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Industrialization and Immigration VUS.8

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1 Industrialization and Immigration VUS.8
TEST #4 Lecture Notes

2 Settling the West Following the Civil War, the westward movement of settlers intensified in the vast region between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean The years immediately before and after the Civil War were the era of the American cowboy, marked by long cattle drives for hundreds of miles over unfenced open land in the West, the only way to get cattle to market

3 Settling the West Homestead Act 1862
Gave free public land in the western territories to settlers who would live on and farm the land Many Americans had to rebuild their lives after the Civil War They took advantage of the Homestead Act (free land) and moved westward to start new lives Southerners, especially African Americans, moved west to seek new opportunities


5 Settling the West Morrill Land Grant Act
A United States statute that allowed for the creation of land grant colleges Under the act, each eligible state received a total of 30,000 acres of federal land This land, or the proceeds from its sale, was to be used toward establishing and funding educational institutions that taught agriculture and mechanic arts Virginia Tech

6 Settling the West Transcontinental Railroad
Built between 1863 and 1869 created a nation-wide transportation network that united the country replaced the wagon trains of previous decades and allowed for the transportation of larger quantities of goods over longer distances Known as the "Pacific Railroad" when it opened, this served as a vital link for trade, commerce, and travel and opened up vast regions of the North American heartland for settlement Linked railroads in the east to those in the west Chinese and Irish workers helped build the Transcontinental Railroad

7 Transcontinental Railroad


9 Chinese railroad workers

10 Settling the West New technologies also help open western lands for settlement and made farming profitable These devices helped the people move west The railroad Helped people move west Helped products move Land was given to the private railroads—land grants—to help build the rail lines Many people in the US detested the giving away of public lands to private companies Mechanical Reaper Created by Cyrus McCormick A horse drawn mechanical machine used for harvesting grain or other small crops Designed to cut down wheat much more quickly and more efficiently than by doing the work by hand


12 Removal of the Indians and Age of the Cowboy
The forcible removal of the American Indians continued throughout the 19th century as settlers began to move west following the Civil War Once the Indians were forcefully removed, the land opened up for cattle and cowboys Beef cattle became very profitable Cowboys were needed to drive the cattle from Texas to the northern markets



15 Immigration Some of the people that helped settle the American West were not native to the US—they were immigrants to the US Prior to 1871, most immigrants to America came from northern and western Europe (Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Norway, and Sweden) During the half-century from 1871 until 1921, most immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe (Italy, Greece, Poland, Russia, present-day Hungary, and former Yugoslavia), as well as Asia (China and Japan) Like earlier immigrants, these immigrants came to America seeking freedom and better lives for their families

16 Immigration There were several reasons for immigrants to want to come to the US 1.) Push Factors (Reasons why people left their native lands) Escaping religious and political persecution Many were poor farmers who could not make enough $ to survive at home—move to US looking for a better opportunity Relaxed immigration laws in their own nation

17 Immigration 2.) Pull Factors (reasons to come to the US)
US gave the promise of freedom and hope Many had family and friends that lived in the US The US needed cheap labor for developing industry US actually recruited people from foreign nations to come and work in the US

18 Immigration and Industrialization
Many of the immigrants helped to expand the United States’ as an industrial nation Like earlier immigrants, these immigrants came to America seeking freedom and better lives for their families Jewish Immigrants Many Jewish females worked in the clothing industry in New York City Chinese Immigrants Settled in the west; worked in mines and helped to build the transcontinental railroads Irish Immigrants Worked in the building and construction industries Slavs, Poles, and Italians Worked in the coal mines of West Virginia and Pennsylvania

19 Contributions of Immigrants
The new immigrants to the US brought with them the cultures from their homelands Food—Italian food, Chinese food, Irish Pubs Language—Chinese, Yiddish, Italian, Slavic Music Dress Many of these immigrants contributed to America’s growing industry by providing cheap labor in the factories Other immigrants will make even more major contributions to the United States Irving Berlin Enrico Fermi Albert Einstein

20 Contributions of Immigrants
Irving Berlin Originally from Russia He was a popular songwriter Wrote “God Bless America”

21 Irving Berlin

22 Contributions of Immigrants
Enrico Fermi Italian immigrant Physicist Discovered the element Neptunium 1938: received the Nobel Prize in physics

23 Enrico Fermi

24 Contributions of Immigrants
Albert Einstein German immigrant Recognized as the greatest physicist of all time Helped to advance science and the atomic theory

25 Albert Einstein

26 “Melting Pot”—Assimilation of Immigrants to the US
Although the US held many opportunities for immigrants, they still faced lots of problems in their new homes Prejudices against race, language, and religion Housing was scarce The language barrier made their lives difficult Many in the US feared and resented that the immigrants would take their jobs for lower pay

27 The Irish were highly disliked by many in the US
Many blacks and whites were losing jobs to Irish immigrants Caused lots of anti-Catholic feelings in the US The Irish usually voted Democrat in elections A new political party arose that was very anti- immigrant—the Know Nothing Party Wanted to keep Catholics from holding political office Wanted to keep Catholics from voting

28 Many Nativists--people against immigration—claimed that the immigrants’ language, customs, and ideas upset the American way of life They were upset that natives were willing to work for less pay, taking jobs away from poor blacks and whites Believed that immigrant ideas were a threat to democracy

