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Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. CHAPTER 3: Standardized Tests How They Are.

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Presentation on theme: "Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. CHAPTER 3: Standardized Tests How They Are."— Presentation transcript:

1 Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. CHAPTER 3: Standardized Tests How They Are Used, Designed, and Selected Assessment in Early Childhood Education Fifth Edition Sue C. Wortham

2 Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Chapter Objectives 1.Understand how standardized tests are used with infants and young children. 2.Understand the process of standardized test design. 3.Understand the differences between test validity and test reliability. 4.Use resources and strategies for selecting and evaluating standardized tests. 5.Understand issues in selecting and using standardized tests.

3 Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Tests for Infants and Preschoolers Tests for young children have questionable validity and reliability because of infants and preschoolers short attention spans.

4 Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Screening Tests for Preschoolers Detect if a child might have a developmental problem that needs further investigation. Tests screen various developmental domains.

5 Mental Retardation Mild (55-70 IQ) Moderate (40-54) Severe (25-39) Profound (< 25) Poor adaptive skills Before age 18 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Santrock, Educational Psychology, Second Edition, Classroom Update

6 Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Diagnostic Tests for Preschoolers After a screening, tests for diagnostic assessment are administered (if needed). Adaptive behavior measures assess possible learning, social or motor disabilities. - Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) Intelligence tests measure learning potential.

7 Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales II (VABS – II) Parent/Caregiver Rating Form, Interview Form - 0 through 90 Teacher Rating Form - 3 through 21 years,11 months

8 Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Achievement Tests Determine Instructional Effectiveness National tests: compare student achievement across states to address higher standards for education identify poor instructional areas, pinpoint weaknesses in a state s instructional program and facilitate improvements State developed tests are be used at school districts to: determine each students progress provide diagnostic information on a childs needs for future instruction describe student progress between and within schools

9 Standardized Tests and Teaching Criteria for Evaluating Standardized Tests 15.9 What Is a Standardized Test? The Nature of Standardized Tests The Purposes of Standardized Tests

10 The Nature of Standardized Tests Standardized Tests Have uniform procedures for administration and scoring. Allow comparison of student scores by age, grade level, local and national norms. Attempt to include material common across most classrooms

11 Contribute to accountability Provide information about student progress and program placement Diagnose students strengths and weaknesses Provide information for planning and instruction Help in program evaluation Purposes of Standardized Tests

12 Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Steps in Standardized Test Design The following steps ensure that the test achieves its goals and purposes: specify the purpose determine the format formulate objectives test construction: write, try out, and analyze items assemble the final form administer the final test form establish norms, determine the validity and reliability develop a test manual

13 Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Steps in Standardized Test Design: Specifying the Purpose A clearly defined purpose is the framework for the construction of the test. It allows evaluation of the instrument when design and construction steps are completed. It helps explain what the test will measure, how the test results will be used, and who will take the test. It describes the population for whom the test is intended.

14 Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Steps in Standardized Test Design: Determining Test Format Format decisions are based on the purpose of the test and the characteristics of the test takers: how test items will be presented and how the test taker will respond (e.g., tests designed for very young children are usually presented orally; paper and pencil tests for older students) given as a group test or as an individual test

15 Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Steps in Standardized Test Design: Test Construction The test s purpose guides: defining test objectives writing test items for each objective assembling experimental test forms

16 Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Steps in Standardized Test Design: Developing Experimental Forms For a school achievement test: test content is delimited curriculum is analyzed to ensure that the test will reflect the instructional programs teachers and curriculum experts review content outlines and objectives for the test; and later they review test items writing, editing, trying out, and rewriting or revising test items a preliminary test with selected test items is assembled for trial with a sample of students

17 Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Steps in Standardized Test Design: Developing Experimental Forms Experimental test forms resemble the final form Instructions are written for test administration The sample of people who to take the preliminary test is similar to the population that will take the final form of the test

