9 What do we want to learn from the test? Who knows the scienceand who does not.NOT who is a good reader and who is notNOT who a good test taker and who is notUniversal Design - Fairness
10 Need Test Blueprint Assure that what should be taught is tested. Assure a balanced coverage of Performance Objectives.
11 Test Blueprint Define what tests will cover. Guide for reporting. Keep test forms parallel.Pre/post tests
12 What will be reported? Strands Concepts Performance Objectives Vocabulary5 items for percent correct score10 items for scaled scoresStandards or outcomes All this based on math and reading. Highly suspect in survey tests like science and social studies.
13 One Type of Blueprint TEKS Number Knowledge Items Application Items 1.2152.738etc.
14 What makes some test items better than others? There is no such thing as a perfect item.
15 Thought Provoking Test Items Require the use of both knowledge and skills.May cover more than one TEKS.Go beyond reading and recalling.Have to choose the best fit TEKS
16 2. When did the illby ixleb summit? 3. Who was the illby? The ixleb was heb. That narf, the illby ixleb summit and was all domini. Where was its zomba? The ixleb zanked and then izzly zonched for its zomba from the hightow. It zonched because an uga of dow filled that narf er - dow of the dumbing tonto's bleer.1. What was the ixleb?2. When did the illby ixleb summit?3. Who was the illby?4. Where did the ixleb zank and zonch from?5. Why did the ixleb izzly zonch?What are you testing
17 Appropriate Reading Level Reading levels as low as possible.Sentence structure simple.Words other than science should be as simple as possible.Short sentences rather than long.Avoid “there…”
18 More than Rote Memory poor Which of these is present in eukaryotic cells, but not prokarotic cells?A. a cytoplasmic membraneB. a chromosomeC. a nucleous *D. a cell wall
19 Application to new situation betterA cell is isolated that contains a cytoplasmic fluid phospholipid membrane, a cell wall, and a single circular chromosome. This cell most likely belongs to which type of organism?A. a plantB. a prokaryote *C. a protozoanD. a fungus
20 Recall Which of these is the most common element in living things? Objective: Identify the six most common elements in living things.poorWhich of these is the most common element in living things?IronSulfurCalciumCarbon *Even low cognitive level TEKS can be moved up.
21 better but lots of reading Some students saw some white salt (NaCl) crystals at the edge of a drop of water. As the water evaporated the salt crystals became bigger and more of them appeared in the dish. All of the following would seem to indicate that the crystals are alive EXCEPT the fact that the crystals --grow in size.lack hydrogen. *appear to reproduce.contain chlorine.Of this set of questions which one is best and why.
22 The size of the crystals increased. They lack hydrogen. * Graphics can simplify and engage.The diagram shows salt crystals that appeared in a dish after salt water evaporated. Which of these shows that the salt is not alive?The size of the crystals increased.They lack hydrogen. *C. They appear to reproduce.D. They contain chlorine.Of this set of questions which one is best and why.
23 Use graphics to simplify not to decorate. PoorThe picture shows a mouse. Mice have fur and feed their young milk. Mice belong with what group?A Mammals B InsectsC Fish D BirdsNot a big idea anyway
24 Use graphics to simplify not to decorate. BetterMice have fur and feed their young milk. Mice belong with what group?A MammalsB InsectsC FishD BirdsGrade level and ELL considerationsNot a big idea anyway
25 Alignment to Objectives Objective: Understand the transfer of heat.poorWhich temperature is equivalentof 273 K?A. 0 oC B. 32 oFC oC D oCWhat is the F doing in here?
26 Objective: Understand the transfer of heat. betterWhich diagram correctly shows the direction of net heat transfer?Could have asked. The direction of heat flow is always from … or use application. Should have a real world application instead of squares
27 Avoid tricky questions or two justifiable correct choices poorWhich of these shows the greatest evidence of erosion?A mountain rangeA canyonA deltaA meteor craterStudents could justify more than one answer. All can be justified
28 betterWhich of these landforms is the result of erosion caused by primarily by water?A A volcanoB A canyonC A meteor craterD A sand dune
29 Avoid the Use of “You”poorWhich of these would you do if a student asked you to help them on a test?A. Reprimand the student.B. Try to help the student without givingaway the answer.C. Ask the student to stay after schoolfor more helpD. Remind the student that you arenot allowed to help on the test.You depends on the person doing the answering
30 BetterAccording to the directions for administering the test, which of these should a teacher do if a student asks for help on the test?A. Reprimand the student.B. Try to help the student without giving away the answer.C. Ask the student to stay after school for more helpD. Remind the student that you are not allowed to help on the test. *
31 Items should provide focus. PoorThe earth is –A. spherical more or lessB. made up of elementsC. part of the solar systemthe third rock from the sunAll correct
32 Providing Focus Makes It Clear What a Student Is Being Asked to Do. betterWhich of these best describes the shape of the earth?A. An oblate spheroidB. A circleC. A torusD. A lumpy sphere
33 Items should avoid the use of negatives. poorWhich of these is not a characteristic of animals?A. They eat other organisms.B. They have no chlorophyll.C. They do not make their own food.D. They have cell walls.*All of these are characteristic of animals except –
34 betterWhich of these is a characteristic that all animals have?A. Four legsB. Food getting behavior*C. ChlorophyllBlood
35 Items should not clue other items Vitamin B, found in rice hulls, helps prevent--A. beriberi*B. scurvyC. measlesD. botulismAs westerners introduced better milling techniques to remove rice hulls, natives of south sea islands began to develop beriberi due to a lack of --A. calciumB. a vitamin *C. citric acidD. proteinWho does well the good reader.
