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1 Those who can do. Those who understand teach. Those who teach assess.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Those who can do. Those who understand teach. Those who teach assess."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Those who can do. Those who understand teach. Those who teach assess.

2 2 Choosing Test Items There are no perfect items. Regional Collaboratives February 12, 2007 presented by Virginia Malone

3 3 Todays Questions Why test? What is being tested? What makes some test items better than others?

4 4 Why Test?

5 5

6 6 It is kind of nice to know why you do what you do.

7 7 Major Reasons for Testing DiagnosticComparative To standards (criteria base) To standards (criteria base) To others (norm reference) To others (norm reference)

8 8 What is being tested?

9 9 What do we want to learn from the test? Who knows the science Who knows the science and who does not. and who does not. NOT who is a good reader and who is not NOT who is a good reader and who is not NOT who a good test taker and who is not NOT who a good test taker and who is not

10 10 Need Test Blueprint Assure that what should be taught is tested. Assure a balanced coverage of Performance Objectives.

11 11 Test Blueprint Define what tests will cover. Guide for reporting. Keep test forms parallel. Pre/post tests Pre/post tests

12 12 What will be reported? What will be reported? Strands Strands Concepts Concepts Performance Objectives Performance Objectives Vocabulary Vocabulary 5 items for percent correct score 10 items for scaled scores

13 13 One Type of Blueprint TEKSNumberKnowledgeItems Application Items etc.

14 14 What makes some test items better than others? There is no such thing as a perfect item. There is no such thing as a perfect item.

15 15 Thought Provoking Test Items Require the use of both knowledge and skills. Require the use of both knowledge and skills. May cover more than one TEKS. May cover more than one TEKS. Go beyond reading and recalling. Go beyond reading and recalling.

16 16 The ixleb was heb. That narf, the illby ixleb summit and was all domini. Where was its zomba? The ixleb zanked and then izzly zonched for its zomba from the hightow. It zonched because an uga of dow filled that narf er - dow of the dumbing tonto's bleer. 1. What was the ixleb? 2. When did the illby ixleb summit? 3. Who was the illby? 4. Where did the ixleb zank and zonch from? 5. Why did the ixleb izzly zonch?

17 17 Appropriate Reading Level Reading levels as low as possible. Reading levels as low as possible. Sentence structure simple. Sentence structure simple. Words other than science should be as simple as possible. Words other than science should be as simple as possible. Short sentences rather than long. Short sentences rather than long. Avoid there… Avoid there…

18 18 More than Rote Memory poor Which of these is present in eukaryotic cells, but not prokarotic cells? A. a cytoplasmic membrane B. a chromosome C. a nucleous * D. a cell wall

19 19 Application to new situation better A cell is isolated that contains a cytoplasmic fluid phospholipid membrane, a cell wall, and a single circular chromosome. This cell most likely belongs to which type of organism? A. a plant A. a plant B. a prokaryote * C. a protozoan D. a fungus

20 20 Recall Objective: Identify the six most common elements in living things. poor Which of these is the most common element in living things? Which of these is the most common element in living things? A.Iron B.Sulfur C.Calcium D.Carbon *

21 21 better but lots of reading better but lots of reading Some students saw some white salt (NaCl) crystals at the edge of a drop of water. As the water evaporated the salt crystals became bigger and more of them appeared in the dish. All of the following would seem to indicate that the crystals are alive EXCEPT the fact that the crystals -- Some students saw some white salt (NaCl) crystals at the edge of a drop of water. As the water evaporated the salt crystals became bigger and more of them appeared in the dish. All of the following would seem to indicate that the crystals are alive EXCEPT the fact that the crystals -- A. grow in size. B. lack hydrogen. * C. appear to reproduce. D. contain chlorine.

22 22 Graphics can simplify and engage. Graphics can simplify and engage. The diagram shows salt crystals that appeared in a dish after salt water evaporated. Which of these shows that the salt is not alive? The diagram shows salt crystals that appeared in a dish after salt water evaporated. Which of these shows that the salt is not alive? A. The size of the crystals increased. B. They lack hydrogen. * C. They appear to reproduce. D. They contain chlorine.

