2World War I ( )The war was sparked by the shooting of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand, but the shooting was only a catalyst.All of the elements leading to war had been in place for most of the 20th century. The shooting just provided an immediate cause.
3Underlying Causes of the War Imperialism: Colonial rivalries between the major European powers created hatred and hostility that led to war.Militarism: Europe had been experiencing an arms race ever since the unification of Germany.Major naval rivalries existed between Germany & England, and army rivalries existed between France and Germany.
4More Underlying Causes Nationalism: This force brought about WWI in a variety of ways:nationalism spawned the unification of Italy & Germany and caused a major shift in the balance of power.Nationalism caused the great powers to pursue expansionist policies.Nationalism on the part of ethnic minorities in Austria led to revolts & secret orgs.Russia pursued a policy of Pan-Slavism.
5More Underlying Causes Alliance systems: These led nations to take rash actions, knowing that their allies would come to their aid.Triple Alliance (formed 1882): Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungaryoriginally called the Three Emperors League (Germany, Russia, Austria), it ended when Russia withdrew, due to rivalries with Austria over the Balkan region.
6More Alliances Two more important alliances played a part in WWI: Triple Entente (1910): Russia, France, and EnglandThis alliance began as the Franco-Russian Alliance of 1894, and the dual entente of England and France in 1902.The Little Entente: Russia, Poland, Romania, and Serbia
7The Crises Leading to War Imperial rivalries, such as the Fashoda Affair between England & France, and the Kruger Telegram between England & Germany, existed in the 1890’s.1905: First Moroccan Crisis: Germany tried to take over Tangiers (Morocco) and called an international conference (Algiciris) to settle its ownership. Germany was humiliated & France kept Morocco.
8More Crises1908: Balkan Crisis (Bosnian Crisis):Both Austria & Serbia wanted to expand in the Balkans. When Serbia protested the Austrian annexation of Bosnia, Russia sided with Serbia. Russia threatened to declare war, but Germany sided with Austria and Russia backed down.
9More Crises1911: Second Moroccan Crisis: The Germans sent the gunboat, Panther, to Agadir (Morocco) to protest French occupation of the region.This caused England and France to join together to draw up war plans against the Germans.Germany withdrew after gaining a piece of the French Congo.
10More CrisesBalkan War of 1912: Greece, Bulgaria, and Serbia joined together defeat Turkey.They divided up Turkish possessions in the Balkans.Balkan War of 1913: The territory that Bulgaria had taken in the previous year was taken from her by an alliance of Russia, Turkey, Serbia, and Greece.
11The Assassination & War June 28, 1914: Sarajevo: The Austrian Archduke was assassinated by Gavrillo Princip, a Bosnian member of the Black Hand.Austrian Ultimatum: Austria blamed Serbian nationalists for the shooting and demanded a free hand in their own investigation of the crime.
12The Crisis Leads to WarSerbia’s Reply: Serbia accepted most of the ultimatum, but rejected parts that would destroy her sovereignty.German Actions: On one hand, Germany offered Austria a “blank check” of support. On the other hand, the Kaiser tried to negotiate a settlement between Serbia & Austria.July 28, 1914: Germany invaded Belgium and Austria declared war on Serbia.
13War BeginsRussia had been the 1st to mobilize, but Germany was the 1st to go to war.Germany swept through Belgium, causing England and France to declare war.Germany then declared war on Russia, who declared war on the central powers.
14The WarThe central powers had better armies, but the allies had more men and resources.Germany used the Schlieffen plan to begin the war, but after the Battle of the Marne, the war turned into a long struggle with the advent of trench warfare. (remember Vauban)
15The War in the EastRussia initially held off the limited number of German troops on the eastern front, but when German strength increased and Austria and Turkey became involved, the war was a complete disaster for Russia.Russian losses were enormous and led to the collapse of the Russian gov’t by 1917.Treaty of Brest Litovsk: 1917: Russia out of the war.
16The War at SeaThe war at sea was almost more important than the land aspect of the war.British naval strength was superior to that of the Germans, but German U-boats inflicted great damage and were one factor in the entrance of the US in the war.
17The War EndsDespite temporary German victories, largely caused by the use of poison gas, the allied victory over Germany at the Battle of Verdun turned the tide of war.Eventually, British, French, Italian, and American armies, led by French Marshall Foch broke German lines and led to the armistice on Nov. 11, 1918.
18Changes Created by the War New Weapons: tanks, poison gas, subs, airplanes, machine guns, etc.Russian RevolutionRecreated the map of EuropeBrought about the mandate system in the middle east and led to nationalist revolts in the area following the war.10 million dead, 20 million wounded, & $150 billion worth of property damage.
