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© Copyright Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing, 2009 Stamping Group ERC NSM Application of Viscous Pressure Bulge (VPB) Test to Predict the Flow Stress of Sheet Materials under Biaxial Deformation Conditions ERC/NSM and CPF- The Ohio State University January 20114
© Copyright Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing, 2009 Stamping Group ERC NSM 2 Introduction Principles of Viscous Pressure Bulge (VPB) Test Methodology to Estimate Material Properties Objectives Procedure Results Evaluation of Formability using the VPB test Conclusions Acknowledgement Available Flow Stress data References Outline
© Copyright Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing, 2009 Stamping Group ERC NSM 3 AHSS and Al alloys are used increasingly in forming automotive structural parts because of safety and lightweight vehicle requirements. Some of these alloys have higher strength and low formability compare to conventional draw quality steels. One of the problems is the property variations in incoming materials which may not be determined by the tensile test. Tensile test is uniaxial and flow stress data is obtained to small strains, while the bulge test is biaxial and data is obtained to higher strains. Introduction
© Copyright Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing, 2009 Stamping Group ERC NSM 4 Principles of Viscous Pressure Bulge (VPB) Test Viscous Pressure Bulge (VPB) test tooling
© Copyright Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing, 2009 Stamping Group ERC NSM 5 Bulge/ Dome height (h) Initial Stage Testing stage Die diameter = 4 inches (~ 100 mm) Die corner radius = 0.25 inch (~ 6 mm) Clamping force Pressurized medium Measurement Pressure (P) Dome height (h) FEM based inverse technique Material properties Flow stress Anisotropy Methodology to estimate material properties from VPB test, developed at CPF (OSU) Pressure (P) Schematic of viscous pressure bulge test setup at CPF (OSU) and EWI Material properties of HSS/AHSS/UHSS
© Copyright Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing, 2009 Stamping Group ERC NSM 6 Material Properties Tensile Test Ref: Nasser et al 2010 Determination of Flow Stress 0.15
© Copyright Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing, 2009 Stamping Group ERC NSM 7 Results-Tensile Test Uniform and Total Elongation of various AHSS grades (Gauge Length: 2 in)
© Copyright Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing, 2009 Stamping Group ERC NSM 8 Results-Tensile Test UTS and 0.2% Offset Yield Strength of various AHSS grades
© Copyright Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing, 2009 Stamping Group ERC NSM 9 Before burstingAfter bursting Bulge test samples Material properties of HSS/AHSS/UHSS 9
© Copyright Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing, 2009 Stamping Group ERC NSM 10 Material Properties Challenges: 1)Tensile test gives a very limited information, 2)Bulge test gives more reliable strain-stress data. Ref: Nasser et al 2010 Determination of Flow Stress 0.49 Bulge Test 10
© Copyright Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing, 2009 Stamping Group ERC NSM Materials Tested with VPB Test at CPF and EWI Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys AA 6111 AA 5754-O AA 5182-O X626 -T4P AZ31B AZ31B-O Steels and Stainless Steels St 14DP 780-CR St 1403DP 780-HY AISI 1018 Bare DP 980 Y-type X AKDQBare DP 780 T-Si type 1050GA DP 780 T- AI Type DR 120GA DP 780 Y-type U DDSGA DP 780 Y-type V BH 210 DQS-270F GA-Phosphate coated HSS DQS-270D GA-Phosphate coated DP500SS 201 DP 590SS 301 DP 600SS 304 DP 780SS 409 TRIP 780AMS 5504 DP Materials Tested at EWI-FC AA-X E DP 980 TRIP 980 TWIP 980 TRIP 1180
© Copyright Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing, 2009 Stamping Group ERC NSM 12 Highest formability G, Most consistent F Lowest formability and inconsistent H Graph shows dome height comparison for SS409 sheet material from eight different batches/coils [10 samples per batch] Evaluation of Formability
© Copyright Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing, 2009 Stamping Group ERC NSM 13 Strain values obtained in the VPB test is higher than values obtained in the tensile test. Thus, VPB test is more suitable for providing flow stress input to Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Some materials may behave differently under different states of state. VPB is closer to actual stamping operations than the uniaxial tensile test For some materials, correcting the flow stress obtained from the VPB test for anisotropy may be important. Dome Height at bursting in the VPB test is a quick and reliable test to check the quality of incoming raw materials (different batches, suppliers, …) under biaxial state of stress. Large amount of data may be lost (AHSS) when ending the VPB before bursting. Thus, it is desirable to end the test as close, to the burst pressure, as possible. Conclusions
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