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Group members: Khamis Ahmed Khamis 199900588 Khalid Hazaá Mansour 200235841 Nasser Abdullah Alnaqbi 200212673 Khaled Moussalli 200337587 United Arab Emirates.

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Presentation on theme: "Group members: Khamis Ahmed Khamis 199900588 Khalid Hazaá Mansour 200235841 Nasser Abdullah Alnaqbi 200212673 Khaled Moussalli 200337587 United Arab Emirates."— Presentation transcript:

1 Group members: Khamis Ahmed Khamis 199900588 Khalid Hazaá Mansour 200235841 Nasser Abdullah Alnaqbi 200212673 Khaled Moussalli 200337587 United Arab Emirates University College of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Graduation Project II Second Semester 2007/2008 Advisor: Dr. Ahmed Bushlaibi Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2 contents Introduction. The split cylinder test. The permeability test. The bending test. The flexural test. Conclusion. Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

3 Introduction Using silica fume as an enhancer for the concrete beams, slabs, columns and any other concrete structure. Concrete is very good material in compression however it is very week in tension so that is way we use reinforcement in it. Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

4 Cement grains (left), silica fume particles (right) at the same magnification. The ACI 234R-96 report estimates that for a 15 percent silica fume replacement of cement, there are approximately 2,000,000 particles of silica fume for each grain of portland cement Why Silica Fume ? Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

5 Change microstructure of the concrete Physical aspect of silica fume : Fills in the spaces between cement grains Chemical contribution : Cement releases calcium hydroxide. Silica has very high silicon dioxide. Calcium hydroxide will react with silicon dioxide to form calcium silicate hydrate. Why Silica Fume ? Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

6 Introduction Concrete solidifies and hardens after mixing and placement due to a chemical process known as hydration. The water reacts with cement which bonds the other components together eventually creating a stone-like material. Reinforcement is a good indication for failure because it gives us a warning. Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

7 Introduction In GPI the concrete compression test was done. Was that enough ??! Four more test were done. The split cylinder test. The permeability test. The bending test. The flexural test. Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

8 The split cylinder test The permeability test. The bending test. The flexural test. Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

9 Split Cylinder Test 9 Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

10 Split cylinder test 10 This test, often referred to as the split-cylinder test, indirectly measures the tensile strength of concrete by compressing a cylinder through a line load applied along its length. Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

11 The testing machine 11 This test can be completed in a standard concrete compression testing machine, with only one special requirement the hinged bearing that loads the specimen. Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

12 The Experiment 12 Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

13 Results The results above are in MPa 13 Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

14 Results The results above are in MPa 14 Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

15 The results above are in MPa Results 15 Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

16 Results 16 Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

17 The split cylinder test. The permeability test. The bending test. The flexural test. Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

18 Permeability Permeability describes the ease by which any species (i.e. liquid or gas) can pass through concrete. Objective : Effect of silica fume in permeability of concrete on different percentage (0%,7.5%,10%,12.5%) Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

19 Permeability Most popular fluid is water Most popular gas is O 2 & CO 2 Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

20 Permeability test Shape: Cylinder v=πr 2 h R=15cm=0.15m r=7.5cm=0.075m h=2cm=0.02m V =(π )*(0.075) 2 *(0.02) =0.00035m 3 V for 16 cylinder = (16)*(0.00035) =0.0056m 3 h=2cm R=15cm Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

21 Calculation Water content for 16 cylinder=1.12Kg/m 3 Cement content for 16 cylinder=3.3936kg Fine Aggregate: For 16 cylinder = 3.3432 Kg Coarse Aggregate: For 16 cylinder = 5.1072 Kg Super plasticizer: Sp=1.5 to 2 % of the total cement. SP= 1.65% * 3.3936 = 53 ml Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

22 Experiment Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

23 Curing Oven 3days Water 25 days Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

24 Transportation To protect sample against air moisture Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

25 Air permeability device Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

26 Line diagram for the oxygen permeability apparatus Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

27 The Permeability Cell Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

28 Permeability Pressure head gradient Cross Section (m 2 /sec) Volume Flow Rate (m 3 /sec) Permeability Coefficient (m/sec) Driving Force Pressure head (m) Flow Path i.e. specimen thickness (m) Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

29 P (bar) Volum e V(cc) t1 (sec) t2 (sec) t3 (sec) t_averag (sec) Q m3/sec A m2 lmlm hmhm K m/sec 1.5100.24 4.16667E-050.0176710.021.53.14388E-05 2100.11 9.09091E-050.0176710.0225.14454E-05 2.5100.6 1.66667E-050.0176710.022.57.54532E-06 3.01432E-05 P (bar) Volume V(cc) t1 (sec) t2 (sec) t3 (sec) t_averag (sec) Q m3/sec A m2 lmlm hmhm K m/sec 1.5106.86.826.776.796667 1.47131E- 06 0.01767 10.021.51.11015E-06 2102.82.822.82.806667 3.56295E- 06 0.01767 10.0222.01627E-06 2.5101.61.651.631.626667 6.14754E- 06 0.01767 10.022.52.78311E-06 1.96984E-06 0% 7.5% Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