19Changes in the Allied Nations Within the allied countries, the war brought great changes:compulsory military trainingforced employment of men & women in war-industry jobsrestrictions on labor & management for the war causewar planning, regulations, price controls, & massive propaganda campaignswomen’s suffrage after the war
20Versailles Conference 1919: Versailles conference: Big 4 made all important decisions: Lloyd George, Clemenceau, Orlando, and Wilson.Wilson tried to base a lasting peace on his 14 points, but they were largely rejected as being too idealistic by European leaders.Wilson sacrificed most of his program to establish a league of nations.
21The Treaty of Versailles League of Nations created (US didn’t join)Alsace & Lorraine restored to FranceFrench exploitation of the Saar valley for 15 yearsHuge reparations to be paid by GermanyConfiscation of German military supplies, and Germany allowed to have only a 100,000 man militia.
22The Treaty of Versailles Demilitarization of the RhinelandWar guilt clause blamed Germany for the war and justified reparationsGerman and Turkish colonies taken over by the League of Nations who gave overseas colonies to the allies and created mandates in the middle east.Restoration of Belgium & PolandCreation of Yugoslavia
23Problems in RussiaAlthough the czar had not followed through on his promises made after the revolution of 1905, dissatisfied parties in Russia tried to cooperate with the gov’t in the defense of Russia in 1914.After the armies began to lose, the czar fired competent generals and replaced them himself, at the front.opposition grew more discontented, as a result.
24More Russian ProblemsAs war losses mounted, food shortages at home led to rioting in Russian cities.On the front, Russian soldiers were finally limited to 2 bullets per day, and many mutinied.Rasputin’s influence on Czarina Alexandra further alienated the public, and soon, revolution was nearly inevitable.
25The Revolution of March, 1917 The March revolution began with a general strike in St. Petersburg (Petrograd, Leningrad).The strike was followed by a mutiny among the troops and the dissolving of the duma.The new gov’t that took over was known as the Provisional Gov’t & it was run by Kerensky and Prince Lvov.
26The Provisional Government On March 17, 1917, Czar Nicholas abdicated. Shortly afterward, the royal family was arrested.They were eventually executed by the Bolsheviks.The new gov’t declared full civil liberties for all Russians, freed Poland and Finland, and called for a constituent assembly to pass needed reforms.
27Problems for the New Gov’t Russians wanted to get out of WWI, because they were losing so badly, and because supplies were so short on the homefront.Kerensky accepted a bribe and kept Russia in the war.Hunger was a problem all over Russia.Most Russians wanted land reform.The Prov. Gov’t did nothing to help the distressed population.
28The SovietsSoviets were small workers’ councils which had been established following the revolution of 1905.The Petrograd Soviet was under the control of Trotsky and was the most radical group calling for further action.The Soviets called for an immediate end to the war, for peace with Germany, and for the seizure of land by the peasants & workers.
29LeninLenin had been active in the Social Democratic Party (Marxists) since its inception in Russia.1902: He wrote “What is to be done?” in which he laid out his plans for revolution.The same year, he took control of the more radical wing of the party, the Bolsheviks.
30The Road to RevolutionApril 16, 1917: Germany ships Lenin back to Russia from his exile in Switzerland in a sealed rail car.Germany did this, believing that Lenin would sue for peace after leading the revolution in Russia.Lenin’s motto: “Peace, Land, & Bread.”This was exactly what the people wanted to hear.
31The Road to RevolutionLenin called for the resignation of the provisional government and the transfer of power to the soviets, but this demand was premature.July, 1917: The provisional gov’t armed the Bolsheviks so they could help the gov’t fight off a military coup (The Kornilov Affair).These arms were later turned on the gov’t.
32The October Revolution Nov. 6, 1917: Led by Lenin & Trotsky, Bolshevik leaders, soldiers, and workers quickly took over Petrograd, stormed the winter palace, & arrested the remaining members of the provisional government.Alexander Kerensky escaped and lived in exile.
33The Revolution Continues Nov. 7, 1917: Lenin declares the revolution a success and renames the country the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.Lenin = head of stateTrotsky = foreign minister & head of the red armyStalin = commissar for national minorities
34Soviet Russia:Between 1917 and 1928, the new Bolshevik government established Soviet power in Russia and enacted Soviet policies.There are three major themes of this period in Soviet history:Military & internal problemsDevelopment of economic policiesPower struggle between Stalin & Trotsky
35Internal Problems Begin The Bolsheviks expected worldwide revolution to follow their successful revolution in Russia and so they immediately began to prepare.In preparation, the Soviets nationalized and communized sugar, petroleum, and textile production and all mining, and by 1920, all industries employing more than 10 people were state-owned.The gov’t requisitioned all farm produce, and only gov’t officials cold buy & sell goods.
