Presentation on theme: "Norm-Referenced Tests and Test Scores: What does it all mean? Steven M. Koch, Ph.D. Riley Child Development Center IU School of Medicine - Department of."— Presentation transcript:
Norm-Referenced Tests and Test Scores: What does it all mean? Steven M. Koch, Ph.D. Riley Child Development Center IU School of Medicine - Department of Pediatrics
Presentation Goals Recognize areas of assessment Understand standardized test scores Learn about the new SSA Test List Identify resources on specific tests
Why do we assess children? How do we assess children? Why do I need to know about the tests? What do I need to know about the tests? What are all those scores? –And what do they mean? Where can I find information on tests? Questions asked and answered today
Why do we assess children? Guide diagnosis Determine eligibility –SSI –Medicaid waiver –Special education Monitor progress Determine treatment approach Research
How do we assess children? Four Pillars of Assessment (Sattler, 2001) –Norm-referenced tests (standardized tests) –Interviews –Observations –Informal assessment procedures Testing should be fair and culture-free
Norm-referenced tests Provide a degree of quantification of the childs functioning in a given area –Describes the childs present functioning in reference to peer group –Identifies strengths and weaknesses in area –Provides a baseline for later testing
Observations Systematic observations / data collection –Frequency counts –Incident logs Informal observations –Approach towards more difficult tasks –Generate hypotheses
Informal Assessment Non-standardized assessment approaches that test an examiners hypothesis Can further identify particular strengths and weaknesses Examples of informal assessment procedures –Reading passagesReading passages –Play-based assessment
Fair testing Fair testing does not mean the same test is administered to all individuals. The tests selected for each child should address the questions asked, and the areas of concern. The impact of other skills on performance should be minimized
Why do I need to know about all these tests?
Why do I need to know about tests? Provides an understanding of the tests which are a part of the claimants file Can provide guidance when requesting a CE –How can the CE obtain the needed information to help with the eligibility determination? –What instruments or areas of assessment would be most helpful as part of the CE?
In what areas do we assess children?
Areas assessed by norm-referenced instruments Intelligence / cognition Social / emotional Adaptive functioning Speech Oral language Academic Gross & fine motor Early childhood / global development
Intelligence / Cognition Definitions (Sattler, 2001) –Higher-level components, which include abstract reasoning, representation, problem solving, and decision making –Overt behavioral manifestations represented by effective or successful responses –Elementary processes, such as perception, sensation and attention –Executive processes –Memory –Ability to learn
Intelligence / Cognition Assessment approaches –Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: 4 –Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: 3 –Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning: 2 –Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales: 5 –Differential Abilities Scale –Bayley Scales of Infant Development: 3 –Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test
Social / Emotional Definitions –Assessment of emotional status, impact of mental disorders on functioning, and social interactions and relationships with others –Often viewed as internalizing and externalizing behaviors.
Social / Emotional Internalizing –Anxiousness, depressed mood, somatic complaints Externalizing –Hyperactivity, verbal aggression, physical aggression Other areas –Social problems, inattention, thought disturbance
Social / Emotional Assessment approaches –Mental Status Examination –Child Behavior Checklist –Behavior Assessment System for Children: 2 –Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function –Revised Childrens Manifest Anxiety Scale –Roberts Apperception Test for Children: 2 –Childrens Depression Inventory –Functional Behavior Assessment
Adaptive Functioning Definitions –The effectiveness with which individuals meet the standards of personal independence and social responsibility expected of individuals of their age and cultural group (Sattler, 2002). –Multifactorial Independent functioning, physical development, economic activity, language development, numbers & time, (pre)vocational, self-direction, responsibility, socialization (AAMR)
Oral Language The use of words and sentences to convey meaning to others. Oral language examines both the production of messages (expressive) and their receipt (receptive). Basic components –Semantics –Syntax –Morphology –Phonology –Pragmatics
Oral Language Assessment approaches –Preschool Language Scale: 4 –Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals: 4 –Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale: 3 –Test of Language Development: 3 –Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test: 3 –Rosetti Infant-Toddler Language Scale –Test of Pragmatic Language –Hawaii Early Learning Profile
Academic Definitions –The skills children learn through direct intervention or instruction (Sattler, 2001) –Commonly assessed skills include Reading individual words Reading comprehension Mathematics Spelling Written expression
Gross & Fine Motor Definitions –Gross motor refers to tasks involving the larger muscles of the body, such as the legs and trunk –Fine motor refers to tasks involving the hands and wrists –Visual-motor refers to the integration of visual and fine motor, such as handwriting –Sensory integration refers to the ability to regulate sensory input (auditory, visual, tactile, kinesthetic)
Gross & Fine Motor Assessment approaches –Peabody Developmental Motor Scales: 2 –Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency –Beery-Buktenica Test of Visual-Motor Integration: 5 –Gross Motor Function Test –The Sensory Profile
Early Childhood / Global Many instruments assessing youth in early childhood examine multiple areas of development, such as cognitive, speech, language, motor, school readiness, etc. Norm-referenced tests are not always appropriate for this age, and more curriculum-based approaches are utilized
Early Childhood / Global Assessment approaches –Bayley Scales of Infant Development: 3 –Assessment, Evaluation & Programming System –Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language Skills –Bracken Basic Concept Scale: 2 –Hawaii Early Learning Profile –Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment –Carolina Curriculum for Infants / Toddlers
What scores are provided by tests?
