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1 2 A Call for New Transportation License Test Reforms Sandy H. Straus ESRA Consulting Corporation to The Department of Transportation Washington, D.C.

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Presentation on theme: "1 2 A Call for New Transportation License Test Reforms Sandy H. Straus ESRA Consulting Corporation to The Department of Transportation Washington, D.C."— Presentation transcript:

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3 2 A Call for New Transportation License Test Reforms Sandy H. Straus ESRA Consulting Corporation to The Department of Transportation Washington, D.C. 28 September 2005 © Copyright 2005 ESRA Consulting Corporation. All rights reserved.

4 3 Neither ESRA Consulting Corporation (ESRA), its affiliates, its associates, nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. References herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by ESRA or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of ESRA or any agency thereof. This report is for informational purposes only. Readers are encouraged to confirm the information contained herein with other sources. The information is not intended to replace medical advice offered by physicians. Reliance on any information in this report is solely at your own risk. ESRA Consulting Corporation is not responsible or liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, special, exemplary, or other damages arising from any use of any product, information, idea, or instruction contained in this report and all publications and presentations and/ or implementations therefrom. No part of this document may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from ESRA Consulting Corporation. All materials © Copyright 2005 ESRA Consulting Corporation. All rights reserved. ESRA Consulting Corporation Disclaimer

5 4 Notice is hereby provided that a patent application has been filed on one or more of the systems and methods described herein. Notice is hereby provided that ESRA may be involved in development and/ or marketing of products in the systems and/ or methods described herein. In the event that consideration is given to any component in the system described herein in which ESRA may have a marketing arrangement or other involvement, at the time of such consideration, full disclosure will made.

6 5 OUTLINE Goal Motivation Objective Methodologies Visual Acuity, Vision ESRA DAT and ESRA DVAT Driving simulators Relative Accident Involvement Ratio Bathtub curves Recommendations Conclusions

7 6 GOAL To develop an efficient balance between safety and security to ensure the utmost quality of our nations transportation infrastructure.

8 7 Inadequate and inaccurate current license testing technologies. No comprehensive license testing methods exist in other transport sectors. MOTIVATION

9 8 Promote safety through: automated testing. improved vision screening techniques. OBJECTIVES Photo © Copyright 2005 Systems Technology, Inc.

10 9 1.Collect and analyze collision data. 2.Survey all motor vehicle directors. 3.Present design of an experimental automated test system. 4.Highlight the significance of vision screening measures other than standard visual acuity. METHODOLOGIES Photo © 2004 United States National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health

11 10 None of the vision testing equipment currently in use: screen licensees for vision and cognition problems. promote road safety. reduce collisions, injuries, and fatalities. CURRENT STATE OF THE ART Photo modified from

12 11 a measure of the ability to visually distinguish fine details. accounts for less than 0.1% of the visual field (Fink and Sadun, 2003). VISUAL ACUITY Photo © 2004 United States National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health

13 12 Vision measures other than standard acuity needed for assessing at-risk drivers. Our systems promote older drivers to safely operate motor vehicles longer. VISION Photo © 2004 United States National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health

14 13 TRADITIONAL SNELLEN-TYPE CHARTS typically conducted in normal light conditions. unable to detect eye diseases and dementia. Alzheimers Disease and dementia linked with visual acuity under low luminance. Photo © 2004 United States National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health

15 14 Normal Vision

16 15 Age-Related Macular Degeneration Diabetic Retinopathy CataractsGlaucoma

17 16 What do these diseases now have in common? Photo © 2004 United States National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health

18 17 No license test screening component for Glaucoma or Age-Relate Macular Degeneration (AMD), two of the fastest growing diseases that can result in vision loss. Photo © 2004 United States National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health

19 18 antiquated 1937 visual standards report approved by the American Medical Association. widespread implementations and modifications of the Snellen Eye Chart of the 1860s. Current MVD Vision Standards:

20 19 HEALTH INSURANCE STATUS More than 80 million Americans lacked health insurance (American Public Health Association, ). Many drivers are not aware that they suffer with vision loss, visual impairment, or cognitive impairments. Photo © Copyright 1983 Center for Disease Control.

