2Developing a “plan of attack” to incorporate reading strategies. Students need to develop strategic reading behavior and build a strong, personal repertoire of reading strategies so that they can successfully use them when needed.Encouraging students to use effective reading test taking strategies will assist them with their comprehension on the FCAT 2.0 Reading Test.
3Scaffolding the language for ESL Learners All learning areas place literacy demands on learners. The language of tests may include new or unfamiliar words for ESL learners and the meanings need to be made explicit to these students. Teachers should consider some strategies to allow ESL learners to access the language of the questions. Provide opportunities for learner repetition and practice of target language. Scaffold oral language thoroughly before setting reading tasks. Accept the language offered by the learners and with positive feedback, model the Standard English version. Introduce the new terminology together with concrete activities, e.g. synonyms - have students create flash cards with a variety of synonyms. In groups students use the cards to play ‘Snap’ Encourage learners to rephrase the questions in a format that is familiar to them but still has the same meaning.
4Understanding that text features such as italics, bold print headings and sub-headings, captions and labels convey meaning, and help readers get an overview of the selection’s genre, text structure, main ideas, purpose, etc. is important.
5Strategy #1 PREVIEWING the Text Preview the text and its features (headings, words in bold print, pictures/charts with captions). Give the text a quick read over for anything that jumps out at you “skim & scan”.This strategy is for the purpose of previewing. Students will definitely need to read the selection thoroughly. Do not teach students to only skim or scan the passage.
6Teaching the meaning of words or phrases that are found in comprehension questions is critical in helping students make sense of what is being asked.
7Some examples are: Refers to Relates to Represents Sequence Shows Statement meansSuggestsSub-headingSymbolTechniquesTextThemeTitleToneVocabularyValid reasonWhat is another word for …According toAttitudesAuthorBestCaptionCuesDefinitionDescribeExtractEffectExpressionsFind evidence fromthe textIdentifyIllustratorIndicatesInferInformationInterpretItalicsIn what orderJudgmentKey words/factorLabelMain messageMain ideaMatchMeansMost likelygeneratedOpinionParagraphPhrasePurposeQuestion
8Strategy #2 Interpret and understand the language of questions Read over the questions, read them one at a time without answering them. Circle key words, phrases, and/or names in the question that require you to look for specific information in the passage.
9Predicting what the text is about helps to orientate the reader. Making Predictions encourages activereading and keep students in tuned towhat they are reading.Incorrect predictions can signal amisunderstanding that needs to beclarified.
10Strategy #3 Make A Prediction Go back to the text. Begin reading the text starting with the title. Read over all the text features, including the author’s name, any information giving the author’s credentials, footnotes, captions, etc. Make a prediction about what you think the text is about. Write it to the side of the selection’s title. Remember to go back and clarify your prediction if necessary after reading the entire selection.TitleCaptionSubheadingMap
11CHUNKING the text makes the demands on the reader’s memory more manageable. Writing key words in the margin by reflecting on each paragraph or sub-section and identifying key messages or key words at the end of each paragraph or sub-section is a useful and effective reading strategy.Using these key words or phrases to assist in locating information when answering questions is also very helpful.Some of the FCAT selections are very long. Even for capable readers, there is much to remember. Dividing the reading selection in sections or at any point where there is a natural division can make a selection easier to read and understand.
12Strategy #4 CHUNK the TEXT Divide the text into smaller chunks to make it easier to read and understand. It may be helpful to draw a line after each section you chunk.Read each chunked section and write a few words about it, a gist, or what that section is about. Circle key words, phrases, or names that you remember from the questions you previously previewed. It is important to take marginal notes to help you connect with what you are reading as you move through the selection. These notes will be useful in helping you locate information in the text, when answering questions about the selection you have read .
13Strategy #4 CHUNK the TEXT The author realizes that she has mistaken a school of sea lions for snorkelersMelina B. editor and chief N.G. vac. to Galapagos IslandAnimals on G.I. not afraid of human contact b/c its rare
14Strategy #4 CHUNK the TEXT Continue chunking the rest of the text
15Visualizing what is being read creates mental pictures in the minds of readers.Visualization helps readers engage with text in ways that make it personal and memorable.
16Strategy #5 Visualize What You Read Create a mental picture in your mind of what you have read. Try to connect the information you have read with your prior knowledge. Remember all the information you need to answer the questions is found implicitly or explicitly in the text.
17Recognizing the Author’s purpose, Perspective, or Intent is important in understanding the Essential Message.
18Strategy #6 Determine the Essential MESSAGE When you have finished reading the selection, write the Main Idea or Essential Message of the overall selection above the title.Galapagos Islands’ wildlife is important and should be protected. (M.I.)Galapagos Islands’ wildlife is important and should be protected. M.I.Even if there is no main idea question, in order to comprehend fully what the text is about, students need to determine the essential message of the piece.
19Teaching strategies to assist students in answering different types of the reading questions is an effective test taking technique.Students require a range of skills when answering reading comprehension questions. Developing strategies to assist students with managing all of the reading processes will enable them to identify and understand explicitly what the question’s cognitive demand is.
20FCAT questioningQuestions on FCAT are categorized by cognitive complexity:LowModerateHigh complexityBased on Webb’s Depth of KnowledgeBeginning in 2004, a new cognitive classification system(Webb’s Depth of Knowledge) has been used by FCAT to identify the cognitive demand associated with test items.Webb’s Depth of Knowledge levels are based on Bloom’s taxonomy.Rationale for classifying items by their level of complexity is to focus on the expectations of the item, not the ability of the student.
