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TEACHING TO THE TEST? USING THE SOLS AND SOL TESTS TO IDENTIFY NEEDED LANGUAGE SKILLS Lissa Power-deFur, Ph.D. January 31, 2011 Blackwell Talk 1 © LPdF 2011
Objectives Review illustrative language expectations of general curriculum. Review illustrative language expectations of SOL assessments. 2 © LPdF 2011
3 What is the general curriculum … Is it the same for students with disabilities?
The general curriculum is the curriculum adopted by the school for all children from preschool through secondary school In Virginia … the Standards of Learning 4 © LPdF 2011
Why should do we need to align our intervention and instruction with the general curriculum? 5 © LPdF 2011
Effect of Speech-Language Impairment on Academic Success 40% preschool/K children with SLI do not stay with K cohort in later years Many preschool/K children with SLI are dismissed from services, yet are later found re-eligible when reading difficulties emerge 6 © LPdF 2011
Children with significant speech sound errors demonstrate phonological awareness difficulties, a foundational skill for reading 7 © LPdF 2011
Vocabulary Acquisition at Home (Hart and Risley, 1995) Conclusion: need 40 hours/week of experience to make up for this difference © LPdF Children in welfare families exposed to a portion of vocabulary of working class and professional families about 70% of working class about 45% of professional families Vocabulary is different Welfare families primary prohibitions, working class and professional families primarily use affirmations.
Vocabulary Growth Students need to encounter new vocabulary in context repeatedly Average child needs 15 exposures for a new word to become automatic Child with language impairment needs 50 – 100 exposures Direct instruction in new words enhances instruction Marzano, et al (2001). Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement 9 © LPdF 2011
Vocabulary Size © LPdF Grade 1: 2,703 – 26,000 words Grade 7: 4, 760 – 51,000 words Grade 12: 17,000 – 45,000 words (Marzano, 2004) 1,150 to 3,150 new words per year for 12 years!
Learning Vocabulary (Marzano, 2004) © LPdF Chances of learning new word from context alone is 8 – 19% for all children Students with large store of academic knowledge have greater chance of learning new words
Everyday discourse Informal style (declaratives) Modify language to childs understanding (vocabulary, sentence length, contextual info, explanation of references) Shared assumptions Discrete amounts of information Ongoing checks for understanding 12 © LPdF 2011
Instructional discourse demands Common language level for all children Often with complex sentence, tangents Assume shared assumptions and general knowledge Large volumes of information Frequent reference to prior information without checking for comprehension Decontextualized language 13 © LPdF 2011
What if we dont use the curriculum as the foundation of our intervention? © LPdF Romantic style: what are the important things I want to convey to this child? Functional style: what are the essential things I think the child needs? Idiosyncratic style: What materials I have in my cabinets? Judy Montgomery, 2000
The general education teacher is responsible for teaching the content of the curriculum. The specialists use content to instruct the student. 15 © LPdF 2011
Illustrative 3 rd grade concepts (with thanks to Barbara Scott) © LPdF This story is most likely about … Add ful to the word beauty What happens just after How many in all Which number is replaced by Which _____ is least ? Which is true for all of these
Illustrative 5 th grade concepts © LPdF Relevant and irrelevant information Why words would be written in italics The best description, the best summary The most helpful, the most current The main idea, the main purpose Which of these is not Double negatives Subject-verb agreement
Academic instruction is full of metalinguistic verbs Circle 5 words youll start using in intervention © LPdF 2011 Analyze Answer Brainstorm Challenge Choose Clarify Collaborate Compare Conclude Connect Consider Construct Create Debate Define Demonstrate Draft Explain Evaluate Find Generate Identify Illustrate Label List Label List Map relationships Name Observe Organize Practice Predict Question Recall Refine Reflect Rephrase Research Revise Rhyme Select Show Spell Support Solve Suggest Visualize 18
Aligning with the general curriculum Content – Standards Curriculum framework Enhanced scope and sequence District pacing guide Emphasis – Test blueprints Format – Released test items 19 © LPdF 2011
Examples of SOLs, Curriculum Framework, Released Test Items 20 © LPdF 2011
SOL Standard K.4 Oral Language, Kindergarten, Objective 4 The student will hear, say, and manipulate phonemes (small units of sound) of spoken language Identify orally words that rhyme Identify words orally according to shared beginning or ending sounds Blend sounds orally to make words or syllables Divide one-syllable words into sounds (phonemes) Divide words into syllables Required Language Skills: Phonology Identifying words that rhyme Identifying sounds in different places in words Blending sounds to make syllables and words Dividing one syllable words into sounds Dividing words into syllables Syntax Dividing words into syllables 21 © LPdF 2011