21 20 HEALTH INSURANCE STATUS In the USA, it is illegal to operate a vehicle without a license and insurance. It is not illegal to lack health insurance. Photo © Copyright 1983 Center for Disease Control.

22 21 We call for a radical departure from the traditional and inadequate testing currently in place. TEST RECOMMENDATION Photo © Copyright 2005 Systems Technology, Inc.

23 22 Bye-bye, long lines. Hello, ESRA.

24 23 We proudly introduce the ESRA Dynamic Vision Assessment for Transportation DVAT © Copyright 2005 ESRA Consulting Corporation. All rights reserved.

25 24 Automated vision function test Automated vision condition test Driving simulator vision status test Computer network to allow for complete computer automation features, tests, score reports, records, and databases © Copyright 2005 ESRA Consulting Corporation. All rights reserved.

26 25 We also proudly introduce ESRA Dynamic Assessment for Transportation DAT Photo © Copyright 1983 Center for Disease Control. © Copyright 2005 ESRA Consulting Corporation. All rights reserved.

27 26 ESRA Dynamic Assessment for Transportation (ESRA DVAT) Vision attention/ cognition test Knowledge, safety, laws, and identification test Operation skills test Computer network to allow for complete computer automation features, tests, score reports, records, and databases Photo © Copyright 1983 Center for Disease Control. © Copyright 2005 ESRA Consulting Corporation. All rights reserved.

28 27 May be beneficial to novice licensees. May be useful for screening at-risk licensees and others with dementia, especially Alzheimers Disease. ESRA DAT DRIVING SIMULATORS* Photo © Copyright 2005 Systems Technology, Inc. Safety studies and potential liability issues need to be addressed for all driving simulator usage as discussed in New, Improved, Comprehensive, and Automated Drivers License Test and Vision Screening System by Sandy H. Straus.

29 28 ESRA DAT DRIVING SIMULATORS FEATURES –weather and light conditions. –Self-customization driving scenarios. –simulated visibility and contrast reduction due to fog, rain, and snow. Photo © Copyright 2005 Systems Technology, Inc.

30 29 ESRA DVAT and DAT cost-effective. objective. environmentally friendly. long line reductions.

31 30 We used RAIR to quantify millions of collisions among Arizona and Florida drivers of all ages through databases of two-vehicle accidents. RELATIVE ACCIDENT INVOLVEMENT RATIO Photo modified from

32 31 (D1 i,j /ΣΣD1 i,j ) RAIR i,j=___________ (D2 i,j /ΣΣD2 i,j ) Where: i = type of drivers; j = type of conditions D1 i,j = number of at-fault drivers of driver type i for type j conditions. D2 i,j = number of not-at-fault drivers of driver type i for type j conditions. RAIR CALCULATION Photo modified from

33 32 RAIR Age 80 to 89 years most likely at-fault in collisions compared to all other age cohorts. RAIR Ages 50 to 59 years most likely at-fault in environmental factors and manner of collisions. RAIR CONCLUSIONS Photo modified from

34 33 These results are consistent among drivers cited for collision involvement due to visual defects. RAIR VISUAL DEFECT CONCLUSIONS Photo modified from

35 34 Drivers ages 80 to 89 years are about twice as likely to be at-fault when compared to the cohorts ages 16 to 19 years in several categories of collisions. RAIR OLDER DRIVER CONCLUSIONS Photo modified from

36 35 We find that many of our results follow reliability engineering principles based on bathtub curves. RAIR BATHTUB CURVE CONCLUSIONS Photo modified from

37 36 Failure rate Early Failure Period Wear out Failure Period Useful Life Period time f(t)= b θ(θtt) b-1 exp [-(e (θb)b - θt b – 1)] for b> 0, θ > 0, t > 0 Bathtub Curve FAILURE PROBABILITY DENSITY FUNCTION Photo © 2004 United States National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health Begins at age 50 years. Begins at age 20 years.