23 23 Use graphics to simplify not to decorate. Poor The picture shows a mouse. Mice have fur and feed their young milk. Mice belong with what group? A Mammals B Insects C Fish D Birds

24 24 Use graphics to simplify not to decorate. Better Mice have fur and feed their young milk. Mice belong with what group? Mice have fur and feed their young milk. Mice belong with what group? A Mammals A Mammals B Insects B Insects C Fish C Fish D Birds D Birds Grade level and ELL considerations

25 25 Alignment to Objectives Objective: Understand the transfer of heat. poor Which temperature is equivalent Which temperature is equivalent of 273 K? of 273 K? A. 0 o CB. 32 o F C. 100 o CD o C

26 26 Objective: Understand the transfer of heat. better Which diagram correctly shows the direction of net heat transfer? Which diagram correctly shows the direction of net heat transfer?

27 27 Avoid tricky questions or two justifiable correct choices poor Which of these shows the greatest evidence of erosion? Which of these shows the greatest evidence of erosion? A. A mountain range B. A canyon C. A delta D. A meteor crater

28 28 better Which of these landforms is the result of erosion caused by primarily by water? A A volcano B A canyon C A meteor crater D A sand dune

29 29 Avoid the Use of You poor Which of these would you do if a student asked you to help them on a test? A. Reprimand the student. B. Try to help the student without giving away the answer. away the answer. C. Ask the student to stay after school for more help for more help D. Remind the student that you are not allowed to help on the test. not allowed to help on the test.

30 30 Better According to the directions for administering the test, which of these should a teacher do if a student asks for help on the test? According to the directions for administering the test, which of these should a teacher do if a student asks for help on the test? A. Reprimand the student. B. Try to help the student without giving away the answer. C. Ask the student to stay after school for more help D. Remind the student that you are not allowed to help on the test. *

31 31 Items should provide focus. Poor The earth is – The earth is – A. spherical more or less B. made up of elements C. part of the solar system D. the third rock from the sun

32 32 Providing Focus Makes It Clear What a Student Is Being Asked to Do. Providing Focus Makes It Clear What a Student Is Being Asked to Do. better Which of these best describes the shape of the earth? Which of these best describes the shape of the earth? A. An oblate spheroid B. A circle C. A torus D. A lumpy sphere

33 33 Items should avoid the use of negatives. poor Which of these is not a characteristic of animals? Which of these is not a characteristic of animals? A. They eat other organisms. B. They have no chlorophyll. C. They do not make their own food. D. They have cell walls.*

34 34 better Which of these is a characteristic that all animals have? A. Four legs B. Food getting behavior* C. Chlorophyll D.Blood

35 35 Items should not clue other items Vitamin B, found in rice hulls, helps prevent-- A. beriberi* B. scurvy C. measles D. botulism As westerners introduced better milling techniques to remove rice hulls, natives of south sea islands began to develop beriberi due to a lack of -- A. calcium B. a vitamin * C. citric acid D. protein

36 36 Items should not require knowledge of the correct answer to a previous question. 1. At what point on this diagram is winter in North America represented? 2. During what season in North America is the sun closest to Earth?

37 37 Options should be in logical order. Which seeds are probably the slowest to germinate? A. Mango* B. Tomato C. Peach D. Watermelon Which seeds are probably the slowest to germinate? A. Watermelon B. Tomato C. Mango* D. Peach

38 38 Rationales for distractors. What is the greatest percent of weed control in this investigation? What is the greatest percent of weed control in this investigation? A. 55 the lowest value shown A. 55 the lowest value shown B. 85 the greatest value for single treatment B. 85 the greatest value for single treatment C. 90 The greatest value C. 90 The greatest value D. 200 Just a number no justifiable rationale D. 200 Just a number no justifiable rationale

39 39 The question must have one clearly correct answer. Tundras and taigas are found at high latitudes, but similar biomes can also be found – A. at high altitudes* B. at high longitude C. along coastlines D. in the interior of continents

40 40 The options should be free of repetitious information. poor When is the earth farthest from the sun? A. During the spring in the Northern Hemisphere B. During the summer in the Northern Hemisphere C. During the fall in the Northern Hemisphere D. During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere

41 41 better During what season in North America is Earth farthest from the sun? A. Spring B. Summer* C. Winter D. Fall

42 42 When possible, items should be complete questions. poor poor The test item type that is most efficient and reliable is the – The test item type that is most efficient and reliable is the – A. Multiple Choice B. Constructed Response B. Constructed Response C. Matching C. Matching D. True/false