21Cognitive complexity Questions with low cognitive complexity: One-step problemRequire only a basic understanding of textComprise only 10-20% of FCAT“Right there” answers (QAR)Recall questions (who, what, where, when, why), retelling, summarizingExamples of skills with low complexity:Identifying correct meanings of grade-appropriate wordsLocating details in a textLocating details on graphs, charts, or diagrams
22Moderate Complexity Questions with moderate cognitive complexity: Two-step processRequire some inferenceComprise 50-70% of FCATAnswers are “between the lines”Think and Search (QAR)Author and Me (QAR)Examples of skills with moderate complexity:Using context clues to identify the meanings of unfamiliar wordsIdentifying cause-and –effectDetermining author’s purposeSummarizing major points in a text
23High complexity Questions with high cognitive complexity: Require several stepsRequire complex inferences across textsComprise 20-30% of FCATAnswers are “beyond the lines”Author and Me (QAR)On My Own (QAR)Examples of skills with high complexity:Evaluating strong vs. weak arguments in a textAnalyzing similarities and differencesDescribing and illustrating how common themes are found across texts
24QAR—Question-Answer Relationships Strategy that that allows students to see the relationships between the type of question asked, the text, and the reader’s prior knowledge.Students learn how to distinguish questions with answers that are found “in the book” (Text Explicit questions) and questions with answers that are found “in my head” (Text Implicit questions).How many of you have had students respond to a question by saying “it” isn’t in the book. According to Raphael, students who understand how questions are written do better in answering questions than students who lack this understanding. Raphael classifies questions into 2 broad categories: In the Book (Text Explicit) questionsAnd In my Head (Text Implicit) questions. With text explicit questions, information for generating the question AND the answer are found directly in the text.
25In-the-Text Questions QARIn-the-Text QuestionsRight There QuestionsThe answer is in the text; The words used in the question and the words used for the answer can usually be found in the same sentence.Think and Search QuestionsThe answer is in the text, but the words used in the question and those used for the answer are NOT in the same sentence. The student needs to think about different parts of the text and how ideas can be put together before answering the question.Emphasize that Think and Search answers are found in more than one place in the text.
26Author and You Questions In-My-Head QuestionsAuthor and You QuestionsThe answer is not explicitly in the text. The student must think about what he/she knows, what the author says, and how they fit together.On My Own QuestionsThe answer is not in the text. The answer is based on the reader’s own experiences and background knowledge.On My Own questions are not on the FCAT Test. They relate to the Florida Writes Test. When teaching In-MY Head questions, it is important to activate background knowledge.
27QAR and Bloom’s Taxonomy Right ThereThink and SearchAuthor and meOn My OwnLevel 1 KnowledgeLevel 2 Comprehension and Level 3 ApplicationLevel 4 Analysis and Level 5 SynthesisLevel 6 EvaluationInformation in the textInformation in several places in textInformation both in and out of textNotice that the cognitive tasks required in each level are very similar. For example, In Bloom’s Knowledge level the student is asked who, what, when, where, how many, list, what kind , name. These questions correspond to QAR “Right there” questions as all would be found in the text. You can continue to compare each level of the taxonomy to the same cognitive tasks demanded of the student in using QAR.Information NOT in the text but from background knowledge
28Teaching Students to Use QAR Introduce QAR using a visual aid and a short selection to demonstrate the relationships.Model identifying and answering questions at each level of QAR.With teacher guidance, students practice identifying and answering questions at each of the levels.Students apply QAR to the reading of their regular texts.For younger students or struggling readers, teachers introduce and practice one level at a time before introducing the next level.QAR is a research- based strategy.**** Remind teachers that each section of QAR can be taught individually as well as a whole.
29What the Research SaysStudents’ understanding and recall can be shaped by the types of questions to which they become accustomed (Duke and Pearson, 2002)Students’ generation of their own questions about text improves overall comprehension (Yopp, 1988; Raphael and Pearson, 1985)Provide students with ample practice of generating and answering their own FCAT like questions prior to test. This will make students more comfortable when they encounter these types of questions on the actual test.
30FCAT QUESTION TASK CARDS Exposing students to types of questions on the FCAT can be achieve with the use of the District created FCAT Task Cards.
31WATCH OUT FOR DISTRACTERS! Strategy #7ANALYZE THE QUESTION and AnswersRead each question carefully to make sure you understand what it is asking you to do. Try to determine what steps, task or thought processes the question requires in order to locate the correct answer in the text. Look back at the text and find where the correct information is located. Use your marginal notes to help you quickly find the section(s ) that the answer is most likely in. Underline the answers in the article. Next read all the answer choices before choosing an answer. Eliminate any answer choices that you know are wrong. Watch out for distracters. Choose the best answer from among the remaining choices that is supported by evidence in the selection.When you have finished your FCAT Reading Test if time permits, skim back over your answers to check for any errors.WATCH OUT FOR DISTRACTERS!
32Answers Distracters may include: incorrect reliability of information Teach students about common distracters found in FCAT answers choices.
33Answers Distracters may include: Incorrect inference or conclusion or not the MAIN one
34AnswersDistracters may include:Incorrect analysis of information
35Answers Distracters may include: Answers that are correct but not the best choice:
36AnswersDistracters may include;Incorrect method of development
37AnswersDistracters may include:Incorrect causes or effects
38AnswersDistracters may include:Wrong statements of author’s purpose
39Answers Distracters may include: Incorrect synthesis of information from multiple sources:
40Answers Distracters may include: Meaning of a word, but not, as used in context
41Have the participants determine which types of distracters are found in the answer choices.
42Remember there is no substitute for good teaching Remember there is no substitute for good teaching. Infusing Effective Reading Strategies across the curriculum, throughout the school year is the best way to ensure that students are prepared for success on the FCAT Reading Test. More importantly, it is the best way to ensure they become life long proficient readers.