30 Christianity continued… Answer the following questions on the back of Frayer Diagram: How does Belief System affect behavior of society? Specific examples of the affect on behavior. Locations of religion today Other information not on Frayer

31 Group Activity When group is done we will teach each other. This is the following order for teaching: Hinduism Buddhism Islam Judaism Christianity

32 Example of religions affect on society: Society: Types of people in a culture (Race, religious identity, nationality) Hindu is the main religion of India and it effects the Indian society! the Hindu religion created a caste system (a system that divides society into levels) Segregates people People are born into a caste (BASED ON YOUR PREVIOUS LIFE) and cannot change their status The caste system developed because of the Hindu religion which started in India Hinduism is the dominant faith. According to 2001 Census, 80.5% of the population of the country are designated 'Hindu'.

33 Caste System in Indian Society: Two Visuals (COPY ONE OF THESE) Untouchables are not even on the body!

34 Some examples of religions affect on art: Art: The way a culture expresses their ideas (dance, architecture, music) Many African societies follow animist beliefs Their societies revolve around the religion during celebrations. They use dance and music to express their religious beliefs Togo – a country of African – young male wearing horns for ritutal

35 Bali is one of the smaller islands of Indonesia Tailand and Vietnam

36 The affect of religion on art in Bali – an Indonesian Island (DO NOT COPY) The Balinese adapted their belief system. Before the arrival of Hinduism to Bali and other parts of Indonesia, local people practiced animism. When Hinduism arrived, the practice of Hinduism was adapted to local practices. Type of Hinduism practiced in Bali is much different from that in India. Balinese dance cannot be separated from their religion. Even the dances for the visitors are preceded by dancers praying at their family shrine for taksu (inspiration) from the gods. Dance fills a number of specific functions: a channel for visiting gods or demons: the dancers act as a living repository (storage location) for the gods. a welcome for visiting gods entertainment for visiting gods.

37 Bali is one of the smaller islands of Indonesia Tailand and Vietnam

38 write the answer to the following question: (LEFT SIDE) What purposes do religion and beliefs serve in a community? Are they worth having? DRAW A COMMUNITY WITHOUT BELIEFS!

39 Vocabulary (do not copy) Religion – gives people guidance and keeps order in a society. It is the way a culture express their beliefs. Cultural diffusion – when different cultures blend or fuse. Often creating a new culture. When people are intolerant cultures may not blend. Polytheism – the belief in many gods (Animism, Shinto) Monotheism – the belief in one god. (Christianity, Judaism) Myth - Story used to explain what people couldnt understand Filial Piety - The respect that children owe their parents (Confucianism belief)

40 Warm – Up Why were polytheistic religions the first belief systems to form? Give examples of their beliefs. Did religion affect behavior of polytheistic cultures? Polytheistic religions helped explain nature and natural events that couldnt be explained. Science had not developed. Once science blossomed and natural events could be explained through theory and scientific methods then monotheism became more popular!

41 DO BELIEFS GUIDE BEHAVIOR? Unit 4 Essential Question Think of the current event from last week. How do beliefs or religions affect the culture of your country?

42 Review Timeline of World Belief Systems (copy right) Animism Hinduism Judaism Islam Christianity Taoism Confucianism Buddhism Shinto On Left – write what you know about one Judaism (not Christianity)

43 Review Vocabulary (do not copy) Religion – gives people guidance and keeps order in a society. It is the way a culture express their beliefs. Cultural diffusion – when different cultures blend or fuse. Often creating a new culture. When people are intolerant cultures may not blend. Polytheism – the belief in many gods (Animism, Shinto) Monotheism – the belief in one god. (Christianity, Judaism) Myth - Story used to explain what people couldnt understand Filial Piety - The respect that children owe their parents (Confucianism belief)

44 Review Map of World Belief Systems Where they began Animism Christianity Judaism Confucianism Buddhism Hinduism Taoism Islam

45 Where are beliefs found today?


47 Belief System: Christianity Jerusalem is a Holy city Originated in the Middle East

48 Holy Text for Christianity Bible (Old/New Testament) Founder: Jesus of Nazareth (Bible is based on his life)

49 Main beliefs of Christianity One God – Monotheism That Jesus Christ is the son of God and that he is the messiah

50 Celebrations and holidays of Christianity Christmas – every year December 25 th - celebrates birth of Jesus – the founder