SOL Standard K.6 Health: Community Health and Wellness, Kindergarten, Objective 6 The student will identify expectations for personal behavior in school and social settings. Key concepts/skills include: a.) acceptable behavior in classrooms and during play; b.) respect for the property and rights of others; c.) respect for the personal space of others. Required Language Skills: Semantics vocabulary of acceptable, respect, property, rights, personal space double meanings of the terms space and right Pragmatics knowledge of expected classroom and play behaviors knowledge of personal space 22 © LPdF 2011
SOL Standard 1.15 Math, Geometry, Grade 1, Objective 15 The student will describe the proximity of objects in space (near, far, close by, below, above, up, down, beside, and next to). Required Language Skills: Semantics spatial concepts near, far, close by, below, above, up, down, beside, and next to double meaning of the term space 23 © LPdF 2011
SOL Standard 2.18 Math, Measurement, Grade 2, Objective 18 The student will use calendar language appropriately (e.g., months, today, yesterday, next week, last week); determine past and future days of the week; and identify specific dates on a given calendar. Required Language Skills: Semantics time-concepts today, yesterday, next week, last week, before, after, earlier, and later Syntax Subject-verb structures for present, past, or future calendar events; Tuesday was two days ago. vs. Saturday is two days from now. Morphology appropriate morphological markers for past, present, and future tense; Monday I will walk to school. vs. Last Monday I walked to school. 24 © LPdF 2011
SOL Standard 2.6 English, Reading, Grade 2, Objective 6 The student will use language structure to expand vocabulary when reading. a.) use knowledge of prefixes and suffixes b.) use knowledge of contractions and singular possessives c.) use knowledge of simple abbreviations d.) use knowledge of antonyms and synonyms Required Language Skills: Morphology morphological markers and their meanings for many prefixes, suffixes, contractions, and singular possessives ; Sallys sister is the tallest girl in her class. Semantics awareness of and ability to apply meaning to simple abbreviations; Mr. is the abbreviation for mister and means a man working lexicon of words with similar and opposite meanings 25 © LPdF 2011
SOL Standard 4.1 Oral Language, Grade 4, Objective 1 The student will use effective oral communication skills in a variety of settings. Present accurate directions to individuals and small groups, Contribute to group discussions, Seek ideas and opinions of others, Use evidence to support opinions, Use grammatically correct language and specific vocabulary to communicate ideas. Required Language Skills: Syntax Ability to use appropriate conjunctions or temporal sequences in delivery of directions Ability to orally formulate a grammatically correct statement Ability to order words appropriately to form questions and statements Morphology appropriate morphological markers for agreement (i.e. person and tense) in oral statements Semantics Use appropriate expressive vocabulary to support opinions or that which pertain to the conversation 26 © LPdF 2011
SOL Standard 4.1 (continued) The student will use effective oral communication skills in a variety of settings. Present accurate directions to individuals and small groups, Contribute to group discussions, Seek ideas and opinions of others, Use evidence to support opinions, Use grammatically correct language and specific vocabulary to communicate ideas. Required Language Skills: (continued) Pragmatics Ability to sequence directions so listener can comprehend meaning and intent Use appropriate register when delivering directions to a group Follow turn taking and topic maintenance while in a group Formulate appropriate questions which pertain to topic for clarification or additional information Provide sufficient background information for listener comprehension 27 © LPdF 2011
SOL Standard 6.1 Science, Grade 6, Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic, Objective 1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which observations are made involving fine discrimination between similar objects and organisms; a classification system is developed based on multiple attributes; precise and approximate measurements are recorded; a method is devised to test the validity of predictions and inferences; data are collected, recorded, analyzed, and reported using appropriate metric measurements Required Language Skills: Semantics Knowledge of and ability to make associations between weather terms the student must be able to associate meters with distance and kilograms with weight Syntax and Morphology apply correct verb tenses and morphological markers Metacognitive Skills write or speak about their ideas, thought processes, and conclusions the ability to identify details, summarize, and apply systems of categories the ability to compare and contrast 28 © LPdF 2011