36Military & Internal Problems March 3, 1918: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk took Russia out of the war and ceded large amounts of territory to Germany.Russia gave up most of the area in the vicinity of the Ukraine and lost about 1/3 of its population.Civil War was raging between the Reds (bolsheviks) and the Whites (everyone who opposed the reds).By 1921, the reds won the civil war.
37Economic ProblemsThough the whites were put down, the Soviet internal situation remained critical in 1921, with the economy being below pre-war levels.The anarchists and peasants began to revolt in the countryside in an attempt to do something about the starvation & suffering of the masses.
38The New Economic Policy (NEP) This was Lenin’s stop-gap measure to retain control and provide temporary relief.Under the NEP, peasants were allowed to keep part of their produce, which they were allowed to sell for cash profit on newly-recreated local markets.The gov’t kept control of heavy industry & internat’l trade, but light manufacturing and internal trade was returned to private hands.
39NEP, continuedThe Kulaks and other entrepreneurs made large profits by taking advantage of this liberalization.As a result, some bolsheviks, such as Trotsky, wanted to kill themSome other people wanted to extend the NEP to include even more private businessLenin believed both groups were wrong, and that the NEP was necessary until a full communist society could be realized in the future.
40The Power Struggle: Stalin vs. Trotsky Lenin had a series of strokes between 1922 & He finally died in 1924.Trotsky & Stalin both wanted to be Lenin’s successor.Trotsky was a theorist who had organized the red army and the Petrograd Soviet.Stalin was an activist who had been instrumental in forcing the minority republics to unite into the USSR. He also had control of the machinery of gov’t.
41Stalin vs. TrotskyTrotsky wanted to promote world revolution ASAP, while Stalin was willing to wait & instead concentrate on rebuilding the USSR, 1st.When Trotsky publicly criticized Stalin’s foreign policy in 1927, Stalin had him exiled to Siberia.Trotsky eventually escaped to the west & was assassinated by Stalin’s men in 1941.
42Lenin’s TestamentIn his will, Lenin stated that Stalin was too power-hungry and too brutal and uncouth to become his successor.Lenin believed Trotsky should be the next head of the USSR.Stalin, however, gained full control of the USSR, after the exile of Trotsky.
43Stalinist Russia With Stalin’s rise to power, the NEP was ended. Stalin was typified by the following:Purges: to insure personal loyalty to Stalin & his communist system.Collectivization of Agriculture and Industry:Identification of the State & the Communist Party: all in his own person.Five Year Plans: to meet emergency needs for industrialization and mechanization.
44Five Year PlansEmergency programs to industrialize the USSR so it could protect itself & compete with the West.Heavy industry, steel mills, electrical power, cement, railroads, & tractor building.The bureaucracy necessary to carry out the plans became a highly paid class of communist party members.
45Purges ( )From , Stalin directed a series of wholesale purges consisting of trumped-up or false accusations, mock trials, and then suicide or execution.He did away with most of the old Bolshevik leaders and others who could challenge his power.He tried to eliminate the kulaks.Stalin’s cult of personality: He eliminated people not personally loyal.
461936 ConstitutionAlthough the constitution called for universal suffrage and appeared to be very liberal, it actually was circumvented by the fact that the party and the gov’t were controlled by the same few persons.For example, even though the nation had a premier, in practice, the premier was always the comm. party secretary.
47Soviet Foreign PolicyInitially,Stalin favored “Socialism in one State.” (building it in the USSR, 1st, and then later exporting the revolution).During the late 1930’s, Stalin favored the Popular Front strategy of trying to stop fascism before Hitler could get any more power in his hands.Finally, after WWII, Stalin began to actively seek to spread Communism in to other parts of the world.
48Totalitarianism Leftist: Communism Right wing: Fascism While Communism had become the dominant style of dictatorship in the USSR, Fascism appealed to radicals in Italy & Germany.
49ItalyAfter switching sides to end the war fighting with the allies in WWI, Italy was disappointed in the lack of territorial gain she achieved at Versailles.The Italian economy was in shambles after WWI, and unemployment was high.Italian political parties were unable to gain a majority and so very little reform was happening.