51 How Christianity affected the elements of culture in ancient times Society - Simple rules won many converts to Christianity How it affects Mexico today Art – Statues/Paintings reflect life of Jesus Politics – Christianity influences laws such as Language – speak Spanish the language of the people who converted them to Christianity Geography – churches are often the center of towns Society – people follow Christian ten commandments Economy – The Catholic church collects a tithe (tax/offering) weekly from followers Customs – holidays and festivals are often religious – celebrate Christmas every year

52 Belief System: Hinduism Originated in India (stayed in India) Third largest religion after Christianity and Islam

53 Whats different about Hinduism? Hinduism differs from Christianity and other Western religions it does not have a single founder specific theological system (written guidance on how to study god) single system of morality central religious organization. It consists of "thousands of different religious groups that have evolved in India since 1500 BCE."

54 Holy Text for Hinduism Vedas – contain hymns, incantations, and rituals from ancient India. four different Vedas ancient scriptures or revelation (Shruti) of the Hindu teachings. manifest the Divine Word in human speech. reflect the language of the Gods into human language – Reference: The full text of the Vedas translated - x.htm#vedas x.htm#vedas

55 Main beliefs of Hinduism Reincarnation – ones soul is reborn into another form until perfection is reached natural process of birth, death and rebirth Hindus believe you are born into a caste based on how you lived your previous lives. After death, the soul goes to the next world, bearing in mind the subtle impressions of its deeds, and after reaping their harvest returns again to this world of action. Thus, he who has desires continues subject to rebirth. Yajur Veda, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 4.4.6

56 Hindu affect on society (copy definition on left) Caste System: a system that divides society into levels/ segregates people People are born into a caste and cannot change their status

57 Brahmin – the priests, teachers, and judges. Kshatriya (KUH SHAT REE YUHZ) - the warrior caste. Caste System (copy triangle with names on left)

58 Caste System (copy) Vaisya (VEEZ YUHZ) - the farmers and merchants

59 Caste system (copy) Sudras - craftworkers and laborers.


61 Caste system (copy 1 st bullet) Untouchables - outcasts, or people beyond the caste system. Their jobs or habits involve polluting activities including: Any job that involved ending a life, such as fishing. Killing or disposing of dead cattle or working with their hides. Any contact with human emissions such as sweat, urine, or feces. This included occupational groups such as sweepers and washermen. People who ate meat.

62 More about Untouchables (dont copy) The untouchable category included most of the primitive Indian hill tribes. Untouchables were often forbidden to enter temples, schools and wells where higher castes drew water. In some parts of southern India, even the sight of untouchables was thought to be polluting. The untouchables were forced to sleep during the day and work at night. Many untouchables left their rigid social structure by converting to Islam, Buddhism, or Christianity.

63 Caste system: unchanging societal group The Caste System has been illegal in India for more than fifty years, but it continues to shape peoples lives. The Indian government has provided the Harijan a term now popularly used in place of untouchable, with specific employment privileges, and granted them special representation in the Indian parliament. Despite such measures, the Harijan continue to have fewer educational and employment opportunities than Indians from higher castes. Ghandi with Harijan Children

64 Information from Separate and Unequal Photograph by William Albert Allard Across a narrow alley children on a stairway seek a stray breeze and freedom from one-room apartments in a battered housing project for Untouchables in Bangalore, in southern India. Jobsand the prospect of fewer public humiliations at the hands of upper caste Indians bring many Untouchables to the cities. Though they may blend anonymously with higher castes on city streets, they can't escape segregated housing.

65 Crushing Work Photograph by William Albert Allard Hour after hour Untouchtables break rocks to repair a railbed in Rajasthan. They will earn one or two dollars a day. Because of their huge numbersUntouchables now number 160 million, or 15 percent of India's peoplemany have had to leave their villages to seek work beyond their traditional caste occupations. Yet most Untouchable migrants merely exchange one kind of backbreaking labor for another, working in fields, construction sites, brick kilns, and stone quarries.

66 References for Untouchables: National Geographic Story with video and audio National Geographic Story with video and audio

67 Question The caste system in India and the feudal system in Europe and China were similar in that both 1.provided structure for society 2.developed concepts of natural rights 3.established totalitarian governments 4.promoted peace and prosperity

68 Question Which belief is shared by an African who practices animism and a Japanese who practices Shinto? 1.Only one God rules the universe. 2.Periodic fasting is essential to spiritual purity. 3.Spirits exist in both living and nonliving things. 4.All suffering is caused by desire and selfishness.