29 Most Europeans entered the US through Ellis Island
Located in New York Harbor Their 1st view was often the Statue of Liberty Ellis Island was an immigrant receiving station Upon arrival, the immigrants were inspected for disease Those with disease or without job skills were, many times, sent back to Europe Many even had their family names changed



32 Once here in the US, immigrants had to begin the process of assimilation (blending into society) into America’s “melting pot” In order to become a citizen of the US had to go through naturalization To become naturalized, the immigrants had to be able to read and write in English They also had to answer questions involving US history and government America’s public schools served an essential role in educating immigrants to American Society and customs The public school system helped the immigrants—especially the children—learn English and American customs Public schools were essential to helping the immigrants become assimilated

33 Legislation limiting immigration
Congress, feeling pressure from nativists groups, began passing legislation to restrict immigration Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) Banned Chinese immigration to the US for 10 years Immigration Restriction Act (1921) Created a quota system designed to restrict immigration from all areas except Northwest Europe Both pieces of legislation effectively cut off most immigration to the US for many decades; however, the immigrants of this period and their descendants continued to contribute immeasurably to American society

34 Urbanization—the Growth of Cities
As the nation’s industrial growth continued, cities such as Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, and New York grew rapidly as manufacturing and transportation centers Cities were growing because of the influx of immigrants and freed-slaves looking for jobs This urbanization will lead to problems that city governments and the national government will have to address

35 Housing was scarce for many of the city dwellers
Factories in the large cities provided jobs, but workers’ families often lived in harsh conditions, crowded into tenements and slums Housing was scarce for many of the city dwellers Sometimes, 2 or 3 families will live in the same apartment Horse stables, garages, and storage shacks were turned into housing Pollution was a major problem Waste was thrown into the streets Water was polluted by sewage Disease was very common Violence was very common



38 The rapid growth of cities caused housing shortages and the need for new public services, such as sewage and water systems and public transportation New sanitation methods were created to clean up sewage and water Fire and police departments were created New York city created the subway system to improve transportation The Trolley system was created in Richmond, VA

39 Political Machines The people who ran the big cities stood to make a lot of $ Many jobs could be given out to people Police Fire Sanitation jobs Many cities were dominated by Bosses The Bosses fixed elections by promising jobs and contracts to men who voted for them Many times they preyed on the poor who needed jobs by giving them jobs and help in return for votes Many city politicians built city-wide organizations called political machines The political machines were created to win votes The machines promised jobs, contracts, and favors to win votes

40 Industrial Revolution
Many new inventions will push industry forward during the late 1800s and early 1900s Electricity—Pioneered by Thomas Edison Allowed for better lighting and easier work in factories Light Bulb—Thomas Edison Safer lighting than using oil lamps Better lighting at night Bessemer Process—Henry Bessemer A way of taking coal and iron and creating steel cheaper Assembly Line— Pioneered by Henry Ford Workers stayed stationary The product moved on a conveyor belt Each worker had a particular duty to perform on the product as it passed down the belt

41 Airplane—Wright Brothers
Model T—Henry Ford A cheap form of transportation Allowed more people to buy cars Gave people greater mobility Airplane—Wright Brothers First powered flight Revolutionized travel over long distances Telephone—Alexander Graham Bell Pioneered communication Allowed for quick and easy communication over long distances Railroads—undertaken by Cornelius Vanderbilt Opened up the US Helped transport goods from manufacturers to market

42 Thomas Edison

43 Henry Bessemer

44 Henry Ford

45 Wright Brothers Video

46 Alexander Graham Bell

47 Horizontal vs. Vertical Integration
Corporations began to develop in the United States as industry began to boom A corporation is a company/business that sells shares of stock Those that own stock are actually part owners of the corporation Limited Liability If a corporation fails, shareholders normally only stand to lose their investment and employees will lose their jobs, but neither will be further liable for debts that remain owing to the corporation's creditors

48 Horizontal vs. Vertical Integration
As companies began to expand and grow, many company owners began buying up or merging with the competition 1.) Horizontal Integration: When one company merges or buys all of the other competing companies Allowed a single company to control one particular part of industry 2.) Vertical Integration: When a firm attempts to control all aspects of production—from the acquisition of raw materials to the final delivery of the product Allowed a single company to totally control the national market

49 Trusts and Laissez-Faire Economics
A trust is a combination of companies that dominate an industry Certain influential people became rich and famous for their involvement and creation of trusts Most of the people believed in laissez-faire economics The government should stay out of business affairs Business owners should have all control of industry and business without any government interference

50 1.) Andre Carnegie Scottish immigrant
Made his fortune in the steel industry His mill combined all stages of steel production into one plant He bought up coal mines and iron ore deposits for his steel mill He purchased railroads and ships to transport the raw materials and send the materials to market Carnegie controlled nearly every aspect of the steel producing industry

51 Andrew Carnegie

52 2.) John D. Rockefeller A major figure in the 19th century merger movement in industry He started a business that refined kerosene from petroleum His company eventually became Standard Oil Rockefeller purchased all competing oil companies By the late 1800s, Standard Oil had control over most of America’s oil industry

53 John D. Rockefeller

54 3.) J. P. Morgan 1901: Morgan purchased Carnegie’s steel company
Morgan then created U. S. Steel He was also involved in Banking Morgan took control of many weak business and made them profitable He will create several giant railway networks that controlled nearly all of the rail systems in the US

55 J. P. Morgan

56 4.) Cornelius Vanderbilt
He went on to make his fortune in the steamship business When he was nearly 70 years old he sold his ships and got into the railroad financing business

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