SOL Standard M.10, Fine Arts, Middle School Theater Judgment and Criticism The student will give constructive and objective criticism of class performances, using appropriate theatre arts vocabulary. Required Language Skills: Syntax Ability to use declarative sentences to describe class performances Semantics Understanding and ability to use theater arts vocabulary Pragmatics Ability to communicate with class appropriately when giving constructive criticism Identify audience Manners/politeness 29 © LPdF 2011
SOL Standard WHI.2, World History, Grade The student will demonstrate knowledge of early development of humankind from the Paleolithic Era to the agriculture revolution by: Explaining the impact of geographic environment on hunter-gatherer societies, Listing characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies, including their use of tools and fire, Describing technological and social advancements that gave rise to stable communities, Explaining how archaeological discoveries are changing present-day knowledge of early peoples. Required Language Skills: Syntax Ability to formulate an organized, sequential expository explanation about topic Appropriate use of adjectives to compare and explain Morphology Use appropriate morphological markers to denote past vs. present in descriptions or explanations Semantics Expressive vocabulary of topic Use of appropriate comparative, contrastive, and relational terminology Appropriate use and knowledge of adjectives to compare and explain 30 © LPdF 2011
VDOE Curriculum Framework © LPdF Reading Grades 2 through 8 Because reading skills build upon one another, the reading process that is learned in one grade carried over into the next grade and creates a spirally effect … The technical assistant documents serve as a resource that depict the building process of the reading standards.
Va. Department of Education Curriculum Framework Standard K.1Strand: Oral LanguageGrade Level K K.1The student will demonstrate growth in the use of oral language. a)Listen to a variety of literary forms, including stories and poems. b)Participate in choral speaking and recite short poems, rhymes, songs, and stories with repeated patterns. c)Participate in creative dramatics. d)Begin to discriminate between spoken sentences, words, and syllables. e)Recognize rhyming words. f)Generate rhyming words in a rhyming pattern. 32 © LPdF 2011
Curriculum Framework UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD (Teacher Notes) ESSENTIAL UNDERSTANDINGS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, AND PROCESSES The intent of this standard is that students will expand their oral language vocabulary by listening to and participating in a variety of literary experiences, including fiction and nonfiction print materials and trade books that reflect the Virginia Standards of Learning in English, history and social science, science, and mathematics. These interactions provide opportunities for students to mimic language and experiment with new words, word patterns, and rhymes in order to expand their working vocabularies. All students should understand that oral language entertains and communicates information understand that a spoken sentence is made up of individual words. To be successful with this standard, students are expected to listen to a variety of literary forms, including predictable texts, patterned texts, poems, fairy tales, legends, stories, and informational texts found in fiction and nonfiction print materials and trade books that reflect the Virginia Standards of Learning in English, history and social science, science, and mathematics participate in choral speaking and echo reading of short poems, rhymes, songs, and stories with repeated patterns and refrains use drama to retell familiar stories, rhymes, and poems discriminate between large phonological units of running speech, sentences, words, and syllables demonstrate the concept of word by dividing spoken sentences into individual words identify words that rhyme generate rhyming words based on a given rhyming pattern supply an appropriate rhyming word to complete a familiar nursery rhyme or a predictable text with rhyming lines. 33 © LPdF 2011
English SOL Aligned Curriculum: K Act out story class is studying Play barrier games Create obstacle course, directions highlight spatial prepositions Practice 1- & 2-step directions with Simon Says Show and Tell Mr. Microphone (turn-taking) from VDOE web site 34 © LPdF 2011
Assessment blueprint © LPdF Guide to identify SOLs Included Excluded Subsumed
Blueprint example © LPdF Grade 3 Reading SOL 3.4 The student will use strategies to read a variety of fiction and nonfiction materials Apply meaning clues, language structure, and phonetic strategies Use context to clarify meaning of unfamiliar words
Grade 3 Reading © LPdF Grade 2 SOL Subsumed The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of fiction and nonfiction Make predictions about content Read to confirm predictions Ask and answer questions about what is read Locate information to answer questions