69 Other information about Hinduism Hinduism originated over 3000 years ago. Hinduism claims to have many founders, teachers and prophets who claim first hand experience of God.

70 Celebrations and holidays of Hinduism Hindu sacraments are called 'sanskars' sacraments performed at the time of a wedding are called 'Vivah Sanskar'. They are very detailed. Diwali, Hindu festival of lights, most popular festival from South Asia Diwali lasts over five days and includes lights, fireworks, and sweets celebrates victory of good over evil, light over darkness, and knowledge over ignorance, The date set by the Hindu calendar. It usually falls in October or November.

71 How Hinduism affected the culture Try to lead a good life (as in their thoughts and behavior) in order to keep moving towards perfection

72 Hindu direct influence on politics one leader of India: Mahatma Gandhi Born Oct. 2, 1869, Porbandar, India Gandhi was spiritual and political leaders of the 1900's. helped free India from British control by a unique method of non- violent resistance honored by people of India as father of their nation. assassinated by an Indian who resented his program of tolerance for all creeds and religions.

73 Mahatma Gandhis strategies for freedom based on hindu Taught others to master their fears Used only nonviolent methods method of direct social action, based upon principles of courage, nonviolence, and truth Principles were called Satyagraha. the way people behave is more important than what they achieve.

74 Spread of Hinduism Kauai's Hindu Monastery, founded in 1970 by Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami (left, ), is under the spiritual direction of his successor, Satguru Bodhinatha Veylanswami (right). Hinduism is found all over the world today – it is the 3 rd largest religion!

75 Essential Elements/Terms of Selected Belief Systems Hinduism – Important Terms Reincarnation: The belief that the soul comes back in another form after the bodys death Karma: The behavior of a Hindu Thoughts Actions Dharma: The overall values and rules of Hinduism Caste System: The social order of separate castes (classes of people) through Karma – people move up or down the caste system which organized Indian society by the type of job a person held

76 Video discovery education.

77 Belief System: Buddhism Originated in India Eventually moved out of India

78 Holy Text for Buddhism None

79 Main beliefs of Buddhism End your suffering by ending your desires

80 Nirvana state of ultimate awareness by leading the right kind of life, eventually one can reach nirvana

81 End their desires through prayers and chanting Daily Enlightenment

82 The Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path: Guide Buddhist followers The Buddha's Four Noble Truths explore human suffering. They may be described (somewhat simplistically) as: Dukkha: Suffering exists: (Suffering is real and and almost universal. Suffering has many causes: loss, sickness, pain, failure, the impermanence of pleasure.) Samudaya: There is a cause for suffering. (It is the desire to have and control things. It can take many forms: craving of sensual pleasures; the desire for fame; the desire to avoid unpleasant sensations, like fear, anger or jealousy.) Nirodha: There is an end to suffering. (Suffering ceases with the final liberation of Nirvana (a.k.a. Nibbana). The mind experiences complete freedom, liberation and non-attachment. It lets go of any desire or craving.) Magga: In order to end suffering, you must follow the Eightfold Path.

83 Minor beliefs of Buddhism All followers share a common great respect for the teachings of the Buddha, "The Enlightened One."


85 many special or holy days held throughout the year by the Buddhist community. celebrate the birthdays of religious leaders or other significant dates in the Buddhist calendar. Buddhist Festivals are always joyful occasions. People may go the local temple or monastery and offer food to the monks distribute food to the poor to make merit and join perhaps in a ceremony at a stupa (temple) In the evening they will chant the Buddha's teachings and meditation. Some holy days are specific to a particular Buddhist tradition or ethnic group Celebrations and holidays of Buddhism

86 Stupa = Temple

87 Examples: Buddhist New Year celebrated for three days from the first full moon day in April. In some countries the new year starts on the first full moon day in January. Vesak or Visakah Puja ("Buddha Day") Buddha's Birthday The major Buddhist festival of the year celebrates the birth, enlightenment and death of the Buddha on the one day, the first full moon day in May, except in a leap year when the festival is held in June. This celebration is called Vesak because that is the name of the month in the Indian calendar.