50The Rise of MussoliniFollowing the war, the king, Victor Emmanuel III was a figurehead with virtually no power.Mussolini, originally a socialist, organized the 1st fasces group in 1919.He had few followers, at 1st, but due to the bad conditions, people began to listen to his ideas.
51Mussolini, continuedIn 1920, he founded a para-military group called the Black Shirts which consisted of ex-soldiers, shopkeepers, workers, and intellectuals.He used the Black Shirts in a campaign of terror to promote fascist ideas.His numbers grew from 30,000 in 1920 to 300,000 in 1922.
52Fascism What is fascism? Fascism is a political philosophy which is anti-democratic, anti-communist, and anti-liberal.Fascism uses terror, dictatorial practices, and any available means to force compliance with fascist demands.Fascists are often confused with communists, but even though they use similar tactics to keep control, their beliefs are diametrically opposed.
53Italy 1921: Fascists were for the 1st time elected to the parliament. Oct. 1922: March on Rome: Mussolini’s Blackshirts and thousands of discontented Italians marched on Rome demanding a new government.The king yielded and gave Mussolini constitutional authority to form a new government, thus giving the fascists political power.
54Italian FascismSoon after taking power, constitutionally, Mussolini created a fascist dictatorship.He created a fascist militia (out of the Blackshirts)He made the army swear personal allegiance to himHe passed emergency power decreesHe revised the electoral system to assure him absolute control.
55Italian Fascism, continued By 1924, Mussolini terrorized his opposition out of existence.Political opponents who voiced resentment were found dead.By 1926, Mussolini ruled entirely by decree and the only legal political party was the fascist party.Dictatorship was secure in the person of Mussolini & his Grand Council of Fascists.
56Fascist Beliefs & Actions Mussolini controlled the economy by a planning system (syndicalism) and by creating what he called the corporate state.The state represented labor in negotiations, in industrial planning, expansion, etc.Both capital & labor were controlled by the fascists from local units throughout the whole state.Supposedly, the state represented the “collective will” of all of its citizens.
57More Fascist PoliciesThe chief economic and social problems remained unsolved by the Fascists.Mussolini believed in the inviolability of private property and thus received support from land and factory owners.In foreign policy, Mussolini aligned himself with Hitler in the Rome-Berlin Axis.
58The Lateran AccordsMussolini neutralized the Catholic Church with this agreement of 1929.Mussolini granted independent status to the Vatican in exchange for promises of non-interference from the church in all political, social, economic, and military spheres.As a result, Mussolini gained complete control of the Italian educational system.
59Foreign PolicyMussolini sent his fascist troops to intervene in the Spanish Civil War to help Franco take over Spain.Mussolini’s troops also took over the nation of Albania.Mussolini, hoping to take over more territory and avenge the 1896 defeat at Adowa, invaded Ethiopia and quickly took it over.
60Germany After WWINov. 1918: Kaiser Wilhelm was ousted and the Weimar Republic was created.Nov. 11, 1918: Germany surrendered, ending WWI.Since the Weimar Republic signed the Treaty of Versailles, it was blamed for the territorial losses and the reparations, and ruled only with the support of the military.
61The Weimar Republic Dominated by the Social Democrats Ebert was the 1st Presidentdemocratic Constitution included:PresidentReichstag (universal suffrage, proportional representation--led to gov’t by coalition)Chancellor & Cabinet (responsible to the President)Chancellor could rule by emergency decree
62Political Crisis in the Weimar Republic Opposition came from the far left (Communists/Sparticists) and the far right (Fascists).Sparticist Uprising: Jan. 1919: led by Rosa Luxemberg and Karl Liebknecht. Put down by the Freikorps (a right-wing army group)Kapp Putsch: March 1920: the far right, mostly monarchists, staged a coup, but it failed due to a general strike in Berlin.
63More Problems in Germany Right-wing radicals rebelled, mostly by secret & terrorist means, killing off many moderate political leaders.Germany faced horrible inflation and economic crisis after the French occupied the Ruhr in Jan. 1923, in response to the Germans defaulting on their reparation payments.Coalition gov’ts failed, one after the other in Germany in the early 1920’s.
64Weimar in TransitionStab-in-the-back theory: Ludendorff claimed that the gov’t had surrendered even though the army could have won.This untrue theory made people dissatisfied with the government, because they believed Ludendorff.Treaty of Rapallo: 1922: secret treaty in which the USSR allowed Germany to have an army in the USSR in return for the Germans training the Red Army.
65More Problems1923: Munich Beer Hall Putsch: Hitler & Ludendorff led a coup in a Munich Beer Hall and were arrested & imprisoned.While in jail, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf and began to plan how he would later take over Germany, so as to not fail, as he did in 1923.