43 43 Complete Questions better better Which of these is the most efficient and reliable type of test item on a 30 item test? Which of these is the most efficient and reliable type of test item on a 30 item test? A. Multiple Choice B. Constructed Response B. Constructed Response C. Matching C. Matching D. True/false

44 44 Distractors should be plausible. poor Which of these is a planet in our solar system? Which of these is a planet in our solar system? A. Water A. Water B. Mars B. Mars C. An asteroid C. An asteroid D. Dirt D. Dirt No real rationale for answers

45 45 Plausible distractors better Which of these is a planet in our solar system? Which of these is a planet in our solar system? A. The sun A. The sun B. The moon B. The moon C. The planet Mars C. The planet Mars D. The comet Halley D. The comet Halley

46 46 Options parallel in structure and degree of specificity. Options parallel in structure and degree of specificity. poor Which of the following is a compound? A. Kinetic energy B. Wind that is blowing C. Pure distilled water* D. A soft drink like Pepsi

47 47 Parallel Options better Which of the following is a compound? A. Sulfur B. Iron C. Water* D. Hydrogen

48 48 The options should be free of repetitious information. poor When is the earth farthest from the sun? A. During the spring in the Northern Hemisphere B. During the summer in the Northern Hemisphere* C. During the fall in the Northern Hemisphere D. During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere

49 49 better During what season in North America is the earth farthest from the sun? A. Spring B. Summer* C. Winter D. Fall

50 50 Items should not contain options that are subsumed by other options. poor poor A patient had a high fever, a greater blood pressure on the right side of his body than his left. He was loosing about one pound a day. Which of these caused this person to become ill? A. HIV B. vasculitis* C. circulatory illness D.an infection

51 51 Items should not contain options that are subsumed by other options. better better A patient had a high fever, a greater blood pressure on the right side of his body than his left. He was loosing about one pound a day. Which of these caused this person to become ill? A. elephantiasis B. vasculitis* C. gastritis D.pneumonia *

52 52 Options should not be opposites of one another. poor What time will it be on the side of the earth facing the sun? A.Daytime B.Nighttime C.2:00 A.M. D.11:07 P.M.

53 53 better What causes there to be nighttime on Earth? A.One side of Earth is facing away from the Sun. B. The Earth revolves around to the back side of the Sun. C. The sun moves to the daylight side of Earth. D. The sun stops sending light toward Earth.

54 54 Wording and/or art must be clear. Which of these models shows the orbit of the Earth? Wording and/or art must be clear. Which of these models shows the orbit of the Earth?

55 55 Factual information should be accurate and logical. Factual information should be accurate and logical. Onion root do not generally grow to a length of 300 centimeters and even if they did they would not grow as fast as indicated by the graph.

56 56 Does the writer have a misconception? Five-fingers occur more commonly in any human population than six fingers. The five-finger trait is probably -- Five-fingers occur more commonly in any human population than six fingers. The five-finger trait is probably -- A. dominant* B. recessive C. hybrid D. incomplete

57 57 NOTE Every item can be improved. Every item can be improved. Better in this presentation does not equate to good. Better in this presentation does not equate to good.

58 58 Loricifera Use a Checklist to Explain How You Arrive at Your Answers

59 59 Loriciferans Answering questions without knowing much about the subject

60 60 1. Which of the following is a characteristic unique to the phylum Loricifera? A. Multicellularity B. Small body structure C. A flexible feeding tube that can be retracted into the organism D. Multiple spines

61 61 2. All Loriciferans are – A. Single cellular B. Multicellular C. Colorful D. Hungry

62 62 3. What is the level of classification for Loriciferans? A. Kingdom B. Phylum C. Genus D. Species

63 63 4. All of these are places Loriciferans can be found EXCEPT – A. sediments B. artic ocean sands C. ocean coastal deposits D. in the needles of pine trees D. in the needles of pine trees

64 64 5. Who named the phylum Loricifera? A. Reinhardt Kristensen, a Smithsonian Postdoctoral Fellow B. Carl Linnaeus, a Postdoctoral Fellow C. Feras Feras, a Lorci Postdoctoral Fellow D. A Postdoctoral Fellow

65 65 6. Loriciferans are most closely associated with an -- a. glacier c. ocean a. glacier c. ocean b. river D. storm b. river D. storm

66 66 7. What is the source of energy for Loriciferans? A. Snow B. Meiofauna C. Phyla C. Phyla D. Cars D. Cars

67 67 8. Which of these do you think is the most important phylum? A. Phylum Arthropoda B. Phylum Loricifera C. Phylum Chordata D. Phylum Platyhelminthes

68 68 9. Loricifera larvae 1 and 2 are moving toward the grain of sand. If they start at the same time and arrive at the next grain of sand at the same moment, which one moved the fastest? A. 2 moved faster than 1 B. 1 moved faster than 2 C. 1 and 2 moved at the same speed D. 1 moved slower than 2

69 Which of these is not a characteristic of the producers Loriciferas eat? A. They are able to make their own food. B. They lack photosynthetic pigments. C. They do not require carbon dioxide at night. D. They give off oxygen when it is not dark.