38 37 where: b = shape parameter, t= time, θ= scale parameter f(t)= b θ(θtt) b-1 exp [-(e (θb)b - θt b – 1)] for b> 0, θ > 0, t > 0 FAILURE PROBABILITY DENSITY FUNCTION DEFINITIONS Photo © 2004 United States National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health

39 38 Develop a new vision standard for drivers license issuance and renewal. VISION STANDARD RECOMMENDATION

40 39 Ensure that the ESRA DAT or ESRA DVAT system provides: instant scoring. short and effective on-site testing. score reports linked by network. bilingual capabilities. RECOMMENDATION

41 40 ADDITIONAL FEATURES RECOMMENDATION The ESRA DVAT, and ESRA DAT can incorporate other features: biometrics, automated written tests, and/ or cognition skills tests.

42 41 MEDICAL RECOMMENDATION Combine forces with medical agencies and officials, as well as other transport licensing bureaus, on developing a method of assessing scores submitted through the ESRA DAT and ESRA DVAT Systems.

43 42 Shorten the periods between drivers license issuance and renewal for vision testing, in particular for: LICENSE TESTING RECOMMENDATION

44 43 Drivers age years (every two years). Drivers age years (every two years). Drivers age 70 years and over (every one year). All other drivers (every four years). TESTING RECOMMENDATIONS

45 44 We call for new and uniform federal visual standards and vision tests in all the United States. VISUAL STANDARD RECOMMENDATION Photo © 2004 United States National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health

46 45 A completely automated system can be used to identify all licensees, irrespective of their residency. This would simplify the licensure process and paperwork. AUTOMATED SYSTEM RECOMMENDATION Photo © Copyright 1983 Center for Disease Control.

47 46 FEDERAL VISUAL STANDARD RECOMMENDATION Federal visual standards would also eliminate those who may not visually or cognitively qualify for a license in one state from obtaining a license in another state.

48 47 Federal visual standards support similar recommendations as these relate to driver's licenses and other documents introduced through the 9/11 Commission and by the McCain-Lieberman bill introduced in the U.S. Senate, The Intelligence Reform Bill, and H.R FEDERAL VISUAL STANDARD RECOMMENDATION Photo © Copyright 2005 Systems Technology, Inc.

49 48 New vision screening methodologies and standards are now needed to: promote safety, predict visual impairment, and evaluate possible restriction or confiscation of transportation licenses. CONCLUSIONS

50 49 Self-assessment tools, education courses, and, e.g., driving skill programs can only complement the new ESRA transportation license test designs and reforms. CONCLUSIONS

51 50 Safe, improved, and comprehensive testing is now needed. ESRA automated systems and methodologies will ultimately benefit all sectors of transportation. TESTING CONCLUSIONS Photo © Copyright 2005 Systems Technology, Inc.

52 51 These ESRA systems and procedures may also reduce the incidence of fraud as these relate to license issuances such as hazardous materials transport. HAZMAT CONCLUSION

53 52 The ESRA DAT may be the first of its kind in any transportation agency in the world to implement the most sophisticated technology available. ESRA DAT CONCLUSIONS

54 53 New policies are now needed at the federal and state levels to immediately implement transportation license test designs and reforms as envisaged by ESRA. FINAL CONCLUSION

55 54 Please refer to the ESRA reports, SPR 559: New, Improved, Comprehensive, and Automated Driver's License Test and Vision Screening System FHWA-AZ (1) for further information, including the safety and research of these products and others. These reports are downloadable at:

56 55 With special thanks to: Arizona Transportation Research Center Arizona Department of Transportation Arizona Department of Motor Vehicles United States Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Florida Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles

57 56 Royal Palm Towers 1650 South Dixie Highway, Third Floor Boca Raton, Florida USA Telephone: ( 5 6 1) –

58 57


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