Types of scores Raw scores –Number of correct responses for a test –May be useful when measuring progress Standard and Scaled Scores –Normal distribution of raw scores (established mean and standard deviation) –IQ scores –T-Scores
Normal Distribution Curve Also called the bell curve (due to its shape), or the gaussian curve (after Carl Friederich Gauss)
Normal Distribution Curve Mean ( ) – average score Standard deviation ( ) – spread of scores
Normal Distribution Curve Standard deviation Population Mean = 100 SD = 15
Normal Distribution Curve Standard deviation Population Mean = 100 SD = 16
Normal Distribution Curve Standard deviation Population Mean = 10 SD = 3
Normal Distribution Curve Standard deviation Population Mean = 50 SD = 10
Types of scores Age / grade equivalents –Childs raw score in relation to average score for a given age –Often used with young children, and individuals with developmental delays –Often interpreted incorrectly
Age Equivalent == Equal raw scores leads to the same age equivalent score. However, it does NOT mean the same items were correctly answered. The second child answered items that were at a higher developmental level.
Types of scores Percentiles –Different than percentages –Provides comparison to peer group –Perform equal to or better than X% of children
Normal Distribution Curve Standard deviation Population -1 SD = 16%ile +1 SD = 84%ile
Normal Distribution Curve Standard deviation Population -2 SD = 2%ile +2 SD = 98%ile
When is a score significant? Generally, when a score is greater than 2 SD (either above or below the mean, the score is significantly different (e.g., an IQ of 70 or lower). The score can be significant if it is 2SD below OR 2SD above the mean (e.g., T-Scores on behavior checklists greater than 2SD above the mean generally indicate an area of concern.
Where can I find information on tests?
Where to get information Your medical consultants (e.g., psychologists, SLPs) Sattler, J.M. (2001). Assessment of Children: Cognitive Applications (4 th Ed.). La Mesa, CA: Sattler Publisher. Sattler, J.M. (2002). Assessment of Children: Behavioral and Clinical Applications (4 th Ed.). La Mesa, CA: Sattler Publisher. Buros Institute –Mental Measurements Yearbook –Tests in Print University libraries (e.g., IUPUI) SSA Test List
Updated list of tests (earlier list developed ca. 1991) Recently placed on SSAs intranet Provides the following information: –List of tests by area Comprehensive, screening, subarea, special population –Publisher, publication date –Description / Purpose –Standard administration time –Scores (names, types) –How information is obtained Is currently being updated
Where to get information Test Publishers –Achenbach System of Empirically Based AssessmentAchenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment –American Guidance ServiceAmerican Guidance Service –Psychological Assessment ResourcesPsychological Assessment Resources –Psychological CorporationPsychological Corporation –Riverside PublishingRiverside Publishing –Western Psychological ServicesWestern Psychological Services
For more information…. Steven M. Koch, Ph.D., HSPP Psychologist, Interdisciplinary Training Director Riley Child Development Center IU School of Medicine – Dept. of Pediatrics Riley Hospital for Children