36 Items should not require knowledge of the correct answer to a previous question. 1. At what point on this diagram is winter in North America represented?2. During what season in North America is the sun closest to Earth?All art should be double checked.
37 Options should be in logical order. Which seeds are probably the slowest to germinate?Mango* B. TomatoC. Peach D. WatermelonWhich seeds are probably the slowest to germinate?A. WatermelonB. TomatoC. Mango*D. PeachWas this growth after germination. Cannot really answer the question with the information given because once germinated some grow faster than others
38 Rationales for distractors. What is the greatest percent of weed control in this investigation?A the lowest value shownB the greatest value for single treatmentC The greatest valueD Just a number no justifiable rationale
39 The question must have one clearly correct answer. Tundras and taigas are found at high latitudes, but similar biomes can also be found –A. at high altitudes*B. at high longitudeC. along coastlinesD. in the interior of continentsAll answers are possible even though the correct response is the “best” answer this is not fair testing practice.
40 The options should be free of repetitious information. poorWhen is the earth farthest from the sun?A. During the spring in the Northern HemisphereB. During the summer in the Northern HemisphereC. During the fall in the Northern HemisphereD. During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere
41 betterDuring what season in North America is Earth farthest from the sun?A. SpringB. Summer*C. WinterD. Fall
42 When possible, items should be complete questions. poorThe test item type that is most efficient and reliable is the –A. Multiple ChoiceB. Constructed ResponseC. MatchingD. True/false
43 Complete Questions better Which of these is the most efficient and reliable type of test item on a 30 item test?A. Multiple ChoiceB. Constructed ResponseC. MatchingD. True/false
44 Distractors should be plausible. poorWhich of these is a planet in our solar system?A. WaterB. MarsC. An asteroidD. DirtNo real rationale for answers
45 Plausible distractors betterWhich of these is a planet in our solar system?A. The sunB. The moonC. The planet MarsD. The comet HalleyBig time clue
46 Options parallel in structure and degree of specificity. poorWhich of the following is a compound?A. Kinetic energyB. Wind that is blowingC. Pure distilled water*D. A soft drink like PepsiOne sentence one with Like on energy others contain matter One is active others passive.
47 Parallel Options better Which of the following is a compound? A. SulfurB. IronC. Water*D. HydrogenBut just recall
48 The options should be free of repetitious information. poorWhen is the earth farthest from the sun?A. During the spring in the Northern HemisphereB. During the summer in the Northern Hemisphere*C. During the fall in the Northern HemisphereD. During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere
49 betterDuring what season in North America is the earth farthest from the sun?A. SpringB. Summer*C. WinterD. Fall
50 Items should not contain options that are subsumed by other options. poorA patient had a high fever, a greater blood pressure on the right side of his body than his left. He was loosing about one pound a day. Which of these caused this person to become ill?A. HIVB. vasculitis*C. circulatory illnessan infectionThree are sedimentary allowing student to say B must be the answer.
51 Items should not contain options that are subsumed by other options. betterA patient had a high fever, a greater blood pressure on the right side of his body than his left. He was loosing about one pound a day. Which of these caused this person to become ill?A. elephantiasisB. vasculitis*C. gastritispneumonia *Bit of cluing. Good test taker eliminates distractors.
52 Options should not be opposites of one another. poorWhat time will it be on the side of the earth facing the sun?DaytimeNighttime2:00 A.M.11:07 P.M.Don’t know if this is pigment or light so no clear answer. Test wise has an advantage
53 What causes there to be nighttime on Earth? betterWhat causes there to be nighttime on Earth?A. One side of Earth is facing away from the Sun.B. The Earth revolves around to the back side of the Sun.C. The sun moves to the daylight side of Earth.D. The sun stops sending light toward Earth.Options too long
54 Wording and/or art must be clear Wording and/or art must be clear. Which of these models shows the orbit of the Earth?Since we do not know if the item is focusing on the shape of the orbit or exaggeration of the orbit a knowledgeable student will not know which to answer. Except that the only correct answer shows the planet tilt. Which was not what the question was about
55 Factual information should be accurate and logical. Onion root do not generally grow to a length of 300 centimeters and even if they did they would not grow as fast as indicated by the graph.