88 How Buddhism affected the culture They learn to accept what life brings to them

89 Essential Elements of Selected Belief Systems Buddhism – Four Noble Truths Everyone suffers Suffering is caused by having desires To end suffering – end your desires To end your desires – follow the Eight- Fold Path

90 Question The exchange of silks and spices and the spread of Buddhism along the Silk Roads are examples of cultural diffusion The religious terms Four Noble Truths, Eightfold Path, and nirvana are most closely associated with what religion? Buddhism

91 References

92 Belief System: Judaism Jerusalem is a Holy city Originated in the Middle East

93 Holy Text for Judaism Torah (1st five books of the Old Testament – from Christianity)

94 Main beliefs of Judaism One God – Monotheism God will send a Messiah (savior) to them someday

95 Celebrations and holidays of Judaism Rosh Hashanah "head of the year" commonly known as the Jewish New Year Yom Kippur day of atonement. combines the elements of remorse and confession with those of prayer and spiritual purification.

96 How Judaism affected the culture Try to follow Gods laws (the 10 Commandments) so the Messiah will come

97 Questions about Judaism?

98 Belief System: Islam Originated in the Middle East Jerusalem is a Holy City

99 Holy Text for Islam Qur'an (Koran)

100 Main beliefs of Islam One God – Monotheism Follow Allah in all things above everything else Mohammed is the Messiah who spread the word of God the religious laws of Islam are so important that they often become the political laws of the nation

101 Celebrations and holidays of Islam based on a lunar calendar, they come earlier with each year by about eleven days according to the Gregorian calendar Al-Hijra/Muharram Muslim New Year, beginning of the first lunar month. Ramadan holiest period in the Islamic year; it is held during the entire 9th lunar month of the year. month in which the Qura'n was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad. Muslims over the age of 12 are expected to fast from sunup to sundown, unless they suffer from health problems which would make fasting dangerous. Id al-Fitr (a.k.a. "'Id" and "Eid") first day of the 10th month -- i.e. the day after the end of Ramadan. It is a time of rejoicing. Houses are decorated; Muslims buy gifts for relatives. The Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca). It recalls the day when Abraham intended to follow the instructions of God, and sacrifice his son Ishmael.

102 How Islam affected the culture The religious laws of Islam are so important that they often become the political laws of the nation


104 Essential Elements of Selected Belief Systems Islam – Five Pillars of Faith Recite: say each day there is no God but Allah and Mohammed is his prophet Pray: Five times each day, facing Mecca Charity: give regularly to charity Fast: go without food or drink from sunrise to sunset during the holy month Ramadan Pilgrimage: try to make a journey to Mecca at least once in you life


106 Other Religions

107 Belief System: Taoism Social Philosophy - not religion Originated in China "Be still like a mountain and flow like a great river." Lao Tse

108 The Yin Yang symbol: Taoist symbol. "represents the balance of opposites in the universe. When they are equally present, all is calm. When one is outweighed by the other, there is confusion and disarray."

109 Holy Text for Taoism Tao Te Ching Founder of Taoism Lao-Tse ( BCE), a contemporary of (lived at the same time as) Confucius. He was searching for a way that would avoid the constant feudal warfare and other conflicts that disrupted society during his lifetime. The result was his book: Tao-te-Ching (a.k.a. Daodejing). Some believe that he is a mythical character.

110 Main beliefs of Taoism Follow the way of nature (accept the things you cannot change) They dont challenge the natural process

111 How Taoism affected the culture They accept things as they come They dont challenge the natural process In China, Taoism lost much of its influence after the country became communist in Today it is practiced primarily in Taiwan.

112 References atlas/clickup/taoism.html atlas/clickup/taoism.html "A journey of a thousand miles begins with one step,"begins

113 Belief System: Confucianism Social Philosophy - not religion Originated in China

114 Holy Text for Confucianism Analects – sayings of Confucius - later compiled in a book of Analects (sayings) discover Confucius' notions of the virtues, i.e., the positive character traits, to which we should aspire. Most important is Filial Piety the respect which children owe to parents--and by extension, wives owe to husbands, sisters to brothers, and everyone to ancestors. Should be followed by government too. Example: Book The Master said, "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application? "Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters? "Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?"