30 10% P (bar) Volume V(cc) t1 (sec) t2 (sec) t3 (sec) t_averag (sec) Q m3/sec A m2 lmlm hmhm K m/sec 1.51011.5 11.5211.506678.69061E-070.0176710.021.56.55735E-07 2105.215.235.255.231.91205E-060.0176710.0221.08202E-06 2.5102.232.312.322.2866674.37318E-060.0176710.022.51.97982E-06 1.23919E-06 P (bar) Volume V(cc) t1 (sec) t2 (sec) t3 (sec) t_averag (sec) Q m3/sec A m2 lmlm hmhm K m/sec 1.5518.5419.1219.419.02 2.62881E- 070.0176710.021.5 1.98347E- 07 258.828.688.798.763333 5.70559E- 070.0176710.0223.2287E-07 2.555.415.45.415.406667 9.24784E- 070.0176710.022.5 4.18657E- 07 3.13291E-07 12.5% Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

31 The silica fume will effect on the permeability as shown in the chart, when the quantity of silica fume increase the permeability will decrease. Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

32 The split cylinder test. The permeability test. The bending test. The flexural test. Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

33 Design of RC Section Requires Determination of: 1.Concrete Dimensions Beam width b Beam width b Depth of steel reinforcement d Depth of steel reinforcement d Section height h = d + cover-to-center of steel Section height h = d + cover-to-center of steel 2.Area of steel reinforcement As 3.Ensure safety requirements (As) min As (As) max Beam Design Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

34 Step 1: Assume Concrete Dimensions (Beam width & Section height) and Section Length Step 1: Assume Concrete Dimensions (Beam width & Section height) and Section Length Beam width b = 100 mm Beam width b = 100 mm Section height h = 250 mm Section height h = 250 mm Section Length L = 1.8 m Section Length L = 1.8 m Beam Design Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

35 Step 2: Estimate Beam Height According to ACI Deflection Requirements h min = L/16 = 1800 / 16 = 113 mm h b = 250 mm > 113 mm Beam Design Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

36 Step 3: Assume bar size No. 10 For bar size No. 10, d b = 9.5 mm For bar size No. 10, d b = 9.5 mm Beam Design Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

37 Step 4: Calculate depth of steel reinforcement (d) Cover = concrete cover to steel center c c = clear concrete cover (20 mm for beams) d s = diameter of stirrups (bar size # 10) d b = diameter of steel bar (bar size # 10) Hence, Cover = c c + d s + d b /2 = 20 + 9.5 + 9.5/2 = 34 mm d = h - cover = 250 - 34 = 216 mm Beam Design Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

38 Step 5: Assume grade of a steel reinforcing bar & area of steel reinforcement As Grade 420 (i.e. fy = 420 MPa) is the most commonly used steel Use 2 bars No. 10 (As = 142 mm 2 ) Step 6: Compute steel ratio (ρ) ρ = 142 / (100 * 216) = 0.00658 Beam Design Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

39 Step 7: Ensure safety requirements (ρ) min ρ (ρ) max Beam Design Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

40 Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

41 Step 7: Ensure safety requirements (ρ) min ρ (ρ) max For fc' = 61.33 MPa0.00466 ρ 0.03559 For fc' = 78.7 MPa0.00528 ρ 0.04567 For fc' = 85.17 MPa0.00549 ρ 0.04943 For fc' = 90 MPa0.00565 ρ 0.05223 Beam Design Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

42 Experiment Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

43 Strain Gauges Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

44 Pouring the Concrete Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

45 The Smooth Concrete Surface Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

46 Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

47 Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

48 Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

49 The split cylinder test. The permeability test. The bending test. The flexural test. Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

50 One measure of the tensile strength. Measure of an unreinforced concrete. Loading beams with tow concentrated load. What is Flexural Strength ? Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

51 Beam Details Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

52 Flexural Strength Experimentally Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

53 Flexural Strength Theoretically f cu = 1.25 f c f c = 0.8 f cu f r = 0.7 (0.8 f cu ) Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

54 Theoretical Load Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

55 cmmmm d1(cm)151500.15 d2(cm)151500.15 L(cm)505000.5 V(m3)0.01125 For 7 beams0.07875 Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

56 Our Trial Mix Data Water content for 7 beams = 200 x V Cement content for 7 beams = 606 x V Coarse Aggregate for 7 beams = 912 x V Grade 10_14 = 30% Grade 5_10 = 70% Fine Aggregate for 7 beams = 597 x V Dune sand = 20% Black sand = 80 % Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

57 Our Trial Mix Data Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

58 58 Weighting Preparing Mixing Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

59 59 Mixing Prism PreparingConcrete casting Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

60 60 Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

61 Concrete Compression Machine Consist of: Two supporting rollers Two load-applying rollers Steel with circular cross-section Diameter of 20 mm to 40 mm At least 10 mm longer Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

62 Doing the Experiment Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

63 Doing the Experiment Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

64 Doing the Experiment Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

65 Result Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

66 Result Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

67 Result Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

68 Result Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

69 Comparison Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

70 All the tests results were very encouraging. Adding the silica fume to any concrete mixture will enhance the properties of the concrete far beyond its initial properties. Increasing the amount of silica fume will result in enhancing the concrete properties. Conclusion Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

71 The silica fume is a very promising industry in the future. For the next semester it is recommended for one of the GPI groups to investigate the influence of fly ash on concrete and compare it with our results. Conclusion Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

72 Silica Fume influence on RC Beams Behavior Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering


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