Presentation on theme: "Express the values on which counselors build their practice and provide a framework for responsible test use. To become effective individuals must be."— Presentation transcript:
Express the values on which counselors build their practice and provide a framework for responsible test use. To become effective individuals must be committed to the ethical standards of their profession and follow them in their practice. Developed to promote responsible professional practice in psychological testing and assessment. Codes provide guidelines for professionals, but do not provide answers to all ethical dilemmas.
Members work in a variety of settings and serve in multiple capacities. Serves to clarify the ethical responsibilities of its members as well as describe best practices in the counseling profession. Emphasizes that counselors should use assessment instruments as one component of the counseling process, taking into account the clients personal and cultural context.
Section E: Evaluation, Assessment, and Interpretation (Table 17.1 pgs ) General Competence to Use and Interpret Assessment Instruments Informed Consent in Assessment Release of Data to Qualified Professionals Diagnosis of Mental Disorders Instrument Selection Conditions of Assessment Administration Multicultural Issues/Diversity in Assessment Scoring and Interpretation of Assessments Assessment Security Obsolete Assessments and Outdated Results Assessment Construction Forensic Evaluation: Evaluation for Legal Proceedings
The Standards American Educational Research Association (AERA) American Psychological Association (APA) National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME)
Provides test developers and test users with assistance in evaluating the technical adequacy of their instruments for educational and psychological assessment. The intent is to promote the sound and ethical use of tests and to provide criteria for the evaluation of tests, testing practices, and the effects of test use. Organized into 3 parts: Test Construction, Evaluation, and Documentation Fairness in Testing Testing Applications
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct Consists of 11 ethical standards Known as rules of conduct for psychologists
1. Recommendations should have sufficient documentation 2. Use valid and reliable assessment techniques 3. Obtain informed consent 4. Do not release test results without clients permission 5. Follow ethical procedures in test construction
6. Explain test results in clients native language 7. Deny use of assessment techniques by unqualified examiners 8. Deny use of outdated test results 9. Scoring and interpreting tests procedure must be valid and reliable 10. Use valid and reliable procedures to explain assessment results 11. Maintain integrity and security of tests
Set of guidelines used to promote the accurate, fair, and responsible use of standardized tests Developed by the Association for Assessment in Counseling (AAC) Designed to avoid test errors
Provides guidance for test developers and test users in four areas: 1. Developing & Selecting Appropriate Tests 2. Administering & Scoring Tests 3. Reporting & Interpreting Test Results 4. Informing Tests Takers
Counselors are responsible for the appropriate application, Scoring, interpretation, and use of assessment instruments relevant to the needs of the client, whether they score and interpret such tests themselves or use technology or other services
Professionals must be qualified to Select Administer Score Interpret tests
High Level Wechsler Scales Thematic Apperception Test Rorschach
Understand basic measurement concepts Understand basic statistics of measurement Compute and apply measurement formulas Read, evaluate, and understand test manuals and reports Follow exactly as specified the procedures for administering, scoring, and interpreting a test Compare and contrast different types of test scores their strengths and weaknesses
Combination of Knowledge Skills Abilities Training Credentials optimal for using tests
1. Skill in practice and knowledge of theory relevant to the testing context and type of counseling specialty 2. A thorough understanding of testing theory, techniques of test construction, and test reliability and validity. 3. A working knowledge of sampling techniques, norms, and descriptive, correlational, and predictive statistics. 4. Ability to review, select, and administer tests appropriate for clients or students and the context of the counseling practice. 5. Skill in administration of tests and interpretation of test scores 6. Knowledge of the impact of diversity on testing accuracy, including age, gender, ethnicity, race, disability, and linguistic differences 7. Knowledge and skill in the professionally responsible use of assessment and evaluation practice.
Classification A-level: Test Users NOT required advanced training in the test administration and interpretation to purchase. Ex. attitude and career exploration tests. B-level: Graduate Degree in psychology, counseling, education or related disciplines. Completed specialized training or coursework in testing, member of a professional organization. Ex. General intelligence tests and interest inventories C-level: B-level qualifications plus a doctorate degree in psychology or a related discipline Ex. Intelligence test, personality tests, and projective measures
Because assessment can have a profound effect on clients lives, counselors need to consider clients rights in this process.
Statutes- Laws written by legislative bodies. Regulations- Laws created by government agencies. Judicial decisions-Laws created by opinions from the court, often in litigation cases Some statutes and regulations have implications for assessment.
Passed for Americans who have some form of disability. Extending testing time Providing written materials in large pring, Braille or audiotape Providing readers or sign language interpreters Holding test administrations in accessible locations Using assistive devices
Civil Rights Act of 1991 outlaws discrimination in employment based on race, color, religion, gender, pregnancy, or national origin. Developed strict guidelines on employment tests Tests have to demonstrate a reasonable measure of job performance
FERPA protects the privacy of student records, giving parents certain rights with respect to their childrens education records. The right to examine their childrens academic records. Access to assessment information
This law requires that each state have a comprehensive system for identifying, locating, and evaluating children of ages birth to 21 with disabilities. Provide children with special education services IDEA mandates that schools utilize several scientifically based assessments and instructional and behavioral interventions to determine whether students have a SLD, therefore qualifying them for SPED services.
Three main purposes: To guarantee insurance portability To increase protection against fraus in the insurance industry To institute new regulations regarding the security and privacy of health information Privacy regulations establish that personal health information to include assessment information must be kept confidential
NCLB contains four basic education reform principles: Stronger accountability Increased flexibility and local control Expanded options for parents Emphasis on teaching methods that have been proven to work NCLB significantly raises expectations for states, local schools, in that all students are expected to meet or exceed standards
Provides federal funding and guidance for career and guidance, for career and technical education with a focus on student achievement and preparing students for careers and postsecondary education. Career and technical education programs will be held accountable for improvement in performance, measured by academic proficiency. Success will be determined through valid and reliable tests, including NCLB assessments in reading, math and science.
Laws created by opinions from the court, often in litigation cases Larry P. v. Riles (1974,1979,1984) Diana v. California State Board of Education (1973,1979) Debra P. v. Turlington (1979, 1981,1983,1984) Sharif v. New York State Educational Department (1989)
Griggs v. Duke Power Company (1971) Washington v. Davis (1976) Bakke v. California (1978)