66The Stresemann YearsUnder Stresemann, the Weimar government achieved some degree of solvency and stability.The Locarno Pacts: These agreements were signed by most of the European nations, but the USSR was not invited to participate.Allowed Germany to join the League of NationsGuaranteed Western, but not E. borders.
67The Rise of HitlerAlthough it seemed that Hitler’s chances of gaining power were slim in the 1920’s, the great depression changed the political climate of Germany and caused people to have a reason to listen to his promises.The Nazi party promised to regain German greatness, provide prosperity, and rise above the disgrace of Versailles.
68Hitler’s Rise, continued Hitler formed the SA (Stormtroopers) and offered a meal and a shirt to any man who would join the Nazi cause.This attracted unemployed men of all classes, especially unemployed veterans.1930 Reichstag Election: The Nazi party began to gain a significant # of seats, but did not get a majority.
69Hitler’s Rise, continued As the depression grew worse and the radicals on both ends of the spectrum grew more active, President Hindenberg was helpless to deal with the situation.Cabinets under Bruning,von Papen, and Schleicher failed to deal with the growing power of the Nazis, and Hitler used this chance to become chancellor.
70Hitler’s Rise, continued The Nazis began to march in large rallies and began to exercise public terror campaigns.The conservatives and industrialists thought Hitler was a better alternative than a communist and cautiously supported his rise.The lower middle classes supported him because he offered a way out of the depression.
71Hitler Becomes Chancellor Election of 1932:Hindenberg won the Presidency, but Hitler had a lot of support.The Nazi party gained more seats in the Reichstag, but still did not have a majority.Jan. 30, 1933: Hindenberg appointed Hitler Chancellor in a coalition cabinet.Hitler immediately began to consolidate his power.
72Hitler’s Consolidation of Power Feb. 1933: Hitler arranged for a Dutchman to burn the Reichstag building.The fire was blamed on the communists and was used as justification for kicking all of the communists out of the government.Eventually, Germany became a one-party state.
73Consolidation, continued After the Reichstag fire, Hitler invoked the emergency clause of the constitution and ruled by decree.After this, the rest of Hitler’s powers were taken by seizure, terror, and dictatorship.Hitler purged Roehm and other SA leaders in the “Night of the Long Knives,” thus ensuring his control of the Nazi party.
74Hitler’s BureaucracyMinistry of Propaganda: led by Goebbels to spread Nazi doctrinesGoering: Hitler hired him to build up a military air force.Rosenberg: hired by Hitler to further expand his anti-Semitic and Aryan supremacy theories.Hess: Hitler’s Chief Secretary who helped carry out Nazi policies
75Hitler’s Policies1934: Hindenberg died & Hitler became President. Later he took on the title “Fuehrer.”Gestapo (secret police) establishedHitler pulled Germany out of the League of Nations and began to ignore international law.The Nuremberg Laws marked the beginning of Hitler’s attempt to enforce his anti-Semitic policies.
76Hitler’s Policies, continued Hitler began to build up all branches of the military and instituted 4 year plans to step up production and building of war materials, food, and the Autobahn.To further promote his plans, Hitler instituted forced labor conscription, the abolition of unions, and the Nazi Youth.Churches were persecuted by extremist Nazis and clergy often went along with Nazi teaching out of fear of reprisals.
77Hitler’s Policies, continued Constitutional: Dictatorship under the Fuehrer; regional politics governed by local party organizations (Gaue).Administrative: All non-Aryans barred from officePolitical: one-party state; all affairs handled by the Nazi bureaucracy (called coordination or “gleichschaltung”).
78More PoliciesJudicial: The state & Nazi ideals were placed above traditional judicial precedents; punishment & arrest, as well as court procedures, were barbarized.Racial: believed in the supremacy of the Aryan race; persecution and extermination of Jews, gypsies, and other non-Aryans. Culminated in the killing of 6 million Jews in the Holocaust.
79More PoliciesReligious: Protestant & Catholic churches persecuted when they spoke out against Nazi theories; Hitler tried to substitute Nazi party events & youth groups for religious gatherings.Military: build up of the military; universal military service required; gov’t funded research to develop new weapons; highly disciplined army.
80More PoliciesCultural: The Kulturkampf was Hitler’s struggle for domination of every aspect of thought & action by the Nazi ideals.Controlled art, music, drama, etc.--usually of low quality & used for propaganda.Supported writers and musicians who expressed the greatness of the Germanic peoples (ex. Wagner)Glorified the image of the Nazi mother who stayed at home and took care of her family.