56 Does the writer have a misconception? Five-fingers occur more commonly in any human population than six fingers. The five-finger trait is probably --A. dominant*B. recessiveC. hybridD. incompleteOnly way to catch this is to have others review the test.
57 NOTE Every item can be improved. “Better” in this presentation does not equate to good.
58 Loricifera Use a Checklist to Explain How You Arrive at Your Answers
59 Answering questions without knowing much about the subject LoriciferansAnswering questions without knowing much about the subjectProvide handout
60 1. Which of the following is a characteristic unique to the phylum Loricifera? A. MulticellularityB. Small body structureC. A flexible feeding tube that can be retracted into the organismD. Multiple spines
61 2. All Loriciferans are –Single cellularMulticellularColorfulHungry
62 3. What is the level of classification for Loriciferans? KingdomPhylumGenusSpecies
63 4. All of these are places Loriciferans can be found EXCEPT – A. sedimentsB. artic ocean sandsC. ocean coastal depositsD. in the needles of pine trees
64 5. Who named the phylum Loricifera? A. Reinhardt Kristensen, a Smithsonian Postdoctoral FellowB. Carl Linnaeus, a Postdoctoral FellowC. Feras Feras, a Lorci Postdoctoral FellowD. A Postdoctoral Fellow
65 6. Loriciferans are most closely associated with an -- a. glacier c. oceanb. river D. storm
66 7. What is the source of energy for Loriciferans? A. SnowB. MeiofaunaC. PhylaD. Cars
67 8. Which of these do you think is the most important phylum? Phylum ArthropodaPhylum LoriciferaPhylum ChordataPhylum Platyhelminthes
68 9. Loricifera larvae 1 and 2 are moving toward the grain of sand 9. Loricifera larvae 1 and 2 are moving toward the grain of sand. If they start at the same time and arrive at the next grain of sand at the same moment, which one moved the fastest?A. 2 moved faster than 1B. 1 moved faster than 2C. 1 and 2 moved at the same speedD. 1 moved slower than 2
69 10. Which of these is not a characteristic of the producers Loriciferas eat? A. They are able to make their own food.B. They lack photosynthetic pigments.C. They do not require carbon dioxide at night.D. They give off oxygen when it is not dark.
70 10. What type of fauna is most appealing to Loriciferans? A. deer B. meiofaunaC. fish D. flowersDifferent configuration than previous stacked items.
71 11. Loriciferans are approximately 0. 3 mm long Loriciferans are approximately 0.3 mm long. If 8 loriciferans were placed side by side they would extend approximately how many millimeters?A mm B mmC mm D mm
72 12. Which of the following pieces of equipment would be required to calculate the density of the water surrounding the sand in which the Loriciferans live?A. Balance and graduated cylinderB. Graduated cylinder and burnerC. Thermometer and balanceD. Balance and volumetric flask
73 13. Which of these is the main function of the ovaries of adult Loriciferans? A. MaleB. EggsC. FoodD. Larva
74 14. What is the function of the protonephridium? A. To produce digestive enzymesB. To eliminate metabolic wasteC. To pump bloodD. To act as a primitive eye
75 15. What type of compounds have a multitude of different functions in Loriciferans including providing structural support within cells and catalyzing chemical reactions and facilitating diffusion through the plasma membrane and allowing cell recognition through its unique structure?A. mitochondria B. proteinsC. ribosomes D. cells
76 16. In the Loriciferans ecosystem energy flows from producers to primary consumers to Loriciferans. More energy flows from producers to primary consumers in the Loriciferans ecosystem than in a forest ecosystem where there is thick vegetation. Why is this?A Forest plants receive more sunlight than aquatic photosynthetic organisms.B Plants in forests put more energy into wood and other hard-to-digest biomass.C Animals in oceans perform less cellular respiration than animals in forests.D Producers are less able to harvest the light energy in forests than in oceans.
77 Well Constructed Test Items Match the objective.Do not give away the answer.Do not favor the test wise student.Do not favor the good reader over the good social studies, math, or science student.
78 Well Constructed Test Items Avoid the use of negative words in the stem and/or options.Have responses in logical order.Have one clearly correct answer.Are factually correct.Make it clear what the student is being asked to do.
79 Well Constructed Options Parallel in degree of specificity.Parallel in lengthParallel in grammatical structure.
80 Well Constructed Options Free of excess repetitionDo not subsume other optionsNot opposite of one anotherHave rationales for the distractors
81 Did you Learn? Why test? What is being tested? What makes some test items better than others?There are no perfect items.
82 The fatal pedagogical error… to throw answers like stones at the heads of those who have not yet asked the questions.Paul Tillich
88 Every school can become a center of excellence.
89 No one said it will be easy. There are no short cuts.
90 Always Under Construction. The Road to Success IsAlways Under Construction.
91 For more information Easy to follow examples of test items Easy to follow examples of test itemsStrengths and weaknesses of various strategies. Provides examples of poor and better selected response itemsFor more questions