115 Main beliefs of Confucianism All people need to accept their role in society

116 How Confucianism affected the culture Great deal of respect for parents, elders and country

117 Essential Elements of Selected Belief Systems Confucianism – 5 Relationships Father son older brother younger brother husband wife ruler subjects friends = friends

118 Belief System: Shintoism Originated: Japan Name from the Chinese words "shin tao" ("The Way of the Gods") in the 8th Century CE polytheistic religion. They believe in more than one god.

119 Japanese people worship all the deities of heaven and earth origin is as old as the history of the Japanese. It replaced Buddhism for many because Shinto was Japanese – Buddhism was not! Shinto

120 Holy Text for Shintoism (copy into table) No single one – they have several they refer to They have no moral code, but usually follow Confucianism beliefs. (dont copy) Many texts are valued in the Shinto religion. Most date from the 8th century CE: The Kojiki (Record of Ancient Matters) The Rokkokushi (Six National Histories) The Shoku Nihongi Nihon Shoki (Continuing Chronicles of Japan) The Jinno Shotoki (a study of Shinto and Japanese politics and history) written in the 14th century

121 Main beliefs of Shintoism The spirits of Kami exist in all things including their Emperor (god like)

122 ShrinesShrines are a part of Shinto worship

123 How Shintoism affected the culture They have a great respect for the natural world (especially their Emperor – in the past)

124 Vocabulary – homework – create flashcards for the following words. 1.Religion 2.Cultural diffusion 3.Polytheism 4.Monotheism 5.Myth 6.Filial Piety 7.Reincarnation 8.Four Noble Truths 9.Caste System 10.Eightfold Path

125 More Information for Religions

126 Expansion of Religions – (next page of notes) How do they expand? Missionaries Trade Military conquest Explorers

127 Expansion of Buddhism (copy notebook) Began in India but was not accepted there (the Hindu social order was too strong) Missionaries – people who spread religion by teaching others about the beliefs China KoreaJapan Southeast Asia India Started here Moved to these countries World Map

128 Expansion of Judaism (copy) Kicked out of Palestine by the Romans Removed from Palestine during the Diaspora – the scattering of the Jewish people during the 1st century A.D. Most Jews went to the cities of Europe where they lived in ghettos, there was much persecution and oppression

129 Expansion of Christianity (copy) After the death of Jesus, missionaries (disciples) spread his word Roman Empire: Persecuted Christians Slowly accepted Christian ideas Eventually became the official religion Romans spread Christianity throughout the empire

130 Expansion of Islam (copy) Out of Mecca, east to India, west across North Africa and on into Spain Spread Islam by military conquest Arabs (Muslims – followers of Islam) were also great traders

131 Essential Question 1 What concepts – important to Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism – have become an important element of Chinese culture? They accept what life brings to them They accept their role in society They dont look for change

132 VINEGAR TASTERS represent a story from Taoism. Life is viewed differently by the founders of Eastern religions. Confucius Lao-Tse Buddha Each man's expression represents the attitude of the religion: Confucianism saw life as sour, in need of rules to correct the degeneration of people, and the present was out of step of the past and that the government had no understanding of the way of the universethe right response was to live in the past, and worship the ancestors [1] ; [1] Buddhism saw life as bitter, dominated by pain and suffering Taoism saw life as fundamentally good in its natural state. Some Taoists have described it as the expression of the "comedy of life". [2] [2]

133 Essential Question 2 What do the religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all have in common? They started in the Middle East Jerusalem is a sacred city for all three Monotheism (belief in one God – same God) All follow ethical (morally good) sets of rules for behavior

134 Essential Question 3 What are the various methods that were used to spread religions to other lands? Missionaries Military conquest – (conquering) Trade Exploration Migration Diaspora – forced, (ex. Jews by the Romans) Willing – (ex. Buddhism, Pilgrims to America)

135 Essential Question 4 What are 3 of the main principles of Confucianism? Education is important for a well run society Government officials should be good role models for society Everyone should know and accept their role in society

136 Vocabulary Quiz 1. What is religion? Why is it important? 2. What is polytheism? How is it different than monotheism? Name a polytheistic religion. 3. What is cultural diffusion? How do you think it affects religion?