81More Policies Economic: All labor unions were outlawed. The Nazi Labor Front organized labor and served the interests of the Nazi partyAll unemployment ended by labor & military conscriptionAttempted to make Germany self-sufficient through the 4 year plans.
82Hitler’s Foreign Policy Hitler wanted to control Europe and followed the policy of Lebensraum which was originally set out in Mein Kampf.Lebensraum means living space and referred to Hitler’s attempts to expand eastward to create more living space for the German Aryans while eliminating the Slavs, who Hitler believed to be very inferior.Hitler’s foreign policy led to WWII.
83The Spanish Civil War Spanish Republic: 1931-36: very unstable. The republic was not supported by the Catholic church, the army, the conservative landowners, nor the leftist anarchists.1936: the Rightist Falange, led by General Franco, began a military coup to seize the gov’t.Franco was aided by Hitler & Mussolini.This war was a dress-rehearsal for WWII.
84The Spanish Civil War, cont’. The democratic nations of Europe did nothing. (appeasement)The USSR tried to lead a Popular Front effort against the fascists and wanted to stop them before they got any stronger.Eventually, the republic fell to Franco, assuring that Spain would not stand in the way of Fascist actions in WWII.
85Mid-war EnglandEngland was one of the “joyless victors” of WWI and faced a wide variety of problems between the wars.These problems included economic crises, political instability, disputes over the future of Ireland, and colonial difficulties.
86Economic Problems in England Had a difficult time making the transition from a war economy to a peace-time one.1920’s: high unemployment & inflationHurt badly by the Am. Stock market crash & the resulting great depressionTariff barriers all over the world created problems for British trade, as did new rivals for markets.To solve these problems, Br. adopted unemployment insurance, and old-age pensions.
87British Political Developments : Conservative cabinet with strong labor opposition.1923: Liberals & Labor unite to form a cabinet under Mac Donald, pushing the conservatives out of office.1924: Conservatives return, due to poor policies on the part of the labor party.Conservatives did try to intervene industry with subsidies, securing wages, & attempts to control labor.
88Political Instability 1928: Trades Disputes Act: gave more rights to owners in labor disputes1929: Conservatives ousted, but the labor party was then faced with the onset of the great depression.Mac Donald, Baldwin, and Chamberlain each had to deal with the rising fascist tide, economic crises, and the need for rearmament.
89The Problem of Ireland1914: Government of Ireland Bill: (to allow home rule) suspended by WWIHatred between Ulster (N, Protestant, & Pro-British) and the rest of Ireland (Catholic & pro-independence) grew intense during the war.Sinn Fein became more active & actively revolutionary (1916 Easter Rebellion), but England crushed the Irish Patriots.
90Ireland, continuedThroughout the war, Irish terrorism was a problem, and Germany subtly helped the Irish.1921: Irish Free State created with its own parliament and with allegiance to the British king and government.N. Irish guaranteed their choice of gov’t, as well.Ireland totally broke away from England in the 1930’s under De Valera. & the N. stayed with England.
91British Mandates/Protectorates Egypt: gained its independence from Britain in 1922, but Britain still dominated Egyptian economics, because it controlled the Suez Canal until its nationalization in 1956.Iraq: Britain was given “Mesopotamia” after WWI as a protectorate, but Iraq gained its independence in 1921.Britain dominated Iraqi oil fields until the 1950’s.
92PalestineDuring the war, the British promised this area to the Arabs in the McMahon Pledge, and to the Jews in the Balfour Declaration.This was the legal basis for the conflict over the Palestinian/Israeli territory which still exists, today.Jordan was created as an independent state in 1928, as was Saudi Arabia.
93British DominionsThe British Dominions of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa had all fought with Britain during WWI.1931: The Statute of Westminster:gave the dominions commonwealth status, meaning that they were free, but had the advantages of free trade & economic preference with Britain.They still recognized the Br. Monarchy& were dependent upon Br for protection & leadership.
94Midwar FranceFrance lost more property, wealth, and population than any other nation in WWI.After the war, they had a wide variety of economic, political, and international problems caused by the war.
95French Economic Problems France hoped to pay for the rebuilding of their destroyed lands & cities with German reparations, but it was obvious by the mid-1920’s that Germany could not pay.1923: France retaliated against the German default by invading the Ruhr (a German industrial area).This invasion destroyed the German economy & also hurt France.