18 Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Steps in Standardized Test Design: Item Analysis in The Test Tryout Phase Study each item s: Difficulty level: how many test takers in the trial group answered the question correctly Discrimination: the extent to which the question distinguishes between test takers who did well or poorly; test takers who did well on the test should be more successful on the item than those who did poorly Grade progression in difficulty: for tests that are taken in different grades, in each successively higher grade, a greater percentage of students should answer it correctly

19 Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Steps in Standardized Test Design: The Final Test Form Is Assembled In item analysis, test items were revised, or eliminated Test items that measure each test objective are selected for the test Alternative forms of one test must ensure that each of the forms are equivalent in content and difficulty Test directions are finalized-- with instructions for test administrators about the testing environment and testing procedures; and instructions for test takers

20 Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Steps in Standardized Test Design: Standardizing the Test The final test form is administered to another, larger sample of test takers to acquire norm data. Norms allow for comparisons of children s test performance with the performance of a reference or norming group. The norming group is chosen to reflect the makeup of the population for whom the test is designed.

21 Evaluating Standardized Tests Reliability – Are test scores stable, dependable and relatively free from error? Validity – Does the test measure what it is purported to measure? 15.21

22 22 Correlation coefficient Indicates direction of relationship (positive or negative) Indicates strength of relationship (0.00 to 1.00) r = Correlation Coefficient is a statistical measure of relationship between two variables.

23 Pearson correlation coefficient r = the Pearson coefficient r measures the amount that the two variables (X and Y) vary together (i.e., covary) taking into account how much they vary apart Pearsons r is the most common correlation coefficient; there are others.

24 Computing the Pearson correlation coefficient To put it another way: Or

25 Sum of Products of Deviations Measuring X and Y individually (the denominator): –compute the sums of squares for each variable Measuring X and Y together: Sum of Products –Definitional formula –Computational formula n is the number of (X, Y) pairs

26 Correlation Coefficent: the equation for Pearsons r: expanded form:

27 Example What is the correlation between study time and test score:

28 Calculating values to find the SS and SP:

29 Calculating SS and SP

30 Calculating r

31 Correlation Coefficient Interpretation Coefficient Range Strength of Relationship Practically None Low Moderate High Moderate Very High

32 Reliability Test-retest: The extent to which a test yields the same score when given to a student on two different occasions Alternate-forms: Two different forms of the same test on two different occasions to determine the consistency of the scores Split-half: Divide the test items into two halves; scores are compared to determine test score consistency 15.32

33 Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Standard Error of Measurement an estimate of the amount of variation to be expected in test scores. If the reliability correlations are poor, the standard error of measurement will be large. The larger the standard error of measurement, the less reliable the test.

34 Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Variables That Affect the Standard Error of Measurement The following affect test reliability: Population sample size --the larger the population sample, the more reliable the test Test length --longer tests are usually more reliable because there are more test items, resulting in a better sample of behaviors Range of test scores of the norming group --the wider the spread of scores, the more reliably the test can distinguish between good and poor students

35 Methods of Studying Reliability Interrater Reliability- The consistency of a test to measure a skill, trait, or domain across examiners. This type of reliability is most important when responses are subjective or open-ended.

36 Types of Validity… Content: Tests ability to sample the content that is being measured Criterion-related: 1.Concurrent: The relation between a tests score and other available criteria 2.Predictive: The relationship between tests score and future performance Construct: The extent to which there is evidence that a test measures a particular construct 15.36

37 Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Considerations in Choosing and Evaluating Tests To select the best test to meet the developmental characteristics of young children, the following need to be considered: the purpose of the testing the characteristics to be measured how the test results will be used the qualifications of those who will interpret the scores and use the results any practical constraints: cost, time, ease of scoring and use of test results

38 Wortham. Assessment in Early Childhood Education, 5e. © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Reviewing the Test Manual The test manual should include information that is adequate for users to determine whether the test is practical and suitable for their purposes. The manual should address the following: Purpose of the test Test design Establishment of validity and reliability Test administration and scoring


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