137 Alphabet Review - complete on own – have 10 minutes - then will partner up for 1 minute intervals to fill in your own chart with what you are missing. - look at the example below A – animism- belief system found in Africa – traditional system – nature and ancestors are important

138 did not use

139 4-6 Religion Activity Foldable Each page or flap will contain information about a belief system – Top will have a symbol and the name of the belief system Place of origin: Holy Text: Main Beliefs: Several bullets each Celebration: How the beliefs affected the culture: Country presented by class One way it affects their culture Christianity Notes CHRISTIANITY PLACE OF ORIGIN:__________ HOLY TEXT:___________ MAIN BELIEFS ________ CELEBRATION: ____________ AFFECT ON CULTURE: COUNTRY: _____________ ONE AFFECT ON THEIR CULTURE:_________________

140 Celebrations and holidays of Taoism According to Lao Tzu, one must understand the whole to understand the parts. Greatness is a celebration of ordinary things. That, he said, "is the art of being in the world." On the first and 15th day of every lunar month a vegan (no animal, dairy or fish products) meal, prepared by the worshippers themselves, will be served to all devotees in order to participate in a ritual cleansing and purification rite. Commemorations of the birthdays of certain deities are also observed by a vegan diet for the day. Taoists festivals are based on a lunar calendar and an annual cycle and symbolize both the passing of the year in terms of the ripening, harvesting and storing of crops as well as passing through the life cycle. Many of these festivals are more concerned with the practice of popular Taoism, and the major ones are outlined below.

141 Minor beliefs of Confucianism It is primarily an ethical system to which rituals at important times during one's lifetime have been added.

142 Celebrations and holidays of Confucianism Since the time of the Han dynasty (206 CE) four life passages have been recognized and regulated by Confucian tradition: birth: The mother's family of origin supplies all the items required by the baby on the first, fourth and twelfth monthly anniversary of the birth. reaching maturity: This life passage is no longer being celebrated, except in traditional families. It takes the form of a group meal in which the young adult is served chicken. marriage: This is performed in six stages: Proposal Engagement: after the wedding day is chosen, the bride announces the wedding with invitations and a gift of cookies made in the shape of the moon. Dowry: This is carried to the groom's home in a solemn procession. The bride-price is then sent to the bride by the groom's parents. Gifts by the groom to the bride, equal in value to the dowry, are sent to her. Procession: The groom visits the bride's home and brings her back to his place, with much fanfare. Marriage and Reception: The couple recite their vows, toast each other with wine, and then take center stage at a banquet. Morning after: The bride serves breakfast to the groom's parents, who then reciprocate. death

143 Shinto Creation Myths (Stories) (dont copy) Tell about history and lives of the "Kami" (deities). Among them was a divine couple, Izanagi-no-mikoto and Izanami-no-mikoto, who gave birth to the Japanese islands. Their children became the deities of the various Japanese clans. Amaterasu Omikami (Sun Goddess), one of their daughters, is regarded as the chief deity. Her shrine is at Ise. Her descendants unified the country. Her brother, Susano came down from heaven and roamed throughout the earth. He is famous for killing a great evil serpent.

144 Other Beliefs of Shintoism (dont copy) There are "Four Affirmations in Shinto: Tradition and the family: The family is seen as the main mechanism by which traditions are preserved. Their main celebrations relate to birth and marriage. Love of nature: Nature is sacred; to be in contact with nature is to be close to the Gods. Natural objects are worshipped as sacred spirits. Physical cleanliness: Followers of Shinto take baths, wash their hands, and rinse out their mouth often. "Matsuri": The worship and honor given to the Kami and ancestral spirits.

145 Minor Beliefs of Shintoism Shinto recognizes many sacred places: mountains, springs, etc. They have shrines dedicated to a specific Kami (gods/ancestral gods) When entering a shrine, one passes through a Tori a special gateway for the Gods. It marks the demarcation between the finite world and the infinite world of the Gods. Believers respect animals as messengers of the Gods. A pair of statues of "Koma-inu" (guard dogs) face each other within the temple grounds.

146 Celebrations and holidays of Shintoism Seasonal celebrations are held at spring planting, fall harvest, and special anniversaries of the history of a shrine or of a local patron spirit. A secular (non-religious), country-wide National Founding Day is held in Japan on FEB-11 to commemorate the founding of Japan; this is the traditional date on which the first (mythical) emperor Jinmu ascended the throne in 660 BCE. Other festivals include: JAN 1-3 Shogatsu (New Year); MAR-3 Hinamatsuri (Girls' festival); MAY-5 Tango no Sekku (Boys' festival); JUL-7 Hoshi Matsuri (Star festival).

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