96French Economic Problems 1924: Dawes Plan:reduced the German reparation payments, making them dependent upon the German GNPFrance was required to leave the Ruhr.1929: Young Plan:Eased German payments even more, after the depression began to set in.1932: Hoover Moratorium:Suspended reparations payments (became permanent)
97More ProblemsThese plans all caused great resentment, because France was deprived of the $$$ it needed to rebuild.Germany appeared to be getting off easy, not having to pay for the damages she caused.When the great depression hit in France, it was extremely severe, because the French economic base was so weak.
98French Foreign PolicyFrench foreign policy was dominated by the search for security, between the wars.President Poincare did the following to secure France from German attack:Secret pact with Belgium: 1920Secret pact with Poland: 1921Secret pacts with Czech, Yugoslavia, and Romania:
99French Foreign PolicyMaginot Line: built under Poincare’s administration on the French-German border to protect from German invasion.Failure because it did not cover the Belgian border, and because all the guns were fixed facing Germany.President Briand signed the Locarno Pacts which secured the Fr-Ger borders (1925) & the Kellogg-Briand Pact which outlawed war (1928)
100French Political Problems Unstable government (Political Turnstile) with continually changing ruling party/President.Many political scandals (ex. Stravinsky affair 1933) discredited the gov’t.Many radical parties began to grow in the face of political and economic crisis.Major disagreement over whether to appease Hitler or join the Popular Front with the USSR.
101Political ProblemsLeon Blum: French socialist who promoted a popular front government.Wanted to intervene in the Spanish civil war but had no support to do so.Wanted to nationalize some French industries & businesses but this was unpopular among the middle & upper classes.Fell to Daladier’s gov’t due to his inability to deal with political & economic problems (“Better Hitler than Blum”)
102THE ROAD TO WWIIMany factors during the mid-war years led to war. These included:Economic Rivalry: high protective tariffs cut down on free trade (esp. hurt nations w/o colonial markets), great depression hurt markets, resurgence of economic nationalism.
103More Problems Failure of the League of Nations: Didn’t have the power to enforce its decisions and was powerless to prevent war.Economic sanctions could be imposed by the League, but it could only recommend that member nations abide by these.Member nations only abided by League decisions if they furthered their own interestsUS did not join the League of Nations..
104The League of NationsThe LON was discredited by its failure in the following places:1931: Japanese invasion of Manchuria (LON did nothing to prevent Japan’s action)1935: Italian invasion of Ethiopia: The LON applied economic sanctions but member nations refused to abide by them.1935: German rearmament: Ignored by the LON1936: German militarization of the Rhineland: the allies protested, but the LON did nothing.
105The Failure of Versailles Many historians believe that German resentment of Versailles helped start WWII.Many Germans believed:The war guilt clause was unfairIt was unfair that terms were dictated to them without any negotiationThe treaty was primarily responsible for their economic distressThe treaty prevented them from having adequate protection from neighbors.
106Hitler’s Road to War 1935: German rearmament 1936: German occupation of the Rhineland1938: Austrian anschluss (Germany took over Austria with the help of Dollfuss).: German & Italian participation in the Spanish Civil War.
107More Steps Toward WarMarch 1938: Munich Conference: Hitler was given the Sudetenland in return for a promise that he would not annex the rest of Czechoslovakia.Hitler threatened to declare war if he didn’t get the SudetenlandSept. 1938: Hitler invaded Prague & annexed the rest of Czechoslovakia.The allies responded by agreeing to protect Poland, Romania, & Greece.
108WarAugust 1939: Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact: 10 year non-aggression pact between the USSR & Hitler which secretly split Poland between the two nations and gave the Baltic states to the USSR (Cleared the way for Hitler’s invasion of Poland).Sept. 1, 1939: Hitler invaded Poland, quickly conquering it.In response, the allies declared war.
109WWII Very little happened in the fall of 1939. Winter War: 1940: USSR vs. FinlandUS still remained neutral, but began to follow “cash & carry policies” for allies.June 1940: France fell to the Nazis: Vichy France created under Marshall Petain.US started Lend-LeaseDec. 7, 1941: Pearl Harbor bombedUS enters WWII
110WWIIBy early 1942, both Japanese & German conquests were astounding & it appeared that the axis powers might win the war.Allied powers, esp. with the help of the US, had greater resources & eventually wore down the axis.By 1943, 47 nations were fighting against the axis powers.