70 What type of fauna is most appealing to Loriciferans? A. deer B. meiofauna A. deer B. meiofauna C. fish D. flowers C. fish D. flowers

71 Loriciferans are approximately 0.3 mm long. If 8 loriciferans were placed side by side they would extend approximately how many millimeters? A. 0.1 mm B. 2.4 mm A. 0.1 mm B. 2.4 mm C. 5.5 mm D. 1.6 mm C. 5.5 mm D. 1.6 mm

72 Which of the following pieces of equipment would be required to calculate the density of the water surrounding the sand in which the Loriciferans live? A. Balance and graduated cylinder B. Graduated cylinder and burner C. Thermometer and balance D. Balance and volumetric flask

73 Which of these is the main function of the ovaries of adult Loriciferans? A. Male A. Male B. Eggs B. Eggs C. Food C. Food D. Larva D. Larva

74 What is the function of the protonephridium? A. To produce digestive enzymes A. To produce digestive enzymes B. To eliminate metabolic waste B. To eliminate metabolic waste C. To pump blood D. To act as a primitive eye

75 What type of compounds have a multitude of different functions in Loriciferans including providing structural support within cells and catalyzing chemical reactions and facilitating diffusion through the plasma membrane and allowing cell recognition through its unique structure? A. mitochondria B. proteins A. mitochondria B. proteins C. ribosomes D. cells C. ribosomes D. cells

76 In the Loriciferans ecosystem energy flows from producers to primary consumers to Loriciferans. More energy flows from producers to primary consumers in the Loriciferans ecosystem than in a forest ecosystem where there is thick vegetation. Why is this? AForest plants receive more sunlight than aquatic photosynthetic organisms. BPlants in forests put more energy into wood and other hard-to-digest biomass. CAnimals in oceans perform less cellular respiration than animals in forests. DProducers are less able to harvest the light energy in forests than in oceans.

77 77 Well Constructed Test Items Match the objective. Match the objective. Do not give away the answer. Do not give away the answer. Do not favor the test wise student. Do not favor the test wise student. Do not favor the good reader over the good social studies, math, or science student. Do not favor the good reader over the good social studies, math, or science student.

78 78 Well Constructed Test Items Avoid the use of negative words in the stem and/or options. Avoid the use of negative words in the stem and/or options. Have responses in logical order. Have responses in logical order. Have one clearly correct answer. Have one clearly correct answer. Are factually correct. Are factually correct. Make it clear what the student is being asked to do. Make it clear what the student is being asked to do.

79 79 Well Constructed Options Parallel in degree of specificity. Parallel in degree of specificity. Parallel in length Parallel in length Parallel in grammatical structure. Parallel in grammatical structure.

80 80 Well Constructed Options Free of excess repetition Free of excess repetition Do not subsume other options Do not subsume other options Not opposite of one another Not opposite of one another Have rationales for the distractors Have rationales for the distractors

81 81 Did you Learn? Why test? What is being tested? What makes some test items better than others? There are no perfect items.

82 82 The fatal pedagogical error… The fatal pedagogical error… to throw answers like stones at the heads of those who have not yet asked the questions. to throw answers like stones at the heads of those who have not yet asked the questions. Paul Tillich

83 83 A Test A Day Keeps Students Away

84 84 Teachers should not have to put aside good instruction to prepare for the test. Teachers should not have to put aside good instruction to prepare for the test.Unknown

85 85 Every test question can be improved.

86 86 Every student can learn.

87 87 Every teacher can improve.

88 88 Every school can become a center of excellence.

89 89 No one said it will be easy. There are no short cuts.

90 90 The Road to Success Is Always Under Construction.

91 91 For more information Easy to follow examples of test items Strengths and weaknesses of various strategies. Provides examples of poor and better selected response items For more questions For more questions


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