SOL Released Test Item Social Studies Grade 3 (2007) Wagons, Trains, Ships These are examples of A. supplies B. architecture C. directions D. transportation Required Language Skills: Semantics Student must understand referent these Student must understand how to categorize items 38 © LPdF 2011
SOL Released Test Item Science Grade 3 (2007) (with picture of a globe on its axis) Which of the following describes the motion of Earth shown in this picture? A. Vibrating B. Rotating C. Revolving D. Falling Required Language Skills: Semantics Understand which, describe, and motion Understand concepts: of the following, vibrating, rotating, revolving, and falling Morphology Understand present progressive –ing endings the Earth is vibrating Understand obligating the use of the present participle as an adjective vibrating motion Syntax Understand question sentence structure For example, Which picture shows… 39 © LPdF 2011
SOL Released Test Item Math Grade 3 The Parents Club sold 2,487 tickets to the winter festival. What is 2,487 rounded to the nearest hundred? Required language skills: Semantics Understanding of rounded as it relates to mathematics and numbers Morphology Understanding of morphemes (est, plural s) Syntax Understanding of interrogative sentence structure 40 © LPdF 2011
SOL Released Test Item Math Grade 5 There are 914 students enrolled in Lakeview Elementary School. Frederich Elementary School has 276 fewer students enrolled. How many students are enrolled at Frederich Elementary School? A. 1,190 B. 726 C. 642 D. 638 Required Language Skills: Semantics Comprehension of comparative adjectives, fewer Morphology Understanding of modified adjective due to –er suffix (fewer) Syntax Understand question format after a series of statements Understand an if-then syntactic format relationship 41 © LPdF 2011
SOL Released Test Item Grade 5, Science (2007) Which form of energy is being used by the toaster? A. Chemical B. Electrical C. Solar D. Nuclear Required Language Skills: Semantics understands which understands the vocabulary of energy, chemical, electrical, solar, nuclear knowledge of the multiple meaning of the term form Morphology meaning of the morphemes ed and ing Syntax ability to recognize an ongoing action passive tense 42 © LPdF 2011
SOL Released Test Item Reading Grade 6 If the author added a sentence at the end of paragraph 4, which of these would fit best? A The seagulls threatening behavior was unusual and bewildering. B Another time Jeff was chased down an alley by a little dog. C There was nothing more lovely than seagulls at the beach, flying over the water. D Sunset was Jeffs favorite time of day at the beach in Sebastian Cove. Required language skills: Morphology Understanding of morphemes (ed, ing, un, ly, s) Semantics Understanding of meaning and purpose of article in order to add another sentence that makes sense with the paragraph Syntax Understanding of possessive markers Understanding of threaten and bewilder as adjectives Understanding of complex declarative sentences with phrases, prepositions, and passive voice 43 © LPdF 2011
SOL Released Test Item Biology Grade 9 – 12 Fungi, such as mushrooms and molds, get their nutrition primarily by A. Producing food by chemosynthesis B. Decomposing dead organic matter C. Preying on other organic matter D. Parasitic relationships with plants Required Language Skills: Syntax Understanding of dependent clause Understanding of incomplete sentence structure of question Morphology Understanding of present participle –ing Understanding of morpheme -ic to make parasite an adjective Semantics Understanding content specific vocabulary and grade level appropriate vocabulary 44 © LPdF 2011
SOL Released Test Item US History to 1877 By the mid 1700s, American colonists were unhappy with English rule because- A. England refused to protect them from the French B. They thought the British king was weak C. England would not buy colonial-made goods D. They had no representation in Parliament Required language skills: Morphology Understanding of plural s morpheme Understanding of morpheme un Understanding of morpheme ed Semantics Vocabulary of because, colonists, refuse, protect, weak, colonial, goods, representation, Parliament Understanding of the abbreviation mid Understanding of pronouns they and them Syntax Understanding of sentence structure as incomplete 45 © LPdF 2011
SOL Released Test Item Civics and Economics Grade 9 – 12 This World War II poster appeals to which trait of an American citizen? Required Language Skills: Syntax Understand question format Semantics Requires understanding of content specific vocabulary Ability to comprehend the abstract message of the question on poster Morphology Understand meaning of prefixes, suffixes, and derivational morphemes -ness, -ism, and -y A.Trustworthine ss B.Patriotism C.Courtesy D.Honesty 46 © LPdF 2011
Opportunity is missed by most people because it is dressed in overalls and looks like work. Thomas Edison 47 © LPdF 2011
Align materials © LPdF Need for rich experiences with vocabulary and assessment styles. Everyday classroom and specialists experiences need to align with the vocabulary, concepts, and test formats of the SOLs and assessements to enable transfer
THANK YOU!!! THANK YOU! © LPdF 2011
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