111The Russian FrontJune 1941: Germany invaded the USSR and headed for Moscow.This action was eventually halted due to the terrible winter conditions and the scorched earth policy of the Russians.June 1942: German offensive aimed at capturing S. Russia.Very successful, at first.Finally stopped at the Battle of Stalingrad
112The Battle of Stalingrad The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the Eastern front of the war.After this battle, the Russians were on the offensive and never lost another major battle to the Germans.Russia captured over 300,000 German soldiers who became Russian prisoners of war.The Russians entered Berlin in April, 1945.
113The Mediterranean Front After Italian armies in N. Africa were defeated by the British, Germany greatly strengthened its Afrika Korps which was led by General Rommel.Rommel was the “desert fox”June 1942: German troops tried to capture the Suez Canal.After losing many battles, the British finally defeated Rommel at the Battle of El Alamein and saved the Suez Canal.
114North AfricaGeneral Montgomery (Br) counter-attacked in Oct 1942 and forced the axis troops to retreat westward toward French Africa.American forces under Eisenhower landed in French N. Africa in Nov and the two armies trapped the axis powers, forcing a surrender in May, 1943.
115ItalyJuly 1943: Allied armies under Eisenhower’s command invaded Sicily and won it, despite determined German resistance.The fall of Sicily resulted in Mussolini’s fall in Italy, but he was reestablished by Hitler in N. Italy.As soon as Sicily was secured, the allies invaded S. Italy and Italy surrendered.
116Italy, continuedDespite the surrender of Italy, fighting was brutal and progress was slow for the allies, because German troops in Italy fought to the death.The Battle of Anzio was a major turning point in the Italian campaign, and with Anzio’s fall, Rome soon was in allied hands. (June, 1944)Mussolini was executed by the Italian population.
117The Sea WarThe allies relied on resources from the US, but military & other supplies were in danger of never reaching Europe since travel at sea was imperiled by German subs.Allied innovations, such as radar, traveling in convoys, and the use of anti-submarine planes cut down on the numbers of allied ships sunk.
118The Air WarBritain was subject to continuous bombings early in the war (Battle of Britain--1940), but Germany suffered great destruction after 1942 when allied bombing of Germany increased.Allied targets in Germany were usually factories, railroads, & military & naval bases.Allies also targeted major German cities.
119D-DayJune 6, 1944: D-Daya huge allied army under the command of General Eisenhower landed on the beaches of Normandy and established a beachhead.Throughout the following months, the Germans were gradually pushed east and France began to be liberated.Spring 1945: the allies crossed the Siegfried Line & entered the Rhineland.
120VE-Day May 8, 1945: Victory Europe Day The allied armies were advancing from the western front and the Russian armies had entered Berlin.Germany surrendered unconditionally, after Hitler committed suicide in his bunker.Allied governments around the world celebrated the victory.
121War in the PacificJune 1942: Battle of Midway: Japanese fleet suffered a major loss to the US.August 1942: US took the offensive & began the strategy of island hopping.Fall 1944: under the command of General MacArthur, the US invaded the Philippines & routed the Japanese fleet at the Battle of Leyte Gulf.
122US Victory in the Pacific By late 1944, the US secured both control of the air and of the sea.Battle of Okinawa: After its seizure, Okinawa was used to bomb the home islands of Japan.The dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima & Nagasaki brought the surrender of Japan on August 14, 1945.VJ Day (Victory Japan Day)
123The Atlantic Charter Atlantic Charter: August 1940: FDR & Churchill met in the Atlantic and issued a statement by which peace would eventually be established.It called for self-determination of liberated areas after the warIt stated that neither the US nor Britain were interested in territorial gain, as a result of the war.
124The Teheran Conference The Teheran Conference: Dec. 1943:The Big Three: FDR, Churchill, & Stalin met to coordinate war plans in Europe.The W. allies agreed to open a 2nd front in Europe, but did not do so until June, 1944.This caused great animosity on the part of Stalin who was valiantly fighting off the Germans in the Southern USSR.
125The Yalta Conference Yalta Conference: Feb. 1945: Big three: Churchill, Roosevelt, StalinFinal decisions were made by the Allies concerning the impending defeat of Germany.Agreed to allow the USSR to liberate Berlin.Agreed on the division of Germany after the war.Agreed that liberated areas would be allowed to hold free elections to choose a new gov’t after the war.Agreed to hold the post-war Nuremberg trials.
126The Potsdam Conference Potsdam Conference: July-August 1945Big Three: Stalin, Truman, & Churchill/AtleeAgreed to carry out the Yalta provisionsAgreed to the actual terms of the division of GermanyAgreed to adjust the borders of Germany & Poland to the USSR’s favorAgreed to de-Nazify & demilitarize GermanyAgreed to reparationsThe USSR agreed to enter the Pacific war.